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Full text of "The Genesis of the United States; v 2"

THE GENESIS 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES 

A NARRATIVE OF THE MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND, 1605-1616, WHICH 
RESULTED IN THE PLANTATION OF NORTH AMERICA BY 
ENGLISHMEN, DISCLOSING THE CONTEST BETWEEN ENGLAND 
AND SPAIN FOR THE POSSESSION OF THE SOIL NOW OCCUPIED 
BY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA; SET FORTH THROUGH 

% ^ttie^ of i^iiSftorical !a!f anu?crij>t^ note fir^t ptinttb 

TOGETHER WITH A REISSUE OF RARE CONTEMPORANEOUS TRACTS, 
ACCOMPANIED BY BIBLIOGRAPHICAL MEMORANDA, NOTES, AND 

25ricf ^iograpljic^ 

COLLECTBD, ABEANGBD, AND EDITED BY 

ALEXANDEE BEOWN 

Member op the YmoiNiA Histoeical Society and of the American Historical Association 
Feuow op the KorAL Historical Societi op Enqianb 

V/ITH 100 PORTRAITS, MAPS, AND PLANS 

IN TWO VOLUMES 
VOL. II. 









raS^^^^^S 


1 


1^^^^^^ 


Si 



BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

2Dl)e JtiterstSe ^vtss, CambrtDge 



MDGCCXCVII 



Copyright, 1890, 
Bl ALEXANDER BKOWN. 

All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge^ Mass., JT. S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H, 0. Hougliton & Compaiiy, 



PEEIOD III. (concluded.) 

PEOM THE EETURN OF THE FLEET IN NOVEMBER, 1609, TC 
THE EETURN OF AKGALL IN JULY, 1614. 

CLXXXV. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

GENMBAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 

PARCEL S641. 

Copy of two extracts from a letter of the King of Spain to 

Don Alonso de Velasco, dated El Pardo, November 15, 

1611. 

" For Don Alonso de Velasco. 

" A caravela having sailed under orders from the Gov- 
ernor of the Havana in search of a ship> which left the Port 
of Cartagena of the Indies with some artillery, which there 
was taken out of a galleon, which stranded on the coast of 
Buenos Ayres — and having passed along the coast of ' la 
Florida ' on this errand — and three men, in good faith, 
going on shore from the same caravela, called Diego de 
Mollno, Marco Antonio Perez and Master Antonio, some 
Englishmen took them prisoners, who say that under orders 
from the King of Great Britain they have made a settlement 
on a part of that coast, which they call Virginia. Of which 
I have desired to have you informed and instructed, as I do 
herewith ; that you will inform the said king of my just 
resentment at this imprisonment of these men, and that it 
will be best to give orders by the shortest way that from 
there may be accessible, so that they be set at liberty, with- 
out any further injury being done them, in order that they 
may return and carry out the commission entrusted to them 
by the Governor of the Havana. You will report to me at 
once what steps you have taken and what may result from 
them." 



526 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

CLXXXVI. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

The second extract, in cipher, deciphered. 

" For Don Alonso de Velasco : — In another letter which 
is sent with this you are ordered to take steps with that 
king as to the hberty of three prisoners, whom Enghshmen 
in Virginia have captured, and here in cipher, and for your- 
self alone, I have wished to inform you that those aforesaid 
prisoners are the Alcayde Don Diego do Mohno, Ensign 
Marco Antonio Perez and Francisco Lembri, an English 
pilot, who by my orders went to reconnoitre those ports ; 
but you must not give their names otherwise than you were 
told in said letter, as long as you do not obtain their lib- 
erty, which you wiU. exert yourself to the utmost to secure, 
employing all your skill and dexterity to prevent that king 
from finding out the purpose for which those three men 
went there, and you will promptly report to me what may 
be doing [going on]." 



CLXXXVII. MORE TO WINWOOD. 
WIN WOOD MEMOBIAta, III. PAGE 309. 

November — , 1611. [Probably about the 20th, as it was 
" received on the 29th of November, 1611."] 

Extract from a letter of John Moore in London to Sir 

Ralph Winwood at The Haghe. . . . 

" There are some fears among the weaker sort, of some 
foreign attempts on Virginia and Ireland, but the State doth 
not apprehend it, as appears by Lord Carew's cashiering 
one half of all the Irish forces. Neither is there care taken 
to supply Sir Thomas Dale with the 2000 men whom he 
demandeth. Neither is it likely indeed that the King of 
Spain will break so profitable a peace for that which may 
cost him dear the getting, and much dearer the keeping." 

This has been printed before in this country in " CoUec- 
tions Mass. Hist. Soc." ix. fourth series, 1871, p. 6, note- 



CHAMBERLAIN TO CAELETON. 527 



CLXXXVIII. VELASCO TO PHILIP III. 

GENEBAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME $588, FOLIO 94. 

Copy of an original letter of Don Alonso de Velasco to the 
King of Spain, dated London, December 14, 1611. 

SlEE. 

" On the 15*" [5th] of last month I reported to Y. M. 
what I had heard by a vessel which came a few days before 
from Virginia, touching the Caravela that went there and 
the three Spanish sailors that were left there on shore, as 
hostage for the pilot, whom they gave them so that he 
might guide them to the mouth of the river {a duplicate of 
which accompanies this letter). Having received your let- 
ter of November 15*^ I expressed on the T*** of this month 
[i. e., November 28, English], to the Council here the re- 
sentment which Y. M. ordered me to convey for the reten- 
tion of these sailors, and Count Salisbury replied to me, 
that they would at once order them to be brought here and 
handed over to me, we returning likewise their pilot to them. 
Y. M. will be pleased to command what I am to reply to this 
and in the meantime I will solicit the bringing over of these 
men, lest they should perish in Virginia with the necessities 
and the hard work to which those who are there are sub- 
jected. 

" May our Lord preserve the Cathohc Person of Y. M. as 
all Christendon requires. London, Dec' 14. 1611. 

" Don Alonso de Velasco." 



CLXXXIX. CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 

BIRCH'S COURT AND TIMES OF JAMES L VOLUME L PAGES 

150, 15$. 

Chamberlain to Carleton, November 27, 1611. 

"The Spanish ambassador went to the king the last 
week at Newmarket, without acquainting any of the Coun- 
cil, which is thought somewhat a strange course." 



528 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

December 4, 1611. " The Earl of Southampton's jour- 
ney into Spain is laid aside, and the ceremony of condoling 
[on the death of the Queen of Spain] shall be left to the 
ambassador resident there," etc. 

" The Spanish ambassador was sent for lately before the 
Council, where it was roundly told him what criminal 
wrongs and injustice our nation was still offered in Spain, 
with this conclusion, that if there was not present redress, 
the king was fully minded to recall his ambassador," etc. 

CXC. LAWS FOR VIRGINIA. 

"December IS*** 1611 entered, at Stationers Hall, for 
publication, under the handes of Sir Edward Cecill, knight. 
Articles, Lawes and Orders, dyvyne politique and martiaU 
for the Colonye of Virginia; first established by Sir 
Thomas Gates, Knight and Leiftenant Generall the 2Jf^ of 
May 1610 ; exemplified and approved by the Right Honor- 
able Lord Governor and Captayne General, the 12*^of June 
1610; agayne exemplified and enlarged by Sir Thomas 
Dale, knight and Deputy Governor the 22""^ of June 1611" 

These laws were pubKshed with the following title- 
page : — 

" EoK / The Colony in Virginea / Britannia. / Lawes 
Divine, Morall and I MartiaU, &c. 

Alget qui non Ardet. 
Res nostrce subinde non sunt, quales quis optaret, 
sed quales esse possunt. 

Printed at London for Walter Burre. 1612." 

The printed book was probably sent to Virginia by the 
John and Francis, which sailed February 27, 1612, or by 
the Treasurer, July 23, 1612. 

These laws were reprinted by Peter Force (vol. iii.), 
Washington, D. C, 1844. The laws in this reprint, pp. 
9-28 (CIL), were sent from England by Gates in June, 
1609, and those, pp. 28-62 (CLIX.), were sent by Dale in 
March, 1611 ; those on pp. 9-28 were first established by 



LAWS FOE VIRGINIA. 529 

Sir Thomas Gates May 24, 1610, and the rest added by 
Dale June 22, 1611. The whole body is said to have been 
sent back to England by William Strachey, who arrived 
late in October or early in November. They were probably 
revised by General Cecil before he entered them for pubH- 
cation on December 13, 1611. Gates, Dale, and Cecil had 
all served long in the Low Countries, and these laws were 
" cheifely extracted out of the Lawes for governing the 
armye in the Low Contreyes." They seem terrible to us 
now ; but really they were not much, if any, more severe 
than the Draconic code, which then obtained in England, 
in which nearly three hundred crimes, varying from mur- 
der to keeping company with a gypsy, were punishable with 
death. 

The author of "The New Life of Virginea" [CCX.] 
says : " Their first and chiefest care was shewed in settling 
Lawes divine and morall, for the honour and service of 
God, for daily frequenting the church, the house of prayer, 
at the tolling of the bell, for preaching, catechizing, and the 
religious observation of the Sabbath day, for due reverence 
to the Ministers of the Word and to all superiours, for peace 
and love among themselves, and enforcing the idle to paines 
and honest labours, against blasphemie, contempt and dis- 
honour of God, against breach of the Sabbath by gaming : 
and otherwise against adulterie, sacriledge and felonie ; and 
in a word, against all wrongful! dealing amongst them- 
selves, or injurious violence against the Indians. Good are 
these beginnings, wherein God is thus before, good are 
these lawes, and long may they stand in their due execu- 
tion." 

Other authorities of the period approved of these laws, 
and assert that they were justified by the circumstances, 
etc., but in the bitter dissensions in the company in 1622- 
1624, Sir Thomas Smith was much abused for having intro- 
duced these severe laws, and, in defending himself before 
the Grievance Committee in Parliament, he asserted that 
" Lord De la Warre, Sir Thomas Dale, Sir Thomas Gates, 



530 PEKIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

and Captain Argall all saw the necessity of such laws, in 
some cases ad terrorem, and in some to be truly executed." 

On the 7th of May, 1623, the Sandys party drew up many 
specific charges against Sir Thomas Smythe ; among them : 
" That there were few orders and lawes made in Sir T. S. 
tyme for government of the Company and Colony," to 
which he replied : " There were lawes for the Company 
here, And none for the Colony since, hut were made then; " 
and, " That Sir T. S. suffered a Book of lawes for Govern- 
ment of the Colony cheifely extracted out of the Lawes for 
governing the armye in the Low Country es," to which he 
replied : " This was answered hefore the Lords and 
allowed." 

They also asserted, " That these lawes were printed at 
home, and with great Honour dedicated to Sir Thomas 
Smith," etc. Smith does not notice this charge, and Force's 
tract (reprint) was not dedicated to him. I have never 
seen an original. I have never even seen one advertised 
for sale; but there is one in the John Carter-Brown Li- 
brary. I have no idea what an original would be worth. 

William Strachey, who seems to have been the editor, 
gives a poetical dedication " To The Right Honorable, the 
Lords of the Councell of Virginia," and a preface in prose, 
" To the constant, mighty, and worthie friends, the Com- 
mitties. Assistants unto his Maiesties Councell for the 
Colonic in Virginea-Britannia." 

This severe body of " Lawes " ends very appropriately 
with a very long " Praier " of nearly 3,000 words, which 
was to be " duly said Morning and Evening upon the Court 
of Guard, either by the Captaine of the watch himselfe, or 
by some one of his principal! officers." 

CXCI. DIGBY TO SALISBURY. 

December 13, 1611. Madrid. Digby to Salisbury. 
" The Advertisement I gave your Lordship concerning 
the Englishman that was brought from Virginia to the 




ROBERT HEATH 



VELASCO TO PHILIP III. 531 

Havana is true, and I have spoken with another English- 
man that sawe him and spake with him there. And the 
man is himself kept prisoner in one of the Gallions at 
Lisbone. I humbKe beseech your Lordship, that I may 
receave directions in what manner I shall behave myself 
herein : for that I beleeve this accident of demaundinge 
his libertie, wiU sett the mayne question on foote." * 

CXCII. VELASCO TO PHILIP III. 

GENEBAL ABCHIVE8 OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S588, FOLIO 99. 

Copy of an original letter of Don Alonso de Velasco to the 
King of Spain, dated London, December 24, 1611. 

"SlEE — 

" Having represented to the Council here the just resent- 
ment which Y. M. felt on account of the 3 seamen, whom 
Englishmen had detained in Virginia, the Earl of Salisbury 
repUed that orders would be issued to bring them quickly 
here and to hand them over to me, if we would return to 
them the pilot who guided the ship that left them on shore, 
as I reported to Y. M. on the IS**" inst. Now the king has 
sent me word through the said Count that with the first 
ship that should sail for Virginia, he would send orders to 
the Governor to put them on Spanish soil and leave them 
entirely free — if in like manner I should use my good 
offices with Y. M. that you should be pleased to order the 
liberation of the subjects of this crown, who may be de- 
tained on the galleys and in prisons as pirates or for other 
crimes. That with such an understanding, the King would 
write to Y. M., moved by the prayers and petitions, which 
daily reach him from their wives and kinsmen. In case he 
should write this special letter, Y. M. wiU be pleased to give 
orders to inquire into the expediency of granting him this 
favor, since there may other opportunities present them- 

1 I. e., the question of the right of England to form settlement in territory 
claimed by Spain. 



532 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

selves here, to return such courtesy and to resort to such 
pleasant interchange of kindness. 

" Our Lord preserve Y. M. in His Catholic Person as the 
Church needs it. 

" London. December 24. 1611. 

"Don Alonso db Velasco." 

[Mem. — I do not know when Harley and Hobson 
returned from their voyage to New England, but they 
" brought away the Salvadges from the river of Canada," 
which were "showed in London for a wonder" in the 
spring of 1612.] 

CXCIII. CHAMBERLAIN TO CAELETON. 

Chamberlain to Carleton, London, December 18, 1611. 

..." Newport the Admirall of Virginia is newly come 
home, and brings word of the arrival there of Sir Thomas 
Gates and his Companie ; but his Lady died by the way in 
some part of the West Indies, he hath sent his daughters 
back againe, which I doubt is a peece of a prognostication 
that himself meanes not to tarry long after. 

"The Lord Treasurer [CecU] is well recovered. All 
business betwixt the king and him in his absence pass by 
the Earl of Pembroke, who is communis terminus between 
them." 

[Mem. — "In last December, Captaine Newport in the 
Starre and since that [prior to May, 1612] five other shippes 
are arived heere from the Colonic," etc., CCX.] 

CXCIV. DALE TO THE COUNCIL. 

Strachey (CCXVIL) gives the following extract from 
one of Dale's letters. When this letter was written or 
received in England I do not know. 

" It would easihe raise a well-stayed Judgement into 



BIAED TO THE PROVINCIAL. 533 

wonder (as Sir Thomas Dale hath writt sometimes unto his 
Majesty's Counsell here for Virginia) to behold the goodly 
vines burthening every neighbour bush, and clymbing the 
toppes of highest trees, and those full of clusters of the 
grapes in their kind, however dreeped and shadowed soever 
from the sun, and though never pruned or manured " [i. e., 
cultivated]. 

CXCV. PHILIP IIL TO VELASCO. 

GENEBAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME SB71, FOLIO SOS. 

Copy of an extract from a rough draft of a letter of His 
Majesty to Don Alonso de Velasco, dated Madrid, Jan- 
uary 6, 1612. 
" I shall order the Virginia Pilot, who is in the Havannah 

to be brought here, so that he may be surrendered when 

they hand over to us the three Spanish sailors, who were 

kept in Virginia." . . . 



CXCVI. BIARD TO THE PROVINCIAL. 

January 21. Letter written by Father Pierre Biard to 
the Right Rev. Provincial at Paris. (Copied from the auto- 
graph preserved in the Archives of Jesus at Rome.) Port 
Royal, January 31, 1612. 

..." I have made two voyages with M. de Biancourt, 
one lasting nearly twelve days, the other of a month and a 
half, and we have examined the whole coast from Port Royal 
as far as Kinibequi, West-South- West. We have sailed up 
the large rivers St. John, the Holy Cross (Saincte Croix), 
Pentegoet and the above mentioned Kinibequi. [Kennebec 
or Sagadahock.] We have visited the French, who have 
wintered here this year, in two divisions, on the River St. 
Jean and that of Sainte Croix ; the Malouins in the river 
St. Jean, and Captain Plastrier at Sainte Croix. . . . 

" Two main causes induced M. de Biancourt to do this ; 
the first to obtain news about the English and to know if it 



534 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

would be possible to get the better of them ; the second 
to exchange ' Armonchiquoys ' wheat so as to preserve us 
during the winter, and keep us from dying of hunger, in case 
we should receive no aid from France. In order to under- 
stand the first motive, it ought to be known that shortly 
before, Captain Platrier of Honfleur, before mentioned, 
wishing to go to Kinib^qui, was taken prisoner by two 
EngHsh vessels, that were near an island, called Emmetenic, 
8 leagues from aforesad Kennebec. He was released by 
means of some presents, (this was the way they mildly called 
it), and the promise he gave to comply with the prohibi- 
tions imposed upon him, not to trade along that whole 
coast. For the English claim to be masters here, and in 
support of this they exhibit Patents of their King, which we, 
however, believe to be false. Now M. de Biancourt, hav- 
ing heard all this from the lips of Captain Patrier himself, 
represented very earnestly to these people, how important it 
was to him, an officer of the Crown and a lieutenant of his 
father, how important also to every good Frenchman, to go 
and prevent this usurpation of the English, which was so 
very contrary to the rights and possessions of his Majesty. 

"For, said he, it is well known to all men (not to speak 
of higher views of the matter) that the great Henry, whom 
God may save in His mercy, according to rights acquired 
by him and his predecessors, bestowed upon M. des Monts, 
in the year 1604, all this country from the 40*'' degree of 
latitude to the 46*''. Since this grant the aforesaid Seign- 
eur des Monts, in his own person and through M. de 
Potrincourt, my most honored Father, his Ueutenant, and 
thro' others, has often taken real possession of the whole 
country and this three and four years before ever the Eng- 
lish had set forth, or any one had ever heard anything of 
this claim of theirs. These and several other things the 
aforesaid Sieur de Biancourt found out and made known, 
thus encouraging his people. 

" I, for my part, had two other motives which urged me 
to this same voyage : one, to accompany, as a spiritual 



BIAKD TO THE PKOVINCIAL. 535 

assistant the aforesaid Sieur de Biancourt, and his people, 
the other, to find out and to see myself the disposition of 
these nations to accept the Holy Gospel. These, then, were 
the motives of our voyage. 

" We arrived at Kennebec, 80 leagues from Port Royal, 
on the 28'^ October, the day of St. Simon and St. Jude, of 
the same year 1611. Immediately, our men went on shore, 
desirous to see the fort of the English; [see LVIII.] for 
we had heard, on the way, that there was no one there. 
Now, as at first everything looks fine, they went to work 
praising and boasting of this enterprise of the English and 
to enumerate the advantages of the place ; everybody 
praised in it what he valued most. But a few days later 
they changed their views ; for there was seen a fair chance 
of raising a counter-fort, which would have imprisoned 
them and cut them off from the river and the sea ; item, 
that even if they had been left there, they would neverthe- 
less not have enjoyed the commodities of the river, since it 
had several other and finer estuaries, at some distance from 
there. . . . 

" But, since I here have made mention of the English, 
some one may perchance wish to hear of their adventures, 
which we were told here. It is, therefore, thus, that in the 
year 1608 the Enghsh, began to settle down at one of the 
mouths of this river Kennebec; as has been said before. 
They had then as their head a very honest man, who got 
along remarkably well with the natives of the country. 
They say, however, that the Armonch^-quois were afraid of 
such neighbors, and on that account murdered this Captain, 
of whom I have spoken. These people are accustomed to 
this business, to kill people by Magic. Now, in the second 
year, 1609, the Enghsh, under another Captain, changed 
their policy. They repelled the natives most dishonorably, 
they beat them, and committed excesses of every kind, with- 
out much restraint; hence, these poor, iU treated people, 
impatient with the present, and fearing more from the 
future, resolved, as the saying is, to kiU the whelp before 



536 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

he should have more powerful claws and teeth. The op- 
portunity offered one day, when three sloops had gone to a 
distant place, in order to fish. My conspirators followed 
them upon their track, and drawing near with many signs 
of friendship (for thus they always are most friendly when 
they are nearest to treachery) they entered and, at a given 
signal, each chose his man and killed him with his big knife. 
Thus perished eleven Enghshmen. The others, intimidated, 
abandoned their enterprise that same year, and have not 
continued it since, being content to come in the summer to 
fish near this island of Emetenic, which, as we mentioned 
before, was 8 leagues from the fort they had begun. 

"On this account, therefore, the outrage committed in 
the person of Captain Platrier by said Englishmen, having 
been perpetrated on this island of Emetenic, M. de Bian- 
court considered the expediency of going to reconnoitre it 
and to leave there some token of having re-claimed it. This 
he did by erecting in the harbour a very fine Cross, with 
the arms of France. Some of his people suggested to him 
to burn the sloops which he found there, but as he is gen- 
tle and humane, he would not do it, considering that they 
were not men-of-war but fishing vessels. 

" From there since the season pressed us, for it was al- 
ready November G**" we made sail to return to Port-Royal. 
Stopping at Pentegoet, as we had promised the Sav- 
ages. . . . 

" From Port-Royal the last of January 1612. 

"PiBEKE BlAED." 



CXCVII. DIGBY TO SALISBURY. 

February 2, 1612. Madrid. Sir John Digby to Salis- 
bury. 

..." Departure of 800 men out of Portugal and the 
transportiag of 3200 more so that the whole number of 
men to be sent is 4000. All which though I conceive are 
to be carried into Flanders, yet I am advertized from one 



PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 537 

that I appointed to be amongst them, that divers of the 
Masters of the Ships are discontented, and that they suspect 
they shall be forced to a far longer journey. The which if 
it be so, I can only suspect some enterprize of theirs against 
Virginia, the which I do not think Hkely, but in regard 
that divers write unto me, though uncertainly, that there is 
something now in hand against it, I omit not to advertise it 
unto your Lordship." 



CXCVIII. CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 

Chamberlain to Carleton, London, February 12, 1612. 

..." We heard yesterday of nine ships, with 1500 
Spaniards, come into the Downs, and going into the Low 
Countries to reinforce their garrisons. The Spanish am- 
bassador's sister and daughter-in-law, whom you met upon 
Barham Downs, went away the last week towards Brussels, 
without taking leave, or bidding the Queen Farewell. . . . 
There is a lotterie in hand for the furthering of the Vir- 
ginia Voiage, and an under-companie erecting for the trade 
of the Bermudes, which have chaunged theyre name twise 
within this moneth, beeing first christned Virginiola as a 
member of that plantation, but now lastly resolved to be 
called Sommer Hand as well in respect of the continuall 
temporal ayre, as in remembrance of Sir George Sommers 
that died there." . . . 



CXCIX. PHILIP in. TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF 8IMANCA8. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S571, FOLIO 309. 

Copy of an extract from a deciphered letter of His Majesty 
to Don Alonso de Velasco, dated Madrid, February 25, 
1612. 
" What you report on the subject of Virginia has been 

received; also what you say of the people they send out 



538 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

there, the merchandise for which this crowd of men hastens 
thither (as you state) — and I shall be pleased if you will 
most carefully try to find out whatever else may appear on 
that subject, and to report to me the day on which the 
ships wiU sail — on board which those aforesaid people will 
sail — and whatever else they carry and whether in any 
suitable way some trustworthy person [see CLXIX.] might 
be put among them. This would be very important and 
therefore I order you to arrange it so, since this seems to 
be the best way to ascertain the nature of that enterprise 
— this said person could then return in the ships which 
may come back from Virginia to England — also the ex- 
change of prisoners who are still there is to be carried out 
as you have been ordered." 

[Mem. — February 24, 1612, Master Welby entered at 
Stationers' Hall for publication '^ under the handes of Sir 
Thomas Smithe and Mr. Lownes, warden. A booke or 
thinge called the Publicacon of the Lottery for Virginia." 

No copy of this publication is now known to be in exist- 
ence. CXCVIII. mentions that the " lottery was in hand," 
and the charter (already granted) which passed the seals 
March 12, 1612, authorizes these lottery pubKcations.] 



CC. LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR AND COMPANY OF 
VIRGINIA, FEBRUARY, 1612. 

" A Letter to the Governor and Company for Virginia 
affairs to suffer Daniell Tucker who hath ben a personall 
adventurer ever since the first plantation there to pass by 
the next Shipp that shall come for England. 

" Subscr. and procur. by Mr. May." 

The letter referred to in this minute is now missing ; it 
was probably sent to Virginia by the John and Francis, 
which sailed February 27, 1612. 



FKOM THE TRINITY HOUSE RECORDS. 539 



CCI. DIGBY TO SALISBURY. 

March 9, 1612. Madrid. Digby to Salisbury. 

" My L*. I am not hasty to advertise anything upon 
bare rumors, which hath made me hitherto to forbeare to 
write what I had generally heard, of their intents against 
Virginia, but now I have been from good P.*^ advertised 
that without question they wUl speedily attempt against our 
plantation there. And that it is a thing resolved of, that 
ye King of Spaine must runne any hazard with England 
rather than permitt ye English to settle there : for upon 
Late consultation, I assure your Lordship they apprehend 
it to be of much more danger to their ¥/est Indies than I 
conceave it. especially for ther returne of ye West Indian 
Fleete, & therupon (as I am informed) have determined, 
that since ye buisines of itselfe hath not fallen as they 
expected, they must with speed prevent ye further growing 
of it. Whatsoever is attempted, I conceive will be from ye 
Havana, where ye rendevous shall be of all those provisions 
& shipps, which for that effect goe from ye severall ports 
of Spaine. In Sevil they prepare shipping, but that is 
as your Lordship knoweth, under color of ye West Indian 
Fleete. In Portugal likewise there is order for ye making 
ready speedily of two Gallions. At ye Passo by St. Sebas- 
tians in all hast they make ready foure. And there are two 
shipps built by ye Marchants of foure or five hundred tun 
a peece which I heare ye King will likewise buye. As I 
shall herein come to ye knowledge of more particulars your 
Lordship shall receeve advertisement." 

ecu. EXTRACT FROM THE TRINITY HOUSE RECORDS. 

"March IP" 1611 [0. S.]. Letter from Sir Thomas 
Smyth to The Trinity House, asking for payment of the 
second of the three years' subscription to the Virginia 
Adventure." Extract. 



540 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 16M. 

"March — ,1611 [0. S.]. A bill of adventure issued 
to The Trinity House. Agreement that The Trinity House 
shall have rateably according to their adventure for Vir- 
ginia their full part of all such lands as shall be recovered, 
planted and inhabited, and of such mines and minerals of 
gold and silver, and other metals or treasure, pearls, pre- 
cious stones or other kind of wares which shall be obtained 
or gotten in the said voyage." 

[Mem. — Chamberlain to Carleton, March 11, 1612. 
. . , "There is a httle Treatise of the North-West Pas- 
sage, written by Sir Dudley Digges. . . . Some of his good 
friends say he had better have given five hundred pounds 
than published such a pamphlet. But he is wonderfully 
possessed with the opinion and hopes of that passage." 

The title of Digges' tract I believe was "A Discourse 
concerning the circumference of the earth, or a North-West 
passage. 1612."] 

CCIII. THE THIRD CHAETEE.i 

" A third charter of King James to the Treasurer and 
Company for Virginia." 

Article I. [Recital of former charters.] 

II. [Former boundaries recited.] 

"III. Now, forasmuch as we are given to understand, 
that in those seas, adjoining to the said coast of 
Virginia, and without the compass of those two 
hundred miles, by us so granted unto the said Treasurer 
and Company, as aforesaid, and yet not far distant from the 
said colony in Virginia, there are, or may be, divers islands, 
lying desolate and uninhabited, some of which are already 
made known and discovered, by the industry, travel, and 
expences of the said company, and others also are supposed 
to be and remain, as yet, unknown and undiscovered, all 

1 This document was drawn up, I first published by the Rev. William 
suppose, by Sir Edwin Sandys ; it was Stith in 1747. (See Preface, vii.) 




PHItiP HERbER" 



THE THIRD CHARTER. 541 

and every of which it may import the said colony, both in 
safety and policy of trade, to populate and plant, in regard 
whereof, as well for the preventing of peril, as for the bet- 
ter commodity and prosperity of the said colony, they have 
been humble ^ suitors unto us, that we would be pleased to 
grant unto them an enlargement of our said former letters 
patents, as well for a more ample extent of their limitts and 
territories into the seas, adjoining to and upon the coast of 
Virginia, as also for some other matters and articles, con- 
cerning the better government of the said Company and 
Colony, in which point our said former letters patents do 
not extend so far, as time and experience hath found to be 
needful and convenient : — " 

IV. [Extension of boundaries, so as to include all the 
islands lying within three hundred leagues of the continent, 
"and being within or between the one and fortieth and 
thirtieth degrees of northerly latitude," and "provided 
always, that the said Islands &c, be not actually possessed 
or inhabited by any other Christian Prince or estate, nor be 
within the bounds, limits, or territories of the Northern 
Colony heretofore by us granted to be planted by divers of 
our loving subjects, in the north parts of Virginia " etc.] 

" V. And further, our will and pleasure is, and we do, 
by these presents, grant and confirm, for the ^^^^.j^j^jj 
good and welfare of the said plantation, and that adTentnrers 
posterity may hereafter know who have adven- 
tured and not been sparing of their purses in such a noble 
and generous action for the general good of their country, 
and at the request, and with the consent, of the Company 
aforesaid, that our trusty and well beloved subjects, 

^ George [Abbot] Lord Archbishop of Canterbury 

1 I have not found this petition. It must have been considerable delay in 

was presented to the king some time obtaining the additional adventurers, 

in the year 1611, I suppose. The whose names were to be inserted be- 

charter had certainly been granted fore it was signed and sealed by the 

before February 12, 1612, and possi- king. See CLXXIV. 

bly a considerable time before, as the ' A complete list of these names 

outlook was not promising, and there has never been published. Stith only 



542 PEEIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614 

Gilbert [Talbot] Earle of Shrewsbury, 

Mary [Cavendish-Talbot] Countesse of Shrewsbury, 

Elizabeth [Vere-Stanley] Countesse of Derby, 

Margarette [Russell-Clifford] Countesse of Cumberland, 

Henry [Hastings] Earle of Huntingdon, 

Edward [Russell] Earle of Bedford, 

Lucy [Harrington-Russell] Countesse of Bedford, 

Mary [Sidney] Countesse of Pembroke, 

Richard [Bourke] Earl of Clanricard, 

Lady Elizabeth Graie, 

William [Cecil] Lord Viscount Cranborne, 

William [James] Lord Byshopp of Duresme, 

Henry [Parry] Lord Byshopp of Worseter, 

John [Bridges] Lord Bishop of Osenford, 

William Lord Pagett, 

Dudley Lord North, 

Francis Lord Norreis, 

William Lord KnoUys, 

John Lord Harrington, 

Robert Lord Spencer, 

Edward Lord Denny, 

William Lord Cavendishe, 

James Lord Hay, 

Elian or Lady Carre, 

Maistres Elizabeth Scott, widdow, 

Edward Saekvill Esqre. 

Sir Henry Nevill of Abergavenny, Knight, 

gives " George, Lord Archbishop of ter, while three fourths of these belong 

Canterbury, Henry, Earl of Hunting- to the gentry ; but the gentry did not 

ton, Edward, Earl of Bedford, Rich- pay their subscriptions so well as the 

ard, Earl of Clanrickard," etc. merchants. Of the names in this 

This charter contains the names of charter about 125 paid £37 10s. or 

six corporations and 325 persons, of more, about 83 paid less than £37 

whom about 25 were in the peerage, 10., and about 117 paid nothing. 

Ill knights, 10 doctors, ministers, About 120 of them served at some 

etc., 66 esquires, 30 gentlemen, and time in the House of Commons ; of 

83 citizens and others not classiiied, these about 60 were members of the 

but mostly merchants. The trades, first Parliament of King James I. 
etc., predominated in the second char- 



THE THIRD CHARTER. 543 

Sir Robert Eiche, Knight, 

" John Harrington, " 

" Raphe Winwood, " 

" John Graie " 

" Henry Riche " 

" Henry Wotten " 
Peregrine Berty Esqre, 
Sir Edward Phellipps, Master of the Rolls, 

" Moile fanch Knight, 

" Thomas Mansell " 

<' John St John « 

" Richard Spenser " 

" ffrancis Barrington " 

" George Carie of Devonshire, Knight, 

" William Twisden Knight, 

" John Leveson " 

" Thomas Walsingham " 

" Edward Carre " 

" Arthur Manwareing " 

" Thomas Jermyn " 

" Valentine Knightley " 

" John Dodderidge " 

" John Hungerford " 

" John Stradlinge " 

" John Bourchier, " 

" John Bennet, " 

" Samuell Leonard, " 

" ffrauncis Goodwin, " 

" Wareham St Leiger " 

" James Scudamore " 

" Thomas Mildmay " 

" Percivall Willoughby " 

" ffrauncis Leigh " 

" Henry Goodere " 

" John Cutts « 

" James Parrett " 

" WilUam Craven " 



ii 



5d4 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

Sir John Sames Kuight, . 

" Carew Kaleigh " 

" William Maynard " 

" Edmund Bowyer " 

" William Cornewallis " 

" Thomas Beomont " 
" Thomas Cunningsby 
" Henry Beddingfield 
" David Murray 

" William Poole " 
" William Throgmortou " 

" Thomas Grantham " 

« Thomas Stewkley " 

" Edward Heron " 

« Raphe Shelton " 

" Lewis Thesam " 

« Walter Aston « 

" Thomas Denton " 

" Ewstace Hart « 

" John Ogle " 

" Thomas Dale « 

" William Boulstrode " 

« William ffleetwood " 

" John Acland " 

" John Hanham " 

« Eobert Millor " 

" Thomas Wilford " 

" William Lower " 

" Thomas Leedes " 

" ffrauncis Barneham " 

" Walter Chute " 

" Thomas Tracy " 

'' Marmaduke Darrell " 

" William Harrys " 

" Thomas Gerrard " 

" Peter ffreetchville " 

« Richard Trevor « 



THE THIRD CHARTER. 545 



Sir Amias Bamfield 


Knight, 


" William Smyth of Essex " 


" Thomas Hewit 


a 


" Kichard Smith 


a 


" John Heyward 


a 


" Christopher Harris 


(( 


" John Pettus 


(C 


" WiUiam Strode 


« 


" Thomas Harfleets, 


(( 


" Walter Vaughan, 


it 


" WiUiam Herrick 


a 


" Samuell Saltonstall 


i( 


" Richard Cooper 


a 


" Henry ffane 


a 


" ffrauncis Egiok 


(( 


" Robert Edolph 


u 


" Arthur Harris 


ii 


" George Huntley 


(( 


" George Chute 


'I 


" Robert Leigh 


ii 


" Richard Lovelace 


a 


" William Lovelace 


ii 


" Robert Yaxley 


ii 


" ffrancis Wortly 


a 


" ffrancis Heiborne 


te 


« Guy Palme 


ii 


" Richard Bingley 


ii 


^' Ambrose Turville 


11 


" Nicholas Stoddard 


a 


" William Gee 


a 


" Walter Coverte 


a 


" Thomas Eversfeild 


a 


" Nicholas Parker 


a 


" Edward Culpeper 


ii 


" WiUiam Ayliffe 


" and 


" John Keile 


11 


Doctor George Mountaine, Deane of Westminster, 



546 



PERIOD III. NOVEMBEK, 1609-JULY, 1614 



Lawrence Bohuii Docktor in phisick, 
Anthony Hinton, Docktor in Phisick. 

John Pawlett, Arthur Ingram, 

Anthony Irby, 
John Walter, 



[Esquires] 



Anthony Dyott, 
Thomas Warre, 
Lawrence Hide, 
Thomas Stevens, 
Thomas Coventry, 
Robert Askwith, 
Francis Jones, 
Henry Cromewell, 
John Culpeper, 
"Walter FitzWilliams, 
WilKam Roscarrock, 
Edward Carne, 
Nicholas Lickfeild, 



John Weld, 
John Harris, 
Wm. Ravenscrofte, 
WiUiam Hackwell, 
Nicholas Hide, 
ffrauncis Tate, 
John Hare, 
George Sandys, 
Tho' Wentworth 
John ArundeU, 
John Hoskins, 
Walter Kirkham, 
Richard Carmerden 
Thomas Merry 



John Middleton, 
John Smith and Thomas Smith the sonnes of Sir Thomas 
Smith, 

George Gerrard, 

John Drake, 

Oliver Nicholas, 

John Vaughan, 

Lamarock Stradling, 

John Kettlehy, 

Lionell Cranfeild, 

William Litton, 

George Thorpe, 
Henry Sandys and Edwin Sandys the sonnes of Sir Edwin 

Sandys, 
Thomas Conway Captaine, Owinn Gwin Captaine, 
Giles Hawkridge, Edward Dyer, 

Richard Connock, Benjamin Brand, 

Richard Leigh and Thomas Pelham Esquires. 
Thomas Digges and John Digges Esquires, the sonnes of 
Sir Dudley Diggs, Knight. 



Peter Franke, 
Gregory Sprinte, 
Roger Puleston, 
Richard Monyngton, 
John Evelin, 
John Riddall, 
Warren Towneshend 
Edward Salter, 
Humf rey May, 



THE THIED CHARTER. 



541 



ffrauncis Bradley, Richard Buck, 

ffrauncis Burley, John Prockter, 

Alexander Whitaker, Thomas fErake the elder, and Henry 

ffireake the elder Ministers of God's Word, 
The Maior and Cittizens of Chichester, [Corpora- 

The Maior and Jurates of Dover, ^'''"^J 

The Bayliffes, Burgesses and Cominalty of Ipswich, 
The Maior & Cominalty of Lyme Regis, 
The Maior and Cominalty of Sandwich, 
The Wardens Assistants and Companie of The Trinity 

House. 



[Ministers] 



Thomas Martin, 
Augustine Steward, 
Humfrey Jobson, 
Robert Barkley, 
Edward Barkley, 
Henry Wolstenholme, 
George Tucker, 
Thomas Gouge, 
WilHam Hall, 
George Sams, 
WUham Tucker, 
William Hodges, 
Phineas Pett Captaine, 
WiUiam Beck, 



[Gentlemen] 



fPrauncis Smallman, 

Richard Tomhns, 

John Legats, 

John Crowe, 

Wilham Ffleet, 

Edmund AUeyne, 

ffrauncis Glanville, 

John Evelin, 

John Smithe, 

John Robinson, 

John Wolstenholme Esquire, 

Jonathan Nuttall, 

John King Captaine, 

Giles AUngton, 



ffrauncis Heiton and Samuell Holhland Gents. 
Richard Chamberlaine, George Chamberlaine, 



Hewett Staper, 
Raph ffreeman, 
Richard Piggott, 
Roger Harris, 
Edward Baber, 
Thomas Shilds, 
Robert Garsett, 
William Bright, 
Peter Bartley, 
Humfrey Smith, 



Humfrey Handford, 
George Swinhoe, 
Ehas Roberts, 
Devereaux Wogan, 
William Greenewell, 
Nicholas Hooker, 
Thomas Cordell, 
John Reynolds, 
John Willet, 
Roger Dye, 



[Merchants 
and citizens 
of London] 



548 



PEEIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JDLy, 1614. 



Nicholas Leate, 
Lewes Tate, 
Robert Peake, 
Sebastian Vittars, 
Richard Warner, 
Warner . . . , 
Andrew Throughton, 
Thomas Hodges, 
Richard Harper, 
William Haselden, 
Wilham Burrell, 
Richard ffishborne, 
Edward Cooke, 
Richard Hall ankersmith, 
Richard ffrancMine, 
John Britton, 
Edmund Pond, 
Robert Bell, 
William fPei'rers 
Anthony Abdy 
Benjamyne Decrowe, 
Humfrey Basse, 
Richard Moorer, 
Richard Pontsonne, 
John Beomont, clothier, 



Thomas Wale, 
Humfrey Merrett, 
Powell Isaackson, 
Jarvis Mundes, 
Gresham Hogan, 
Daniell Dernley, 
William Barrett, 
John Downes, 
Thomas ffoxall, 
James Harrison, 
John Hodsall, 
John Miller, 
Richard Hall marchant, 
John Delbridge, 
Edmund Scott, 
Robert Strutt, 
Edward James, 
Richard Heme, 
William Millet, 
Robert Gore, 
Henry Timberly, 
Abraham Speckart, 
William Compton, 
William Wolaston, 
Alexander Childe, 



William &.aldo, ffishmonger, ffirauneis Baldwine, 



Thomas Plomer, and 

Robert Tindall, 
Ruben Bourne, 
ffrauncis Carter 



John Jones, marchant, 

Edward Plomer marchants. 

John Stoickden, 

Peter Erundell, 

Thomas Hampton and 

Cittizens of London, who since our said last letters patents 

are become adventurers, etc. etc. 

Additional " ^I- -^^^ ^^ ^^^ further pleased, and we do, 
Councillors, jjy thcsc presents, grant and confirm, that 
^ Philip [Herbert] Earle of Montgomery, 

1 A complete list of these has not been published. Stith only gives three 



THE THIRD CHARTER. 549 

William Lord Paget, 
Sir John Harrington, Knight, 
"■ " William Cavendish, " 
" John Sammes, " 

" Samuel Sandys, " 

" Thomas ffreke, « 

" William St John, « 
" Richard Grobham, " 
" Thomas Dale « 

" Cavalliero Maycott, " 
Richard Martin, Esquire, 
John Bingley, " 

Thomas Watson " 
and Arthur Ingram " 
whom the said Treasurer and Company have, since the said 
last letters patents, nominated and set down as worthy and 
discreet persons, fit to serve us as Counsellors, to be of our 
Council for the said plantation, shall be reputed, deemed 
and taken as persons of our said Council for the said first 
Colony, in such manner and sort, to all intents and pur- 
poses, as those who have been formerly elected and nomi- 
nated, as our Counsellors for that Colony, and whose names 
have been or are inserted and expressed in our said for- 
mer letters patents." 

VII. [^ Courts or meetings of the treasurer and company 
to assemble " once every week or oftener," to be constituted 



names, and one of these he gives in- to convey an idea of the article num- 

correctly, viz.: " Philip. Earl of Mont- bered, as this seems to answer aU pur- 

gomery, William Lord Paget, Sir John poses. 

Starrington, Knt.," etc. Starrington No one was admitted to share in 

should be Harrington. the Virginia colony for a less sum than 

1 In the copy made for me at the £12 10s. This amount finally entitled 
British Museum, the name of " Sir the payer to a share of not less than 
William Cavendish, Knight," does not 100 acres in Virginia. Of those who 
appear ; but this may be an oversight paid their subscriptions and took there- 
of the copyist, as the name is found in for bills of adventure, it may be stated, 
the list as copied for me from the Kim- as approximately correct, that about 
bolton manuscripts. one third came to Virginia themselves 

^ The words in [ ] are only intended and settled on their lands ; about one 



550 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

of not less than jive members of his majesty's council for 
the first colony in Virginia (of which the treasurer, or his 
deputy, to be always one) and not less than fifteen " of the 
generality of the said Company " shall be a sufficient court 
for handling casual occurrences, etc.] 

VIII. [For matters of greater weight, such as concern 
the weal publick, etc. Four great and general courts were to 
be held yearly upon the last Wednesday save one of Hillary 
(Winter) term, Easter (Spring), Trinity (Summer), and 
Michaelmas (Fall) terms. These courts had power to regu- 
late the government (appoint or remove ofiicers, make laws, 
etc.) of the colony in Virginia, to dispatch the aifairs of the 
said company, to expulse from the company all persons who 
failed to pay their dues as adventurers, subscribers, etc.] 

IX. [The judges at Westminster and elsewhere to favor 
suits brought by the company against non-paying sub- 
scribers.] 

X. [The treasurer and company may admit new mem- 
bers, etc.] 

XI. [May encourage migration. May send things neces- 
sary for the plantation free of duty for seven years from 
12th March, 1612.] 

XII. [The oath of supremacy and allegiance to be ad- 
ministered to every one going to Virginia.] 

XIII. [Certain oaths to be administered to the officers of 
the colony for faithfully discharging the matters committed 
to them for the good of said colony.] 

XIV. [Whereas divers persons, having received wages, 
etc., from the company, and agreed to serve the colony, have 
afterwards refused to go thither; and divers others who 
have been employed in Virginia by the Company, and hav- 
ing there misbehaved themselves by mutinies, sedition, or 
other notorious misdemeanors, have come back to England 

third sent over their agents, or finally the lands. These classes were the 

their heirs, to occupy theirs ; while landed gentry, and they brought, or 

the remaining third sold their shares sent, over another class as servants, 

to others, who generally settled on etc. 




WILLIAM HERBERT 
Third Earl of Pembroke 



THE THIRD CHARTER. 551 

in some treacherous way, or by stealth, or without licence 
from the governor of Virginia, or having been sent hither 
as misdoers and offenders, have shown no respect to the 
Council of the Company ; and others for the colouring of 
their lewdness and misdemeanors committed in Virginia, 
have endeavored, by most vile and slanderous reports of the 
country, of the government and estate of the colony, to 
bring the plantation into disgrace and contempt, whereby 
" the utter overthrow and ruin of the said enterprise hath 
been greatly endangered, which cannot miscarry without 
some dishonour to us and our kingdom.] 

XV. [" Now, forasmuch as it appeareth unto us, that 
these insolences, misdemeanors, and abuses, not to be toler- 
ated in any civil government, have, for the most part," 
proceeded from the fact that said council have not had 
authority to correct and chastise such offenders ; we there- 
fore, for the speedy reformation of so great and enormous 
abuses and misdemeanors heretofore practised and com- 
mitted, and for the prevention of the like hereafter, do, by 
these presents, authorize the said Council or any two of 
them (whereof the Treasurer, or his deputy, to be always 
one), by warrant under their hands, to cause to be appre- 
hended any person hereafter guilty of said offences, to 
examine them, and if found guilty upon just proof made by 
oath, the said Council, or any two of them, shall have full 
power and authority either here to bind them over with 
good sureties for their good behavior, and further therein 
to proceed, to all intents and purposes, as it is used, in other 
like cases, within our realm of England ; or else, at their 
discretion, to remand and send them back to the said colony 
in Virginia, there to be proceeded against and punished, as 
the governor, deputy, or council there shall think meet, etc.] 

" XVI. And for the more effectual advancing of the said 
plantation, we do further, for us, our heirs, and L^^^gj^gg 
successors, of our especial grace and favour, by authorized 

o . 1 1 1 J 1 '' for the bene- 

virtue 01 our prerogative royal, and by the assent fit of the 
and consent of the Lords and others of our privy ° ''^^' 



552 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

council, give and grant unto the said treasurer and company 
full power and authority, free leave, liberty, and licence, to 
set forth, erect, and publish, one or more lottery or lotteries, 
to have continuance, and to endure and be held, for the 
space of one whole year, next after the opening of the same ; 
and after the end and expiration of the said term, the said 
lottery or lotteries to continue and be further kept, dur- 
ing our will and pleasure only, and not otherwise. And 
yet nevertheless, we are contented and pleased for the good 
and welfare of the said plantation, that the said treasurer 
and company shall, for the dispatch and finishing of the said 
lottery or lotteries, have six months warning after the said 
year ended, before our wiU and pleasure shall, for and on 
that behalf, be construed, deemed and adjudged, to be in 
anywise altered and determined. 

" XVII. And our further will and pleasure is, that the 
Where Said lottery and lotteries shall and may be opened 

opened. ^^^ held, withiu our city of London, or in any 

other city or town or elsewhere, within this our realm of 
England, with such prizes, articles, conditions, and limita- 
tions, as to them, the said Treasurer and Company, in their 
discretion shall seem convenient : 

" XVIII. And that it shall and may be lawful, to and 
for the said Treasurer and Company, to elect and 

Treasurer . i. ^ ' _ _ 

and Com- chooso reccivcrs, auditors, surveyors, commission- 

appoint'dfi- ers, Or any other officers, whatsoever, at their will 

dnct*?!!^"" ^^^ pleasure, for the better marshalling, dispos- 

Lotteriesand jng. ofuidiuff, and governing of the said lottery 

administer , , . , , . , „ ■,■■, . i n i 

oaths to and lotteries ; and that it shall likewise be lamul, 
^™' to and for the said Treasurer and any two of the 

said council, to minister to all and every such person so 
elected and chosen for officers, as aforesaid, one or more 
oaths, for their good behaviour, just and true dealing, in 
and about the said lottery or lotteries, to the intent and 
purpose, that none of our loving subjects, putting in their 
names, or otherwise adventuring in the said general lottery 
and lotteries, may be, in any wise, defrauded and deceived 



PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 553 

of their said monies, or evil and indirectly dealt withal in 
their said adventures. 

" XIX. And we further grant in manner and form 
aforesaid, that it shall and may be lawful, to and May publish 
for the said treasurer and company, under the seal of *thelr "St- 
of the said council for the plantation, to publish, *e"es. 
or to cause and procure to be published, by proclamation or 
otherwise (the said proclamation, to be made in their name, 
by virtue of these presents) the said lottery or lotteries in 
all cities, towns, boroughs, and other places within 

our said realm of England ; and we will and command all 
mayors, justices of peace, sheriffs, bailiffs, constables, and 
other officers and loving subjects, whatsoever, that, in no 
wise, they hinder or delay the progress and proceedings of 
the said lottery or lotteries, but be therein touching the 
premises, aiding and assisting, by all honest good and law- 
ful means and endeavours." 

XX. [Construction of charters to be made in the most 
ample and beneficial manner for the company.] 

XXI. [Former privileges confirmed, etc.] " In witness 
whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents. 
Witness ourself, at Westminster, the twelfth day of March, 
in the ninth year of our reign of England, France, and Ire- 
land, and of Scotland the five and fortieth." 

CCIV. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL AJtCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S571, FOLIO SIB. 

Copy of a rough draft of a letter of His Majesty to Don 
Alonso de Velasco, dated Madrid, April 1, 1612. 
" In a letter of February 25*'' I ordered you to write to 
me in matters relating to Virginia, what you may have 
learned, and since afterwards the subject has again been dis- 
cussed on account of a paper presented by a person zealous 
to serve me, which treats of the , serious troubles likely to 
arise if the English get a footing in that region, and pro- 



554 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

poses the way and the means which might be employed in 
order to drive them out from there.^ I order you and charge 
you to proceed most carefully in ascertaining the precise 
condition of things there and to report to me — also that 
the pilot [Clark] who now is in the Havannah comes over 
promptly for the purposes of the exchange, which you know 
— and you will act with dispatch in all that concerns this 
matter." 

CCV. VELASCO TO PHILIP III. 

GJSNEBAL ABCmVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2589, FOLIO S5. 

Copy ol a deciphered letter of Don Alonso de Velasco to the 
King of Spain, dated London, April 14, 1612. 

" SiBE. — 

" On the S*"" of last month [February 27] two ships ^ 
sailed from here with the first assistance which I reported 
to Y. M., was preparing for Virginia, they took not more 
than 100 men, and the second is understood not to reach 
1000, they will sail from here in eight ships in the last 
days of this month. ' It is however, stiU doubted whether 
Lord de la Warre, the former Governor there, will go with 
the expedition as had been reported. Those who are inter- 
ested in this Colony show, however, that they wish to push 
this enterprise very earnestly and the Prince of Wales 
lends them very warmly his support and assistance towards 
it. If a suitable person could be found, he [I] would 
send him with these vessels to establish friendly relations 
with all [i. e. while really acting the spy] as Y. M. com- 
mands me in the letter of February 25 [15]. [CLXIX. 
and CXCIX.] 

" May our Lord " etc. 

1 This important paper has not been " The John and Francis and the 
found. Was this an Englishman, Sarah, I suppose, 
who was so anxious to serve Philip III. 
of Spain ? 



SANDYS TO THE MAYOR OF SANDWICH. 555 

CCVI. SANDYS TO THE MAYOE OP SANDWICH. 

FBOM "VIRGINIA AND VIBGINIOLA;' BY BEV. E. D. NEILL, 

1878, PAGE 44- 

" To the Eight Worthie, my very loving friends, The Mayor 

and Jurates of Sandwich : — 

" Gentlemen. — I am required by his Majesties Counsel 
for Virginia, to call on you for the twenty five pounds which 
long since you promised to adventure with them, towards 
the furthering of that plantation. And have received from 
them a Bill of adventure under their scale to be delivered 
unto you upon paiment of that siun, which Bill I have sent 
you ^ by M' Parke to be disposed accordingly, 

" I am also in their names very earnestly to pray your fur- 
therance towards the furthering of a Lotterie lately granted 
to them by his Majestie. The use and nature thereof you 
shaU perceive by the proclamation concerning it,^ which I 
have also sent. And Mr. Mayor of Sandwick is particularly 
desired to receive and return such monies as men shall be 
disposed to adventure in it, according to such instructions as 
are contained in a book,^ sent to you for that purpose : pre- 
suming greatly of you affectionate rediness to aid and 
advance so worthie an enterprise tending so greatly to the 
enlargement of the Christian truth, the honor of our nation, 
and benefit of English people, as hy God's assistance the 
sequell in short time will manifest. The example also 
hereof, how beneficial! in your best and most needful occa- 
sions, it may prove unto yourselves. I know in your wis- 
dome you will easily see and consider. So with my very 
hartie salutations I commend you to the divine tuition and 
rest. Y' Very loving friend. 

"Edwin Sandys. 

"Northborn, 8 Aprile, 1612." 

1 '^ * These documents are not now " Booke or thinge " entered at Sta- 
preserved among the muniments of tioners' Hall, February 24, 1611. 
Sandwich. * or ^ was probably the 



556 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

CCVII. DIGBY TO SALISBURY. 

Madrid, April 18, 1612. Sir John Digby to my Lord 
Salisbury. 

An extract from a letter indorsed : " Touching our Re- 
nouncing the Plantation in Virginia." 

"It is thought, he [Don Pedro de Cuniga^] will be 
directed, to use many Instances unto his Majesty, for the 
Removing of the Plantation in Virginia, and which they 
thinke fit first to assay by f ayre meanes and Intreaty to his 
Majesty, tho' I should be sorry, in the meane tyme, they 
should be trusted ; ff or that I know, they have had many 
consultations for the supplanting of our men. But I cannot 
learne, that there is any particular Resolution taken therein, 
but that in generall it is concluded, that our setUng there 
is not to be permitted." 

[Mem. — The deserters of Captain Hudson, after their 
return to England in October, 1611, convinced many that 
they had found the long looked for and greatly desired 
northwest passage, and in April or May, 1612, an expedi- 
tion was sent out, consisting of two ships under the command 
of Captain Thomas Button, namely, the Resolution, Francis 
Nelson, master, and the Discovery, Captain John Ingram, 
to explore the said passage and with special instructions to 
search for Hudson and his friends. Robert Byleth, one of 
those who had deserted him in the summer of 1611, was 
sent along to aid in the search. Henry, Prince of Wales, 
who took especial interest in Hudson's fate, drew up the 
instructions for this expedition.] 

1 Zuniga was sent to England at this came to offer the hand of Philip III. 

time as ambassador extraordinary, for himself to the Princess Elizabeth of 

special purposes. Velasco was still England. See Gardiner's History of 

the resident ambassador. Among England, vol. ii. p. 161. 
other pieces of diplomacy, Zuniga 



EXTRACT FEOM THE GROCERS' RECORD. 557 

CCVIII. MOOEE'S COMMISSION. 

April 27, 1612. " A Commission graunted by us the 
undertakers for the Plantacon of Somer Islands unto our 
welbeloved frend M' Richard Moore and the rest of the men 
and mareniers imployed upon the said voyage whome wee 
beseeche God to preserve." Commencing : — 

" Imprimis. 1. Whereas, we whose names are hereunder 
written togeather with divers others have to the glorie of 
God and good of our Countrye undertaken the Plantacon of 
Somer Islands (some times called Bermudaes) " etc. 

The document is given in Lefroy's "Memorials of the 
Bermudas," vol i. pp. 58-63. Moore was to be governor 
for three years. Among his assistants were Mr. George 
Keth, preacher of the word, and Mr. Edwin Kendall. The 
ship in which he sailed, the Plough, was commanded by 
Captain Robert Daviss. They sailed April 28th. Their 
seal was " a Scale Ring with Sir Thomas Smythes Armes 
engraven." 

[Mem. — Howes in his Chronicle says, "In the Spring 
of 1612 there were sent to Virginia more supplies [by the 
John and Francis and the Sarah ?] besides a particular sup- 
ply for the English in the Bermodes."] 

CCIX. EXTRACT FROM THE GROCERS' RECORDS. 

" Court of Assistants. Grocers Company. Tent die 
Mereurii xxix die Aprihs 1612. 

" Present : — Sir Stephen Soame, Sir Tho^ Middleton K"". 

" M' Nicholas Stile, M' George BoUes, and M"^ Richard 
Pyott. Aldermen. 

" M' Richard Burrell, M' Robert Morer and M'^ Wm. 
Pennifather, Wardens. 

W Robert Sandy. M' George Holman. 

" John Newman. " Hugh Gold. 

" Rich^ Denman. " Robert Cox. 



558 PEEIOD III. NOVEMBEK, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

M' Humphrey Walcott. M' Gyles Parslowe. 

" Rich*' Aldworth. " Rob* Bowyer. 

" Richard Cox. " Thomas Nutt. 

" Anthony Soda. " Roger Gwyn. 

" Thomas Longston. " Tho' Westraw. 

■ ••••••••■• 

" This day upon the special motion and request of Sir 
Thomas Smyth K* it is consented and agreed that this 
Company will adventure £62, 10. for V^ lotts in the Lotterye 
for Virginia, and that the sayd adventure shall be made by 
Wardens with the Comen Goodes of this House and that 
the benefitt happening shall be whoUye employed to the use 
of this House & Companye." ... 

[Mem. — May 16, 1612, Master Welby entered for publi- 
cation at Stationers' Hall, " under the handes of Sir Thomas 
Smithe, &c. A publication by his Maiesties Councell of Vir- 
ginea, touchinge the deferringe of the Lotterye." 

No copy of this pubHcation is known to be in existence.] 



CCX. THE NEW LIFE OF VIRGINIA. 

May 1, 1612, Master Welby entered at Stationers' HaU 
for publication, " under the handes of Sir Thomas Smith, 
Sir Dudley Digges, Master Robert Johnson and the War- 
dens. The Lotterys best prize, declaring the former suc- 
cesse and present estate of Viriginia's Plantation." The 
tract is dedicated " to The Right worshipfuU Sir Thomas 
Smith," by R. I. It was reprinted by Peter Force, at Wash- 
ington, in 1836 [No. 7 in vol. i.] ; and also in vol. viii. 2d 
series, Mass. Hist. Collections. 

Originals, which are worth about |160 each, are pre- 
served in the Library of Congress, of Harvard College, of 
John Carter-Brown, and of Mr. Kalbfleisch. 

It was published with the following title-page : — 



THE NEW LITE OF VIKGINIA. 



559 




THE 

NEW LIFE 

of Virginea t 
DECLARING THE 

FORMER SVCCESSE AND PRE- 

fent eftate of that plantation being the fecond 
part of Naua Britannia. 

Publifhed by the authoritie of his Maiefties 

Counfell of Virginea. 

L O ND N, 

Imprinted by Felix Kyngston . for William PFelby, dwelling at the 

figne of the Swan in Pauls Churchyard. I 6 i 2. 



560 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 



CCXI. FROM THE MERCERS' RECORDS. 

At a court of the Mercers' Company held on May 20, 
1612, it was agreed at the request of Sir Thomas Smith, 
knight, that the company should adventure .£50 in this pres- 
ent lottery for Virginia. 



CCXII. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCA8. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2571, FOLIO S17. 

Copy of an extract from a deciphered letter of His Majesty 
to Don Alonso de Velasco, dated Madrid, June 6, 1612. 
" I approve of your plan to send to Virginia in the first 
vessels that should sail some trustworthy person, who should 
bring a reliable account of how matters stand there — and 
as to the matter of Don Roberto Sirley, nothing more is to 
be done than to report to me whatever else may present 
itself." 



CCXIII. VELASCO TO PHILIP IIL 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANACS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2589, FOLIO 50. 

Copy of a deciphered letter of Don Alonso de Velasco to 
the King of Spain, dated London, June 18, 1612. 

"Sire.— 

" In order to encourage the settlement of Virginia and to 
progress there with a more solid foundation they have 
determined here to send and establish a post in the Ber- 
muda, for which purpose they are preparing 300 men and 
60 women, who will sail certainly during the month of July 
in a ship which will also take out whatever is necessary to 
erect a fort, where they can secure a better footing and con- 
tinue more conveniently in their design. 

" God grant " etc. 




SIR WILLIAM HERICKE; 



FKOM THE GROCERS' RECORDS. 561 

CCXIV. DIGBY TO CARLETON. 

Madrid, June 20, 1612. Digby to Carleton. 

..." Thei are very much displeased with our new dis- 
eoverie of the North-Weste passage ; but more particularly 
with our plantation in Virginia. Which thei stick not now 
to say, that yf his Majestic will not cause yt to bee recalled, 
this King will bee forced by a strong hande to assay ye 
removall of yt. And I heare that Don Pedro de Cunega 
hathe commission to move his Majestic that his subjects may 
desiste from any farther proceeding therein. If hee have, 
I doubt not but hee will receive a cold answeare. And for 
their doing anything by ye way of hostilitie, I concive thei 
will be very slowe to give England (who is very apte to lay 
holde on any occasion) so juste a pretence to bee doing with 
them." 

CCXV. FROM THE GROCERS' RECORDS. 

Prom Wardens' Accounts, Grocers' Company. Under 
head of " Casual paymentes " in 
" Th' accompte and Reconing of 

_ , „ ' I Wardens of the Misterie of the 

^„ ^ . ' f Grocerie of the Cittie of London, 

W° Pennyfather, J 

From 22. July a. d. 1611 to 20 July 1612. 

"Paid to Sir Thomas Smyth K' 23''^ day of ^ 
June 1612 for the Companys adventure for 
5 lottes in the presente Lottery for Planta- 
tion in Virginia according to an order of 
Court made 24, April 1612, as by acquit- 
tance may appeare." 



LXij. X. 
[£62 10,] 



562 PERIOD ni. NOVEMBEK, 1609-JULY, 1614. 



CCXVI. STRACHEY'S VIRGINIA.— I. 

Strachey's " Virginia " — Ashmole MS. 1758.^ Collated 
and extracted by G. Parker, Bodleian Library, August 25, 

1885. 

[fol. 1.] The' First Booke of the First Decade con- 
tayning the Historie of Travaile into Virginia 
Britania, expressing togither with the conditions, manners 
and Quallities of the Inhabitauntes, The Cosmographie, & 
commodities of the Country : obtayned and gathered by 
William Strachey gent, three yeares thether Imployed, 
Secretarie unto the State, and of Counsell, with the Eight 
Hono:''^® the Lord La Warre, his Ma:*'"^ Lord Governour 
and Captayne Generall for the Colonie./ 

" Alget, quj non ardet. / W St : / 
[fol. 2.] ^ " To the right worthie and noble gent, covet- 
ous of all knowledge, Sir Allen Apsley Knight 

Purveyor for His Majesties Navie Eoyall. 
"Worthy Sir. 

" It is common, if not naturall to worldlings, where things 
succeed not according to the heat of their large expecta- 
tions, not only to fall from their resolutions (in a Busines 

1 There are two copies of the MS. ^ The Sloane (CCXVII.) title-page 

of Strachey's Virginia ; the one in the is somewhat different. 

Bodleian Library at Oxford which has ^ There has been some doubt as to 

never been printed — from which I am when this treatise was written ; but 

now giving these extracts ; the other it seems very evident to me that the 

(CCXVII.) in the British Museum, original was written between the date 

Sloane Collection, No. 1622, which of Strachey's return from Virgmia 

was published by the Hakluyt Soci- and July 23, 1612 (before Captain 

ety of London, England, in 1849. At Argall sailed for Virginia), and that 

the request of Mr. Kingdon of Lon- the Ashmolean copy was presented to 

don, Mr. Parker of the Bodleian Li- Sir Allen Apsley before the death of 

brary compared the Ashmole MS. 1758 Henry, Prince of Wales (November 6j 

with the Hakluyt publication for me, 1612). The original Sloane, evidently 

and I have given in this document written about the same time, was 

most of the difEerences of any conse- afterwards presented to Lord Bacon 

quence. The text in each is nearly in 1618 (after July 11), with several 

identical. I also had the Sloane MS. alterations in the text, rendered neces- 

1622 examined at the Museum. sary by the lapse of time. See note 

1, page 565, 



STRACHEY'S VIRGINIA. 563 

how well-weyed soever in Counsaile, or full of fame, honour, 
or goodnes,) and first grounds ; but to quarrell all meanes 
that gave heart (almost connivaunce) to the setting on: 
so testy is the insatiate passioun and that ymmeasurable 
hope which wiU needes convert ytselfe into deluding assiir- 
aune : as low Hillocks, such are such men, covered with 
snow, let the least sunn or Wind give them up naked 
though no worse thenn they were, yet the mountannous 
Imagynatioim not satisfied tiu-nes into such a Laughter as 
mad-men take up, an unkindly and bastard Laughter, lit- 
tle difPerent from madnes ytselfe : I confesse I would ever 
be free from the fury of such, yet what I can speak of 
goodnes I must not be ashamed nor feare, and all good 
Angells deceave me, if any Aviso in that, returne the 
Reader distraction, or me a chiding : and can my voice be 
exalted in any tune more full of pietie and happines thenn 
in the Busines for Virginia ? Which was once a thing so 
full of expectaunce (and that not above three years since ^) 
as not a yeare of a romain-jubile, no nor the Ethnick- 
Queene of Ephesus, can be said to have beene followed 
with more heate and zeale ; the discourse and visitatioun of 
yt tooke up all meetings, times, termes, all degrees, all 
purses, and such throngs and concourse of personall under- 
takers, as the aire seemed not to have more Lights thenn 
that holie Cause inflamed Spiritts to partake with yt, almost 
every religious Subject that stood sound indeed at the 
coare within to Loialtie and to the professioun of the present 
Faith brought his Free-will-oflEring, and professed thenn to 
throw his bread upoun those waters, however, (alas) now in 
these tymes the back and worse face of Janus with the repy- 
ning eye, and tongue of slaunder, hath bene turned upoun 
yt. When yet yt transcends the Reach of such who both 
will and doe understand yt, what rubbish Interpositioun 
should so straungely chaunge her former conceyved fehcity, 
or whie the Plenulune and fulnes of her hopes should suffer 
under so many petulent new-Feares, and falce Freinds. 

1 This is a reference to the great rush for Virginia in the spring of 1609. 



564 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

" I will councell no mann in the waies of the world, but 
where my reasonn may tell me, that I maie advise of prof- 
fitt, since interposing hazardes maie meete (there being on 
permanent or reall happines under the Sun») and thenn 
maie I be well assured of hastie and sinister judgment, cen- 
sured a partie to the least losse though no Competitour in 
any gaine : only yet let me dare to publish to any one that 
hath adventured in this sprightly and pious actioun, espe- 
cially [fol. 2''] to such who have assumed that for their rav- 
isht love to faire vertue, that the Former endes and first 
motives to the undertaking stand yet. as apparant and prof- 
itable as at first, whether be respected a natioun to blesse 
with knowledge, a fruictfuU and pleasant country to seat 
and settle the swarmes of our ranck multitude, who tast in 
this oitr owne clyme nothing but of Idlenes, Prophannes, 
and want ; or whither be respected a secure and necessary 
Retreyt for our manie shipps, when the insolent Enemy of 
those Seas shall at any tyme quarrell us ; or whither be re- 
spected, the commodities and materialls for shipping, so 
much exhausted, and so dearely obteyned from the easterly 
Countries, as Flax for Cordage, Pitch and Tarr, Pine and 
Firre for mastage, «&c, or whither be respected the hopes 
of the upland-country amongest the mountaynes, we con- 
ceave of many sorts of mineralls, fynding alreddy in the 
surface and upper crust the sparre of good proufe, and 
worthie the expence of Triall; or lastly whither be re- 
spected that more thenn likelyhood of the discovery that 
waie, westerly the great and hopeful! discent into the mar 
del Zur or South-Sea, of which the late discourse pub- 
lished in print by an able and understanding gentleman?i 
of Qualitie, of the Nor-West passadge,^ gives so cliere and 
undoubted Testimonie. 

" But worthie S" I doe forget myself to openn a Book 
unto your knowledge which is full of Love and understand- 
ing of the true endes of this great action, yet so yt maie be 
that these geathered observations thus bungled, bound up, 
1 Written by Sir Dudley Digges, see March 11, 1612. 



STRACHEY'S VIRGINIA. 565 

and to your view alone intended hy me maie fall into such 
handes as maie put some doubtes which even this entraunce 
may resolve them in, and so begett towards the further 
reading hereof a better opinion : Be yt only your honour to 
pardoun me the appealing of you from your more serious 
affaires to the perusaU of these infirme and scatterd collec- 
tions, since yf I have offended, the noblenes & Bountie of 
your faire Disposicioun (expressed evenn in my knowledge 
to manie of my best Freindes) makes me presume that I 
cannot (in any actioun, which hath relish of virtue and 
goodnes) too much challenge or provoak your patience. 

" And so not striving to be unnecessarily troublesome I 
wish unto you the iust accomplishment of your owne ver- 
tuous desires : by him who is truly to you divoted. 

"William Stkaohey. 

"ECCLESIAB, ET EEIPUB: [fol. 3.] 

Wild as they ar, accept them, so were wee : 
To make them civil, will our Honour be : 
And if good workes, be the effects of myndes, 
That like good-angells be, let our Designes, 
As we ar Angli, make us angells too : 
No better worck, can church, or statesman do. 

W. St. 

" We call Cape Henry, in honour of our most [fol. 16.] 
royall prince.^ . . . 

" We caU Cape Charles in honour of our [fol. 16''.] 
princely Duk of York.^ . . . 

" Yt being the place wherein our aboad and habitatioun 
hath now (well neere) six yeares consisted.^ 

now at that tyme 

^ These passages were originally "in honour of our^princely^Duk of 

written in the same way in the Sloane York." 

MS. ; but before presentation to Ba- « Our aboad & habitation hath now 

con it was necessary to correct them, . „ , ?• • i i „ 

1 ,, • ii, 4. TVTc „ (well neere) «s yeares consisted." 

and they now appear m that Mfe. as ^ ^ . , .., <. 

„ ,, / '^'^ [" I have copied the foregoing 

thatrai dsooaMd cxaotly as they occur in the MS. The 

« in honour of ■eas most royall.prince. " corrections are most certainly in a dif- 

" ferent handwriting from that of the 



566 PEKIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

[fol. 56.] "The^ Second Book of the First decade of 
the Historie of Travaile into Virginia-Britania^ 
expressing the severall voyages, and Colonies addressed into 
these partes of America, now by us intituled Virginia, at 
whose Chardges first undertaken, and what Captaines 
therein imployed, with what their success, casualUes & 
adventures ; gathered by William Strachey gent. / &c. / 

" Alget, qui non ardet.^ / 

" Wee seek not yours, but you : Pet. / 

" Res nostrae sub inde non sunt quales quis optaret, sed 
quales esse possunt.^ / 

"W. St. 
[fol. 57.] " Cap. I. / 

" A collection, necessarily gathered, of the most 
matteriall perticulers, of every Severall Colonic, & voyage 
addressed by the English at any tyme, into these partes of 
America which hath gotten the Denomination of Virginia. / 

" Whether that ever famous Genoese Christopher Colum- 
bus," etc. [about as in the Hakluyt volume ; but with the 
marginal note, " Of the first finders out of Virginia, the 
Captaynes thether Imployed, & by whom," etc.] 

CCXVI. has also the following introduction to the 
" Dictionary of the Indian Language," which is not given 
in CCXVII. (See Hakluyt Society volume for 1849, pp. 
181-196.) 

text, and are written by the same per- about 7,000 words, defends the enter- 
son who added the marginal notes ; prise against the claims of Spain, 
but possibly these corrections were etc. The first book, containing about 
made at a later day by the original 35,000 words, is mainly descriptive ; 
writer of the MS." E. Salmon, Brit, but it also gives something of events 
Mus. April 17, 1884.] in Virginia from April, 1607, to about 

1 The Sloane title is different August, 1611. The second book, con- 

(CCXVII.). taining about 14,000 words, goes over 

^ These same mottoes were used by American discoveries, etc., from 1492 
Strachey on the title-page of Lawes to 1606, and then gives an account of 
Divine, Morall and Martiall, etc. the Northern Colony (1607-8) nearly 
(CXC). The Sloane motto is the as in XXXVI. Then there is a Die- 
same on both title-pages ; namely : tionarie of the Indian Language. The 
Psalm cii. ver. 18. second book was published in Mass. 

The Prsemonition to the reader, of Hist. Soc. Coll. 4th series, vol. i. 1852. 



STRACHEY'S VIRGINIA. 567 

" A Short Dictionary, added unto the former Discourses, 
of the Indian Language, used within the Chessiopioch Bay ; 
more perticulerly about the Tract and amongst the Inhabi- 
taunts of the first Kiver, called by them Powhaton, and by 
us, the Kings River, wherin as yet our Townes, and Fortes, 
ar seated. By which, such who shall be Imployed thether 
may know the readyer how to confer, and how to truck and 
Trade with the People." 



CCXVII. STRACHEY'S VIRGINIA. — 11. 

The Strachey MS. in the Sloane Collection, No. 1622, 
already referred to in my notes on CCXVI., was published 
by the Hakluyt Society of London in 1849, to which pub- 
lication the reader is referred. 

The following are the title-pages of the two books : — 
"The First Booke of The Historie of Travaile into Vir- 
ginia Britannia, expressing The Cosmographie and Como- 
dities of The Country, Togither with the Manners And 
Customes of The People : — Gathered And Observed As 
Well By Those who went First Thither, As Collected By 
WilKam Strachey, gent., Three yeares thither Imployed 
secretarie of State, And of Counsaile with the Right Hon- 
orable The Lord La-Warre, His Majesties Lord Governor 
and Capt. Generall of The Colony. Psalm. CII. Ver. 18. 
This shalbe written for the generation to come : and The 
people which shalbe created shaU praise the Lord." 

" The Second Book of The First Decade of The Historie 
of Travaile into Virginia-Britannia, entreating of the First 
Discoverie of The Country, and of the first Colonie, Trans- 
ported by Sir Richard Greenville, Knight, upon the Island 
of Roanoak, at the Expence and charge of Sir Walter Ral- 
eigh, knight. 

" As also of the Northern Colonie, seated upon the River 
of Sachadehoc, Transported Anno 1585, [1607?], at the 
charge of Sir John Popham, Knight, Late Lord Chiefe 
Justice of England, gathered by WiUiam Strachey, gent. 



568 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614, 

" Psalm CII, Ver. 18. This shalbe written for the gen- 
eration to come ; and the people which shalbe created shall 
praise the Lord." 

I think Strachey refers to this compilation in his prose 
preface to CXC, where he promises in the course of time to 
submit to the views of "The Committies," etc., " The full 
Storie" both of Virginia and the Bermudas. He evidently 
planned a large work, but whether his plan was carried out 
or not is uncertain. Only the manuscript of the first and 
second books. of the first decade has been found. It was 
evidently a personal venture, and Strachey certainly met 
with no encouragement in publishing such a work at this 
time, from The Committies of the Company, and after sev- 
eral trials he failed to find a patron elsewhere. We know 
but little of Strachey ; his command of language seems to 
me very striking, and his initials, W. S., are the most inter- 
esting of the period. 

CCXVIII. FROM STOWS CHRONICLE. 

« The 29. of June 1612 [at the West end of Saint Paules 
Church] began a great Lottery in London, the greatest Lot 
or prize was a thousand pound in plate." — Stow's Chroni- 
cle abridged by Howes. 

The following relates to one of the first lotteries which I 
have found mentioned in English history : — 

"A great Lotterie being holden at London in Paules 
Church yard, at the West doore was begun to be drawne the 
11. of Januarie and continued day and night till the 1^* of 
May 1569, when the said drawing was fully ended. The 
prizes consisted of plate, and the profits were appropriated 
to the repair of the sea-ports." The troubles with Spain 
were then brewing over the Hawkins incident at Vera Cruz, 
etc. 



CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 569 

CCXIX. CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 
Chamberlain to Carleton, July 9, 1612. 

" My veey goode Lorde : the Spanish ambassador, Don 
Pedro de Cuniga marques de villa Flores had his first audi- 
ence on Sonday last at Hampton court, wherin he was very 
short and in a manner did only shew his letters of credence, 
referring the rest of his message to a more private hearing : 
which is appointed him tomorrow at Whitehall, whether the 
K. comes this day for that purpose, having past all this 
weeke at Windsor and therabout. The K. makes haste to 
dispatch him, and when he hath heard what he can say, 
meanes to invite him to Tiballs [Theobalds] and feast him 
there on Sonday, and so to dismisse him. 

" I have yt from a goode hand that besides matter of 
ceremonie and acquainting the K. with the reasons of these 
late contracts with Fraunce a principall part of his errand 
is to cleere hitnselfe of some imputations laide upon him by 
the Lord Treasurer [Cecil] about the powder treason, and 
to have cried quittance with him (yf he had ben alive) in 
accusing him of some unwarrantable practises. He Kes at 
the Ambassador lidgers^ house, refusing to be lodged or 
defrayed by the King because he understoode his entertain- 
ment was not like to be aunswerable in every point to that 
of the D. of Buillon. Yt is generally looked for that he 
will expostulate about our planting in Virginia, wherin 
there will need no great contestation, seeing yt is to be 
feared that that action will fall to the ground of ytseU, by 
the extreem beastly ydlenes of our nation, which (notwith- 
standing any cost or diligence used to support them) will 
rather die and starve then be brought to any labor or Indus- 
trie to maintain themselves, two or three of the last ships 
that came thence bring nothing but discomfort, and that 
Sir Thomas Gates and Sir Thomas Dale are quite out of 
hart, and to mend the matter not past five days since here 

1 Velasco. 



570 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

arrived a ship^ with ten men, (who being sent foorth to fish 
for theyre releif e and having taken great store) have given 
them the slip and run away, and fill the towne with yll 
reports, which will hinder that business more then the Lot- 
terie or any other art they can use for the present will fur- 
ther yt. and yet they have taken goode order to have these 
runaways apprehended and punished or at least sent backe 
again. . . . 

"From London this 9* of July 1612. 

" Your Lordships to command 

"John Chamberlaine." 



CCXX. THE LOTTERY DRAWING. 

" The King's Majestie in special favor for the present 
plantation of English CoUonies in Virginia, 
granted a liberall Lottery, in which was con- 
tained five thousand pound in prizes certayne, besides re- 
Tx 1, .1, wardes of casualtie and began to be drawne, in a 

It began the . ° ' 

29. of June new built house at the West end of Paul's the 29. 
the 20. of of June 1612 ; But of which Lottery, for want 
^^' of filling uppe the number of lots, there were 

then taken out and throwne away three score thousande 
blanckes, without abating of any one prize; and by the 
twenteth of July, all was drawne and finished. This Lot- 
tery was so plainely carryed and honestly performed that it 
gave full satisfaction to aU persons. Thomas Sharplisse, a 
Taylor of London, had the chiefe prize, viz ; foure thou- 
sand crownes in fayre plate, which was sent to his house in 
very stately manner, during the whole tyme of drawing of 

1 The Trial, I suppose, which ship England to displant the French Collo- 
had arrived in Virginia in August, nie there, the which as I after heard 
1611, and probably remained there was Valliantly performed." See "A 
until Percy returned in her for Eng- Trewe Relaoyon of the proeedeinges 
land, April 22, 1612, and after a long and ocurentes of momente which have 
and dangerous voyage "anchored in hapened in Virginia . . . 1609 untill 
Dover Roade where we did mete with . . . 1612," by George Percy, writ- 
s' Samuell Argall bownde for New ten about 1625. 




SIR HENRY HOBART 
Chief Justice 



EECORDS OF ST. MARY, COLECHURCH 571 

this Lottery, there was alwaies present divers worshipful! 
Knights and Esquiers accompanied with sundry grave dis- 
creet Cittizens." — Howes' Chronicle, edition of 1615. See 
CCXVIII. also. 

" A Lottery granted for the Plantation of Virginia, 
1612. 

" About this time [June, 1612] the King, in special 
favour to the present plantation of the English Colonies in 
Virginia, granted a Lottery, to be held at the West-end of 
Paul's whereof one Thomas Sharplys a Taylor of London, 
had the chief prize, which was four thousand crowns in fair 
plate." — Baker's Chronicles. 

" One byrde in the hande is worth two in the woode 
If we get the great lot, it will do us goode." 

July 2, 1612. "Master Welby, entered at Stationer's 
Hall for publication. Under the hands of Sir Thomas 
Smithe — A booke called. The Lottery for Virginea opened 
the xxix*'' of June 1612, declaringe the names of suche as 
have prices or rewardes." 

July 17. " Master Welbye entred for his copy in full 
courte holden this day, and under the hand of Sir Thomas 
Smithe, Knighte. 

" The Articles sett downe for the Second Lottery." — 
I^rom the Register of the Stationers. 

No copies of these two publications, I believe, are now 
known to be in existence. 



CCXXI. EECORDS OF ST. MARY, COLECHURCH. 

Extract from the vestry minutes of the Church of St. 
Mary, Colechurch, "which anciently stood on the north 
side of the Poultry, at the South-West Corner of the Old 
Jewry, London, England. It was destroyed by the Great 
Fire, a. d. 1666." 

" Att A vestry Houlden the vij*" daye of June 1612 it is 



572 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

agreed to adventur sixe pounde of the proffitt of our 
ehurche stocke in the lottrey for the plantacion of Vergenya 
and what benifitt shall hapen thereby shalbe for the good 
of our church." 

After which is written : — 

" For this adventure above written our church had twoe 
spones price twentye shiUinge as apereth in the accoumpt 
of Edward Draper then Elder Church Warden." 

CCXXII. 

Extract from the Churchwarden's book of St. Mary, 
Woolchurch Hawe, 1612-13 : " Keceived from the lottery 
for 50 lotts which was by order of the parish to be drawn 
in twelve penny lotts. £0. 10s. Od." 

CCXXIII. FLORES (ZUNIGA) TO PHILIP III. 

GENEBAL ARCHIVES OF 8IMANCAS. DEPABTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S589, FOLIO 61. 

Copy of a deciphered letter of the Marquess of Flores to the 
King of Spain, dated London, August 1, 1612. Received 

August 18 (8). 

" SlEB. — 

"A ship has arrived here from Viginia, and altho' the 
well-informed and others think that that business does not 
grow, but rather continues to diminish ; I have been told 
by a friend, who tells me the truth, that some of the people 
who have gone there, think now some of them should marry 
the women of the savages of that country ; and he tells me 
that there are already 40 or 50 thus married, and other Eng- 
lishmen after being put among them have become savages, 
and that the women whom they took out, have also gone 
among the savages, and they have received and treated them 
well — that a zealous minister of their sect was seriously 
wounded in many places, because he reprehended them. 

" They have established a lottery from which they will 



CHARTER OP THE N. W. P. COMPANY. 573 

obtain sixty thousand ducats, and by these means they will 
dispatch six ships, with as many people as they can get by 
such pretexts. 

" In this beginning it will be easy to drive those people 
out from there, and the not punishing hereof is the cause 
why they so boldly attempt other things, and Y. M. will see 
this, because already they have houses and begin another 
Colony in Newfoundland, in those regions where they have 
their fisheries. Now is a very favorable time for their pun- 
ishment, because if it is done, they will see that Y. M. wiU 
not proceed with them altogether by demands (requests, 
petition &c) which has only made them more haughty than 
they could hope, if relying upon their own strength alone. 

" God preserve Y. M." etc. 

[Mem. — Captain Samuel Argall in the Treasurer was 
" dispatched with Commission to displace the French, who 
had taken the opportunitie to settle themselves within our 
limits." . . . See " A Brief e Eelation of the Discoverie and 
Plantation of New-England . . . 1607 ... to the present 
year 1622," and Mr. Neill's preface to " Virginia Vetusta," 
p. X. Argall's commission, I fear, is now lost. He sailed 
some time before the 23d of July, 1612, on which day " he 
departed from the coast of England."] 

CCXXIV. CHARTER OF THE N. W. P. COMPANY. 

SAJNSBVBY'S CALENDAR OF STATE PAPEBS, COLONIAL, 
EAST INDIES, 1513-1616, NUMBER 618. 

Bletsoe, July 26, 1612. Grant incorporating the North 
West Passage Company. 

The grant recites that in Hudson's voyage, April, 1610, to 
October, 1611, they had found a strait or narrow sea by 
which they hope and purpose to advance a trade to the great 
kingdoms of Tartary, China, Japan, Solomon's Islands, Chili, 
the Philippines, and other countries, for the better accom- 
plishment and discovery of which they have sued for license 



574 PEKIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614 

to be incorporated into a company. " In regard, it is an 
enterprize tending to so worthy an end, and which now at 
last after many proofs hath obtained so happy and likely a 
beginning, we have thought of some extraordinary means to 
grace and honour the same ; " and do constitute " our dear 
son [Prince Henry] immediately under ourselves (whose pro- 
tection is universal) supreme protector of the discovery and 
company," and 22 peers, three sons of peers, 36 knights, 
one lady, 38 esquires, and 188 merchants, etc., a body corpo- 
rate and politic by the name of the " Governor and Company 
of the Merchants of London, discoverers of the North- West 
Passage." Sir Thomas Smythe, Sir Dudley Diggs, and John 
Wolstenholme having been the first movers and principal 
instruments of setting forth ships to sea for accompHshing 
the discovery. Sir Thomas Smythe is appointed first gov- 
ernor. Sir Robert Mansell, Sir Ja^ Lancaster, Sir Dudley 
Diggs, Wm. Cockayne, Fra^ Jones alderman, John Wol- 
stenholme Esq., Wm. Greenwell, John Eldred, Nic Leate, 
Nic. Salter, Robt. Offley, Hewett Stapers, William Russell, 
Ric. Wyehe, Raphe Freeman, Wm. Stone, Rob* Middleton, 
Wm. Harrison, Morris Abbott, Humfrey Hanforde, Philip 
Burlamachi, Abrah. Chamberlain, Rob* Bell, and Wm. Bur- 
rell, merchants, the first twenty-four committees and direc- 
tors. This Company was " to enjoy forever the whole entire 
and only trade into the North West passage, and unto the 
lands, territories, and dominions aforesaid," — i. e., the 
northern parts of America — and " unto the very territories 
of Tartaria, China, Japan, Coray, &c." Most of the incor- 
porators of this company were also members of the East 
India, the Muscovy, and the Virginia companies of London. 



FLORES (ZUSriGA) TO PHILIP III. 575 

CCXXV. FLOEES (ZUNIGA) TO PHILIP III. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2589, FOLIO 67. 

Copy of an original letter of the Marquess de Floras to the 
King of Spain, dated August 16, 1612. 

"SiBB.— 

" I reported to Y. M. that they have obtained from a lot- 
tery sixty thousand ducats for Virginia matters ; now per- 
mission has been granted for another lottery worth 120.000 
ducats, and they will make great haste to finish it and will 
send more than two thousand men to that country, because 
they wish to make another fortification on the river below. 
In order to get the footing there, which they desire to 
obtain, they will sell their own children, to put the Colony 
into the best possible condition, which even the well-in- 
formed cannot deny ! 

" Don Alonso de Velasco has been told that it is an object 
of ridicule (a laughing stock, a shame), that this business 
win never come to bear fruit in any way, for this Kingdom. 
I myself have been assured by friends, that in their opinion, 
they will very soon open the port and let them go out to sea 
as pirates. This is a very shameless (highhanded) matter, 
as I have already told Y. M. ; and if Y. M. wiU command 
them to leave that country at this time, it wiU appear to 
them as if it had been most courteously done ; because if 
they should be broken to pieces, they have no right to com- 
plain of it. — the whole thing is building up stones without 
any foundation [castles in the air]." 

" Our Lord preserve the Catholic Person of Y. M. as all 
Christendom feels the need. London. Aug* 16. 1612. 

" The Maeques de Floees." 



576 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609 JULY, 1614. 

CCXXVI. PURCHAS HIS PILGRIMAGE. 

August 7, 1612, there was entered at Stationers' Hall, 
for publication, " Purchas his Pilgrimage, or Relations of 
The World and the ReHgions observed in all Ages and 
places Discovered, from the Creation unto this Present. In 
Poure Partes. This first contayning a Theologicall and 
Geographical! Historie of Asia, Africa and America, with 
the Hands adjacent. Declaring the ancient Religions before 
the Floud, the Heathenish, Jewish, and Saracenicall in all 
Ages since, in those parts professed, with their severaU 
opinions, Idols, Oracles, Temples, Priests, Pasts, Feasts, 
sacrifices, and Rites Religious : Their beginnings. Proceed- 
ings, Alterations, Sects, Orders and Successions. 

" With briefe Descriptions of The Countries, Nations, 
States, Discoveries : Private and publike Customs, and the 
most remarkable Rarities of Nature, or Humane Industrie, 
in the same "... "By Samuel Purchas, Minister at Est- 
wood in Essex, Unus Deus, una Veritas. London. Printed 
by William Stansby for Henrie Fetherstone . . . 1613." 
Dedicated to George, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The preface is dated November 5, 1612, and the work 
probably issued from the press soon after. There was a 
second edition in 1614, a third, "much enlarged with 
Additions through the whole Worke," in 1617, and a 
fourth in 1626, which latter edition generally accompanies 
" Purchas his Pilgrimes " as a fifth volume. 

In the edition of 1614, Purchas gives probably 1,000 
words regarding the Northern Colony, apparently compiled 
from the writings of Christopher Fortescue, Thomas Hanham, 
James Davies, John Eliot, George Popham, "Let[ter] to 
S[ir] J. Gilbert and E, S[eymour]," Ralegh Gilbert, and 
Edward Harley. 

About 2,500 words regarding the Southern Colony, 
chiefly compiled from CCXLV., but with several extracts 
from CLXXI. and CCX. ; and with reference also to XLIX. 
and CCXXX. He evidently gives us only what met his 



DIGBY TO JAMES I. 577 

own approbation and, therefore, only his own opinions. He 
then gives about 8,000 words describing the country, people, 
religious rites, etc., the marvelous always preferred. 



CCXXVII. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

August 21, 1612. Madrid. Digby to James I. 

" I have formerly advertised your Majestie of a report 
come unto Sevill that three or foure of this Kings Galleons 
should be cast away upon the Coast of Florida, which went 
forth with an intent to have attempted somewhat against 
the English Plantation in Virginea. But though this newes 
be not absolutely contradicted, yet I can learne so smale 
grownde for the report therof , that I can conceave it to be 
Hkelyer to be untrue then otherwise." 

CCXXVIII. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

September 1, 1612. Madrid. Digbye to James I. 

..." Has endeavoured to inform himself of the reasons 
for the stay of Don Pedro de Cunega in England being 
longer than His Majesty expected. That when he was sent 
from hence he had three businesses in which he was in- 
structed to carry himself according to the state he should 
find them in at his coming thither. . . . His second busi- 
ness was concerning Virginea ; in which he was likewise not 
to make any proposition unto your Majestie, but upon sec- 
ond directions from hence, when he should have learned and 
advertised, what Your Majesties inclination was and what 
your answer was like to be, for that in case he should per- 
ceave that your Majestie was not likely to give way to that 
which by this King should be propounded, he should avoyd 
the having of a peremptory negative given unto his Master." 

[Mem. — A ship which left Virginia after the 28th of July 
arrived in England some time in September, it seems, bring- 
ing Whitaker's letter (CCXXIX.) and book (CCXXX.), and 
other documents unknown. 



578 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

No news from Virginia was received in England from the 
date of the arrival of this ship (probably the John and 
Francis or the Sarah), about September, 1612, until the 
arrival of the EKzabeth on the 20th of July, 1613. And 
this period was the darkest hour " in all that time of three 
years disaster."] 



CCXXIX. WHITAKER TO SIR THOMAS SMYTHE. 

Neither of the following has ever been published in Amer- 
ica, I believe. I can only give extended extracts from 
CCXXX., as it is too long to publish entire. The fact that 
it was written in Virginia gives it an additional interest. I 
quote from the book as published later (CCLVIII.) noting 
the page extracted from. 

"To the Eight WorshipfuU Sir Thomas Smith, Knight, 
Treasurer of the English Colonie in Virginia : Grace and 
Peace be multiplied. 

" Right worshipf uU, the noblest attemps have alwaies had 
the most doubtfuU beginnings, most dangerous enemies. 
For wheresoever any goodnesse shall begin to bud forth, 
the Divell will labour by aU meanes to nip it in the head. 
Wherefore, I doe not marvell though there have been great 
discouragements, and many adversaries of this Plantation. 
For the Divell knowing that where Christ wins, he loseth, 
doth with aU his might and policie hinder the publishing, 
and propagation of the Gospell. Such was his practise to 
discourage the IsraeKtes from the conquest of Canaan, rais- 
ing up ten of their owne Princes, that weakened the hand 
of their brethren. By his meanes also there stood up some 
of the Disciples that spake against Peter, for preaching the 
Gospell to the Gentiles. Yea, God himselfe of purpose suf- 
fers the divell to rage thus for a while, that those that are 
his might bee tried. And this hath been the case hitherto 
of this godly Plantation, this the successe. But since the 
affairs of this Colony have now taken better footing and are 



WHITAKER'S GOOD NEWS FROM VIRGINIA. 579 

advanced by the helpes of so many honorable Adventurers, 
I was greatly emboldened to write these few lines of Exhor- 
tation, to encourage the noble Spirits of so many worthy men, 
to goe forward in Wel-doing, wherefore (honored Sir) since 
all the dispatches of our affaires passes through your hand, I 
request of you to accept of my poore endeavours, and to pub- 
lish it to the view of our Adventurers that the prejudicate 
opinion of some, and the disheartened mind of others may be 
reformed. The God of heaven and earth crowne your un- 
danted spirit with his heavenly reward. And Let the beautie 
of the Lord our God be upon us : and direct thou the workes 
of our hands upon us, even direct thou our handle workes. 

" From Henrico, this 28. of July 1612. 

" He that daily prayeth for the prosperitie of this Plan- 
tation, Alexander Whitaker." 



CCXXX. WHITAKER'S GOOD NEWS FROM VIRGINIA. 
" Good Newes From Virginia. [p. 1.] 

Text. " Ecclesiastes 11. 1. Cast Thy bread upon the 
Waters : for after many dales thou shalt finde it. 

"Aude hospes contemnere opes & te quoque dignum 
Finge Deo. 

" Be bould my Hearers to contemme riches, and frame 
yourselves to walke worthie of God ; for none other be wor- 
thie of God, but those that lightly esteeme of riches. Na- 
kednesse is the riches of nature ; vertue is the only thing 
that makes us rich and honourable in the eyes of wise men. 
Povertie is a thing which most men feare, and covetous men 
cannot endure to behold : yet povertie with a contented 
mind is great riches : hee truly is the onely poore man, not 
that hath little, but which continually desireth more. 
Riches (as they are esteemed) have no limits, but still crie, 
plus ultra, still more. Neither is any man absolutely rich, 
but in comparison of a poorer man, of one (I meane) that hath 
lesse then he : for if he make dihgent enquirie, he may finde 



580 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 16M. 

divers richer then himself e : if riches of gold and the like, 
had bin such as the world doth esteeme them, it is not likely 
that Jesus Christ would have taken so poore a state upon him : 
when we esteeme them at the best, they are but an heavy 
burthen to some, an IdoU to others, and profitable to few." 

He continues in the same line (pp. 1-4). On the fourth 
page of his discourse, referring to his text, he says, " The 
words naturally divide themselves into two principal parts. 
A Commandment to be Liberall and Charitable : and a 
promise of reward, which hereafter we shall find. The 
Commandment also containeth in it five points, touching 
the doctrine of Liberalitie. 

" 1. The dutie to be performed, Cast thy bread : be lib- 
erall to all. 

"■ 2. The manner of bestowing our almes, by casting it 
away. 

" 3. What is to be given, Bread ; all things needful!, yea, 
and of the best kind. 

" 4. Who may be liberall : even those that have it : Thy 
bread, it must be thine owne. 

" 5. To whom we must be liberall ; to all, yea, to the 
Waters. 

" First, we wil briefly speake of the five points of this 
Commandment as they lie in order ; and then directly come 
unto the Promise more particularly. The enjoyned dutie is 
Liberalitie, which sometimes is termed almes : sometimes is 
more largely used for all Kind of good workes, and very often 
is signified by the names of Charitie and Brotherly love," etc. 

On pp. 4 to 8, he continues his discourse on the first point, 
The Duty. 

On pp. 8 to 14, on the second point, " the manner." For 
this he lays down five rules : " First, that we give in faith ; " 
second, " in love ; " third, " bountifully and with a cheerfuU 
minde ; " fourth, " with discretion," and " the last rule of 
giving is, that we give in Justice." 

On pp. 14 to 17 he discourses on " thirdly what is to be 
given " . . . " according to the several necessities of those 




HENRY HOWARD 
l-ir-il Eur/ ol ,\'nrllium/<li>ii 



WHITAKER'S GOOD NEWS FROM VIRGINIA. 581 

that want. The wants of men bee divers; some are of 
the minde, some of the bodie, and some be of the outward 
goods." 

On pp. 17 to 19, on fourthly, " Who may properKe give 
almes, which may easilie be determined, if we consider the 
divers , kinds of good workes which wee have now lately 
rehearsed. For bee that is not able to bee liberall in one 
kinde may be fit for another." . . . 

" And remember the poore estate of the igno- [p. 18.] 
rant inhabitants of Virginia. Cast forth your 
almes (my brethren of England) and extend your liberality 
on these charitable workes, which God hath called you to 
performe. Let not the servants of superstition, 
that thinke to merit by their good workes (as [p. 19.] 
they terme them) goe beyond us in well doing ; 
neither let them be able to open their mouths against us, 
and to condemne the religion of oiir Protestation, for want 
of charitable deeds. 

" It may bee some men will say the worke is great, I am 
not able to reheve it ; I answer the work is such and such 
order is now taken, that those that cannot give much, may 
be liberall in a little. Those that cannot helpe in monies 
by reason of their poverty, may venture their persons hither, 
and heere not only serve God, but helpe also these poore 
Indians, and build a sure foundation for themselves, but if 
you can do neither of these, then send your earnest prayers 
to God for the prosperity of this worke." 

On pp. 19 to 28 he dwells on the fifth point, " To whome 
we are to bee liberall." Under this heading he says, on p. 
21 : " Wherfore, since God hath opened the doore of Vir- 
ginia, to our Countrey of England, we are to thinke that 
God hath, as it were, by word of mouth called us in, to 
bestow our severaU charity on them." He then goes on 
(pp. 21 to 28) to make an earnest appeal in behalf of the 
enterprise ; and the Apostle does not forget to send from 
Henrico, in Virginia, to the men of means in (pp. 24-28) 
England, a fervent prayer in behalf of the Indians, " the 



582 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

naked slaves of the divell." Mr. Neill, in his " Virginia 
Company of London," pp. 78-81, has made some extracts 
from Whitaker's discourse on the fifth point. 

Pages 28 to 44 he devotes to " the promise more partic- 
ularly " — " For after many days thou shalt find it." — He 
prepares the way with a scriptural discourse, and then makes 

his point : " Let then your liberall minds (you 
[p. 32.] honorable and charitable Adventurers of Virginia) 

be stirred up to cast your almes on the waters of 
Virginia, without hope of present profit. . . . The husband- 
man casting his seed into the earth, waiteth upon God untill 
Harvest for a fruitful crop. . . . God wiU not yet reward 
you, that he may make you more famous in the world. . . . 
The worke is honourable, and now more then ever, sustained 
by most honorable men. let us not then be weary of 
well-doing : f ortie yeares were expired, before Israel could 
plant in Canaan, and yet God had called them by the word 

of his mouth, had led them himself e by an high 
[p. 33.] hand. . . . Shall our Nation, hitherto famous for 

noble attempts, and the honorable finishing of 
what they have undertaken, be now taxed for inconstancie, 
and blamed by the enemies of our protestation, for unchari- 
tableness ? Yea, shall we be a scorne among Princes, and 
a laughing stocke among our neighbour Nations, for basely 
leaving what we honorably began; yea, for beginning a 
Discoverie, which riches other men shall gather, so soone as 
we have forsaken it ? Awake you true hearted Englishmen, 
you servants of Jesus Christ, remember that the Plantation 
is Gods, and the reward your countries." 

He then goes on to strengthen his position (pp. 34-35) 
with scriptural illustrations ; and then tells of the various 
rewards of faith, of love, " the [p. 36] meanes to helpe our 
soules forward in their passage to heaven," of good works, 
etc. 

" Thus shall the Lord abundantly reward our soules for 
our liberalitie, and many waies more besides if we bee truly 
charitable. But the bountie of God would have us to tast 



WHITAKER'S GOOD NEWS FEOM VIRGINIA. 583 

of some temporall blessings besides, and after a [p. 37.] 
few daies, if we be cheeref uU givers, returne a plen- 
tiful! reward home unto us. Wherefore that I might con- 
tent the longing minds of every man, I thought it fit in 
the last place to recite a few commodities which in short 
time we may finde here in Virginia, for the charitie bestowed 
in this Plantation. 

^ " The whole Continent of Virginia situate within the 
degrees of 34. and 47. is a place beautified by God, with all 
the ornaments of nature, and enriched with his earthly 
treasures : that part of it, which we already possesse, begin- 
ning at the Bay of Chesapheac, and stretching itselfe in 
Northerly latitude to the degrees of 39. and 40. is interlined 
with seven most goodly Rivers, the least whereof is equall 
to our River of Thames : " etc. He describes the location 
and convenience of these rivers, etc. 

" The River which we inhabit (commonly called [p. 38.] 
Powhatans River) ebbeth and floweth 140. miles 
into the maine; at the mouth whereof are the two Forts 
of Henrico and Charles : 42 miles upwards is the first and 
mother Christian towne seated, called James-Towne, and 70. 
miles beyond that upwards is the new towne of Henrico built, 
and so named in the memorie of the Noble Prince Henry 
of lasting and blessed memorie : ^ tenne miles beyond this 
Towne is a place called the Fals, because the River hath 
there a great descent falling downe betweene many mineral 
Rocks which bee there: twelve miles farther beyond this 
place there is a Christall Rocke wherewith the Indians doe 
head many of their arrowes: Three dayes journey from 
thence there is a rocke or stonie hill ^ found, which is in the 

I The Narration of the Present State ' The day's journey is indefinite. 

of that Countrey, and our Colonies there, The English, probably about fifteen 

mentioned on the published title-page miles, the Indian, much farther. This 

(see CCLVIII.) begins here and con- mine is said to have been found by a 

tinues to the end. Dutchman. The locality was in what 

^ Crashaw evidently revised this is now known as the eastern gold belt 

before publication, as Whitaker could of Virginia. We are again giving 

not have known of the death of Prince proper attention to our minerals in 

Henry when he wrote. Virginia. 



584 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

top covered all over with a perfect and most rich silver oare. 
Our men that went to discover those parts had but two iron 
pickaxes with them, and those so ill tempered that the 
points of them turned againe and bowed at every stroahe, 
so that wee could not search the entrailes of ye place, yet 
some triall was made of that oare with good successe, and 
argument of much hope. Sixe daies journey beyond this 
Mine a great ridge of high hils ^ doe runne along the maine 
land, not farre from whom the Indians report a great Sea 
doth runne, which we commonly call a South Sea, but in 
respect of our habitation is a West Sea, for there the sunne 
setteth from us. The higher ground is much like unto the 
molde of France, clay and sand being proportionably mixed 

together at the top ; but if we digge any depth (as 
[p. 39.] wee have done for our bricks) wee finde it to bee 

redde clay, full of glistering spangles. There bee 
many rockie places in all quarters ; and more than probable 
likehehoods of rich Mines of all sorts : though I knew all, yet 
it were not convenient at this time that I should utter all, 
neither have we had meanes to search for anything as wee 
ought, thorough present want of men, and former wants of 
provision for the belly. As for Iron, Steele, Antimbnium, 
and Terra sigillata, they have rather offered themselves to 
our eyes and hands, then bin sought for of us. The aire of 
the Countrey (especially about Henrico and upward) is very 
temperate and agreeth well with our bodies. The extremitie 
of Sommer is not so hot as Spaine, nor the colde of Winter 
so sharpe as the frosts of England. The Spring and Har- 
vest are the two longest seasons and most pleasant, the 
Summer and Winter are both but short : The Winter is for 
the most part drie and faire, but the Summer watered often 
with many great and suddaine shewers of raine ; whereby 
the cold of Winter is warmed, and the heate of Summer 
cooled. . . . 

1 The Appalachian system, in a miles ; but Whitaker's day's journey 

direct line, is about 100 miles from the probably applied to the devious route 

falls, westward — 12 miles -j- 3 days' of the Indians, 
journey -(- 6 days' journey = say, 150 



'WHITAKER'S GOOD NEWS FROM VIRGINIA. 585 

*' The naturall people of the Land are to be [p. 40.] 
feared of those that come upon them without defen- 
sive Armour, but otherwise faint-hearted (if they see their 
Arrowes cannot pearce) and easie to be subdued. Shirts of 
Male, or quilted cotton coates are the best defence against 
them. There is but one or two of their pettie Kings, that 
for feare of us have desired our friendship. . . . Our eldest 
friends bee Pipsco and Choapoke, who are our over thwart 
neighbors at James-Towne, and have been friendly to us in 
our great want. The other is the Werewance of Chescheak, 
who but lately traded with us peaceably. If we were once 
the masters of their Countrey, and they stood in feare of us 
(which might with few hands imployed about nothing else, 
be in short time brought to passe) it were an easie matter to 
make them willingly to forsake the divell, to embrace the 
faith of Jesus Christ, and to be baptized. Besides, you can- 
not easilie judge how much they would be availeable to us in 
our discoveries of the Countrey, in our buildings and plant- 
ings, and quiet provisions for ourselves, when we may peace 
ably passe from place to place without neede of armes or 
guarde. 

" The meanes for our people to live and subsist [p. 41.] 
here of themselves are many and most certaine 
both for Beasts, Birds, Fish and Hearbes. The beasts of 
the countrey are for the most part wilde : as Lions, Beares, 
Wolves and Deare : Foxes blacke and red, Rakowns, Be- 
vers, Possowns, Squerrels, Wilde-Cats, whose skinnes are of 
great price, and Muske-Rats which yeelde Muske as the 
Muske-Cats doe. There be two kindes of beasts amongst 
these most strange : one of them is the female Possown, 
which will let forth her young out of her bellie and take 
them up into her belhe againe at her pleasure without hurt 
to herselfe, neither think this to be a Travellers tale,^ but 

* Doubtless the people in England traits has created in Virginia a new 
heard many " a traveler's tale " from word, nearly allied to "a traveler's 
Virginia; but the "Possown" (opos- tale," namely, "possuming," t. e., de- 
sum) is a curious animal, one of whose ceiving. 



586 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

the very truth; for nature hath framed her fit for that 
Service, my eyes have been witnes unto it, and we have sent 
of them and their young ones into England. The other 
strange conditioned creature is the flying squirrell, which 
through the helpe of certaine broad flaps of skin growing on 
each side of her forelegs, will flie from tree to tree 20. or 30. 
paces at one flight and more, if we have the benefit of a 
small breath of winde. Besides these, since our coming 
hither, wee have brought both Kine, Goats and Hogges, 
which prosper well, and would multiplie exceedingly if they 
might be provided for. This countrey besides is replenished 
with birds of al sorts which have bin the best sustenance of 
flesh, which our men have had since they came ; also Eagels, 
and Hawkes of all sorts, amongst whom are Ausprech, fish- 
ing Hawke, and the Cormorant. The woods be every where 

ful of wilde Turkies which abound, and will runne 
[p. 42.] as swift as a Grey-hound. In Winter our fields be 

full of Cranes, Herons, Pigeons, Partridges and 
Blackbirds : the rivers and creekes bee over spread every- 
where with water-foule of the greatest and least sort, as 
Swans, flocks of Geese & Brants, Duck and Mallard, Shel- 
drakes, Dyvers, &c. besides many other kinds of rare and 
delectable birds, whose names and natures I cannot yet 
recite, but we want the means to take them. The Rivers 
abound with Fish both small and great : the sea Fish come 
into our Rivers in March and continue untill the end of 
September : great seniles of Herings come in first : shads of 
a great bignesse, and the Rock-fish follow them. Trouts, 
Base, Flounders, and other daintie fish come in before the 
others be gone : then come multitudes of great sturgeons, 
whereof we catch many, and should do more ; but that we 
want good nets answerable to the breadth and deapth of our 
Rivers : besides our channels are so foule in the bottom -with 
great logs and trees, that we often break our nets upon 
them : I cannot reckon nor give proper names to the divers 
kinds of fresh fish in our rivers ; I have caught with mine 
angle, Pike, Carpe, Eele, Perches of sixe severall kindes, 



WHITAKER'S GOOD NEWS FROM VIRGINIA. 587 

Crea-fish and the Torope or little Turtle, besides many 
smaller kinds. Wherefore, since God hath filled the ele- 
ments of the earth, aire and waters with his creatures, good 
for our food and nourishment, let not the feare of starving 
hereafter, or any great want, dishearten your valiant minds 
from comming to a place of so great plentie : if the Countrey 
were ours, and meanes for the taking of them 
(which shortly I hope shall bee brought to passe.) [p. 43.] 
then all these shall be ours : we have them now, 
but we are fain to fight for them, then should we have them 
without that trouble. . . . 

"But these are not all the commodities which we may 
finde heere : for the earth will yeelde much more fruit to 
our industrial labours, as hath been proved by the Corne and 
other things which wee have planted this last yeare. I have 
made proofe of it with the helpe of three more, being a 
stranger to that business and having not a bodie inured to 
such labour, and set so much corne horis succisinis unius 
septimance, in the idle howers of one weeke, as will suffice 
me for bread one quarter of a yeare : and one commoditie 
is besides in this corne, that from the time of setting, unto 
the time of gathering, five moneths will abundantly suffice : 
for we set corne from the beginninge of March, until the 
end of May, and reape or gather in JuHe, August & Sep- 
tember. Our English seeds thrive very well heere, as Peas, 
Onions, Turnips, Cabbages, Coleflowers, Garrets, Time, 
Parseley, Hysop, Marjoram, and many other whereof I have 
tasted and eaten. 

" What should I name unto you the divers sorts of trees, 
sweete woods and Physicall plants: the divers kind of 
Oakes and Walnut trees. The Pines, Pitch-Trees, Soape- 
ashes trees, Sassafras, Cedar, Ash, Maple, Cypress, 
and many more which I dailie see and admire at [p. 44.] 
the beautie and riches which God hath bestowed, 
upon this people, that yet know not how to use them. 

" Wherefore you (right wise and noble Adventurers of 
Virginia) whose hearts God hath stirred up to build him a 



588 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614 

Temple, to make him an house, to conquer a Kingdome for 
him heere : be not discouraged with those many lamentable 
assaults that the divell hath made against us : he now 
rageth most, because he knoweth this Kingdome is to have 
a short end. Goe forward boldly, and remember that you 
fight under the banner of Jesus Christ, that you plant his 
Kingdome, who hath already broken the Serpents head : 
God may deferre his temporall reward for a season, but be 
assured that in the end you shall find riches and honour in 
this world, and blessed immortality in the world to come. 
And you my brethren, my fellow labourers, send up your 
earnest prayers to God for his church in Virginia, that since 
his harvest heere is great, but the labourers few, hee would 
thrust forth labourers into his harvest ; and pray also for 
me that the ministration of his GospeU may be powerfuU 
and effectuall by me to the salvation of many, and advance- 
ment of the Kingdome of Jesus Christ to whom with the 
Father and the holy Spirit, bee all honour and glorie for 
evermore. Amen." 

CCXXXI. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

September 13, 1612. Madrid. Digby to James I. 

..." It is here held for certayne that this King will 
not permit Our plantation at Virginea, and the Bermudas, 
in so much that it is here publiquely and avowedly spoken 
in the Court, that they will shortly attempt the removing of 
them. And I have Letters from some in the Fleete with 
Don luys de Fajardo, who is now at Cales ready to put to 
sea, that so soone as he hath conducted home the West 
Indian Fleet, he shall goe to the Havana and winter there ; 
and from thence in the beginning of the Spring shall 
attempt Verginea. But therunto I give not much credit, 
for that I am informed here from good part, that there 
hath beene of late, a consultation and almost a resolution 
taken, that one Don Diego Brochero, now of the Councell 
of Warre, and a greate Commander at Sea, shall have the 



NORTHAMPTON TO JAMES I. 589 

conducting of this enterprise, and that he shall goe from 
Portugall, where this King's Navie is commanded to meete, 
under CuUor and pretence of the King's remayning at Lis- 
bone. But of these things I shall use aU the dilligence I 
may, to attayne unto the truthe." 



CCXXXII. NORTHAMPTON TO JAMES I. 

The whole letter is published in "The Magazine of 
American History," vol. viii. pp. 505-507 (1882). It was 
evidently written after the return of the Plough from the 
Bermudas early in September, 1612, probably on Sunday, 
September 14. 

" Henry Earl of Northampton to the Kinges (Jame I.) 
sacred and Royall Maiesty. 

" From Greenwich, Sunday at xii. 

"Most excellent, most gratiouse, most redoubted and 
deer soveraine." [Sends three advertisements, which re- 
mind him of the roses, violets, and gilly flowers he used to 
send to his Majesty from thence. The first concerns the 
archduke; the second, the Muscovy Company, who have 
prospered strangely, got within nine degrees of the pole, 
saw 700 whales, and brought home seventeen ; the third ;] 
" Another companie are in like sorte advertised of the safe 
arrivall of their shippes in the Bermudos upon which Hand 
the Spaniardes affrighted and dismaied with the frequencie 
of Hurricanes which they ever meete about that place durst 
not adventur but calle it Dcemoniorum insulam. But from 
this Hand of Devilles our men have sent some amber and 
some seede perles for an assaie which the DeviUes of the 
Bermudos love not better to retaine then the Angeles of 
Castile doo to recover. The place aboundes in swine in 
f owle and fishe, which moves our men to growe more con- 
fident in the safe possessione of a place which they have 
possessed so peaceably." [Wonders the people who thrive 
so well under his Majesty are not more thankful to him. 



590 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULy, 1614. 

etc.] " I humbly and affectionately Kisse your M"* faire 
hande and prayinge for youi preservation as for my sowle 
live and die. 

" Your M*'^ most affectionat humble and loyaU servant 
and subject till death. 

"H. Northampton." 

CCXXXni. DIGBY TO CAELETON. 

September 22. " Sir John Digby to S' Dudley Carleton. 
. . . There is nothing so generally spoaken of in this Courte 
as their intent to remove Our plantation in Virginia. And 
for myne ovrae parte, I am of beliefe, that the Spaniards 
will serve us, as thei did the Frenchmen in Florida, unles 
wee undertake ye business much more throughly and 
roundely, then hitherto wee have donne. But heereof, 
thei have had sufficient warning in England." 



CCXXXIV. FROM GROCERS' RECORDS. 

As CCXXXIV., CCXXXV., and CCXXXVI. relate to 
" the same Salt," I have placed them together, regardless of 
their dates. 

Court of Assistants, Grocers' Company. 
" Die Martis xxix die Septembris 1612. 
" Present : — M' Giles Parslowe, M' William Millett, M' 
Roger Gwyn, Wardens. 
M' John Newman, M' Rich'^ Denman, ") 
" Robert Cocks, « Robert Morer, K. Assistants. 

" W" Pennyfather " Laurence Greene, J 
" W" Barrett, " Robert Johnson, 1 

" Cha' Glascock, " John Farmer, 
" Edw^ Jennings, " Arthur Blakemore, [J^^ery. 
" George Scott, " Jeffrey Kirby, 

" Thomas Foxall, " John "West, Junior. 

" To day M' Wardens made knowen to their Brethren as 




THOMAS HOWARD 
I'lr-il F.idI /V SiilTolk 



FROM GROCEKS' RECORDS. 591 

well of the Assistants as Livery of this Company here pre- 
sente in the Hall, of the some of thirteene pounds and ten 
shilhngs that was due to the Companye for theyr adventure 
in the late Lottery made for the plantacon in Virginia. In 
which Lottery was putt of the Companyes Comen Goodes 
of this house Lxij" x° and asked theyr opinions whether M' 
Wardens should accept of the said xiij" x" soe due unto 
them and to abate after x" per cent, or to accept of a faire 
rounde Salt with a cover of Silver all gilt poiz 44"" ^ 1* at 
6' 7* per oz amounting to the some xiiij" xix' vi"*. 

" The which Salt they all agreed that Mr. Wardens should 
accept both in respect it would not be so much losse to the 
Company as to take the xiij" x' with the sayd abatement, 
and alsoe in regard this Company want Salts, and alsoe that 
M" Wardens shall paye the overplus being xxix^ vi*^ of the 
Comen Goodes of this House in full discharge for the same 
Salt." 

CCXXXV. FROM GROCERS' RECORDS. 

Court of Assistants, Grocers' Company. 
"Curia Assisten. tent die veneris xviij die Decembris 
1612. 10. James. 

" Present : — Sir Stephen Soame and Sir Thomas Middle- 
ton. EV 

« M' Nicholas Stile, M' George BoUes and M' Kichard 
Pyott, Aldermen. 

" M' Giles Parslowe, M"^ William Millett and M"^ Eoger 
Gwyn. Wardens. 

W George Holman, M" John Newman, 

" Kobert Cocks, " Humfrey Walcott, 

" Richard Burrell, " Wm. Dale, 

" Eichard Aldworth, " Robert Bowyer, 

" Eichard Cox, " Robert Morer, 

" Anthony Soday, " Thomas Longston, 

" Thomas Westrowe, " Laurence Greene, 

" Richard Bourne, " Danyel Wynche. 

" To day Mr. Wardens acknowledges the receipt of one 



^xxix° vi^. 



592 PEKIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

faire rounde Salt and Cover all of silver guilt weighing 
xliiij oz one quarter of an oz and a pennyweight to the use 
of this Company — which this company hath in regard of 
xiij" x' happening to them in the late Lottery made for 
plantacon in Virginia upon their adventure or putting in 
Ixij " x' and for xxix" vi'^ more payd by M'' Wardens for the 
same praying allowance thereof whereof this court allowed 
accordingly." 

CCXXXVI. FROM GROCERS' RECORD. 

From Wardens' Account under " Casual payments/' July 

20, 1612, to July, 1613. 

" Item paid to Clement Fryer the some of xxix^ 
vi'* which was added to the xiij" x' happen- 
ing to this Companye for Lxij" x^ adventured 
in y® late Lotterye for plantacon in Virginia 
to by a Silver and gilt Salt for this Company 
as by order of Courte made the xviij*"" day of 
December 1612 as ^ acquittance may ap- 
peare." 

CCXXXVII. DIGBY TO CARLETON. 

October 10, 1612. Madrid. Digbye to Carleton. 

. . . " Others say, that these forces united in Portugal, shall 
under the commaunde of Don Diego Brochero attempte 
the removing of our plantation in Virginia. ... I have 
lately received advertisement from Lisborne, that there ar- 
rived there a shipp, which coming from the Havana bring- 
ethe worde. That there were diverse soldiers there bothe of 
those parties and others, which this laste Spring were sente 
from hence out of Andalusia, which were ready to goe to 
attempte Virginia. And that to this ende all shipps that 
for some monthes before had arrived there were imbargued. 
Since, there is newes come from SevUl, that the Spaniards 
have overthrowen our men in Virginia. To which though 
I give little beliefe, yet I thought fitt to sende unto ye 



DIGBY TO JAMES I. 593 

Secretarye of State to give him notice of what I heard, 
Hee sent me worde, I might fully assure myselfe, that there 
was no suche thing hitherto to their knowledge. But that 
yt was true indeede, that the King of Spaines people were 
muche discontent and muttered, that ye plantation was per- 
mitted. And that yt had beene likewise handled in the 
Councell of State heere ; and that this helde yt very unfitt, 
that a Companie of Voluntarye and loose people (as hee 
tearmed them) without the commaunde or interposition of 
their King, should goe forward with that which mighte in 
tyme prove of so muche inconvenience to the King of 
Spaine." 

CCXXXVIII. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME £571, FOLIO S£8. 

Copy of a deciphered letter of H. M. to Don Alonso de 
Velasco, dated Valladolid, November 3, 1612. 
" Your letters of June IS"* [CCXIII.] informed me of the 
martyrdom which two priests underwent there — also of 
what you state concerning the affairs of Savoy — and of 
the post which it was proposed to take in the Bermuda, 
so as to encourage the colonisation of Virginia — and I 
thank you much for the zeal which you show in keeping me 
informed of what is going on — and I charge you to con- 
tinue, so that here may be done whatever may appear to be 
necessary." , . . 

[Mem. — November 5. The prayers of the church for 
Prince Henry. November 6. Henry of Wales, the patron 
of Virginia, died.] 

CCXXXIX. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

November 12, 1612. Madrid. Digbye to James I. 
... "I got a view of his (Don Pedro de Cunega) dispatch. 
The chief matters were . . . That there was no cause to 



594 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

apprehend so much danger in Virginea as they did in Spaine, 
there being only as he certaynly learned, five hundred men, 
who had of late suffered great extremitie and miserie, and 
that the first undertakers were growne so weary of supply- 
ing the charge, that they were faine to make a generall 
kynde of begging (for so he tearmed it) by the way of a 
Lottery for the furnishing out of those shipps and men 
which were now sent ; so that he judged it not fit to make 
any kynde of mention thereof unto your Majestic, both for 
that he held it not unlikely that the Business might sinke 
of itselfe, since it was maynteyned but by these shifts, 
which could last but for a yeare or two, and likewise for 
that he was certeynly informed, that yf he should propound 
the having of the plantation revoked, it would in no kynde 
be condiscended unto." 

[Mem. — The 25th day of November, 1612, the Virginia 
Company of London sold the Somer Islands, " for .£2.000 of 
lawfuU Enghsh money," to " Sir William Wade, Sir Dudley 
Diggs, Sir Baptist Hicks knights, Richarde Martin of the 
Middle Temple, London Esquier, John Wolstenholme, Es- 
quier, Richard Chamberlaine, Robte Offley, Robte Johnson, 
Jerome Heydon, George Scott and George Barkeley of Lon- 
don, Merchants."] 

CCXL. CHAPMAN'S AN EPICEDE. 

By George Chapman. 

" An Epicede, or funerall Song, on the most disastrous 
death of the high borne. Prince of Men, Henry Prince of 
Wales, with the Funerals and representation of the Herse of 
the same high and mighty Prince ; Prince of Wales, Duke 
of Cornwaile, and Rothsay, Count Palatine of Chester, Earle 
of Caricke, and late Knight of the most noble order of the 
Garter. Which noble Prince deceased at St. James, the 
sixt day of November, 1612, and was most princely in- 
terred the seventh day of December, following within the 



EXTRACT FROM THE FRENCH MERCURY. 



595 



Abbey of Westminster, in the eighteenth yere of his age. 
London, printed by T. S. for John Budge, and are to bee 
sould at his shop at the great south dore of Paules, and at 
Brittaines bursse, 1612." " With a large folding plate of 
the Hearse and Representation of the Prince by Wm. 
Hole." . . . Extract. 

[Fever is impersonated instilUng her venom into the 
prince, and the poet exclaims :] 

" Was there a sight so pale, and desperate 
Ever before seene, in a thrust-through state ? 
The poore Virginian, miserable sayle 
A long-long-Night turn'd Day, that lived in Hell 
Never so pourtrayed, where the Billowes strove 
(Blackt like so many Devils) which should prove 
The dammed Victor, all their furies heighting : 
Their Drum the thunder : and their colours lightning: 
To drown the waves in noyse : the other spending 
His Hel-hot sulphurous flames to drink them dry : 
When heaven was lost, when not a teare wracked eye 
Could tell in all that dead time, if they were 
Sincking or sayling : till a quickening chere 
Gave light to save them by the ruth of Rocks 
At the Bermudas : where the tearing shocks 
And all the miseries before, more felt 
Than here half e told : all, all this did not melt 
Those desperate few, stiU dying more in tears 
Then this Death, all men, to the marrow weares, 
All that are men." . . . 



"Description 
of the tem- 
pest that 
east Sir Th. 
Gates on the 
Bermudas 
and the State 
of his ship 
and men to 
this King- 
domes plight 
applyed in 
the 

Princes 
Death." 



CCXLI. EXTRACT FROM THE FRENCH MERCURY. 

EXTRACT FROM THE MERCURE FRANCOIS, VOLUME III., 1613 
TO 1615, PAGE 179. 

Translation. " The English in their voyages to Vir- 
ginia were badly treated by the Spaniards : for having 
■wished to settle an Island near Virginia and having com- 
menced to fortify themselves there, the Spaniards, who did 
not want neighbours for the West Indies, went with sev- 
eral ships of war to attack them and to bombard them so 
vigorously that entering the Island, they (the Spaniards) 



596 PERIOD III. NOVEMBEE, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

put to the edge of the sword all the English. This being 
reported to the King of Great Britain, and that the English 
Colony in Virginia is becoming enfeedled, he sent thither a 
new Governor with men of war, munitions and two hundred 
women with as many daughters to re-enforce this Colony." 



CCXLII. AND CCXLIII. SMITH'S MAP OP VIRGINIA. 

A map of Virginia (CCXLII.) " Discovered and Discribed 
by Captayn John Smith, graven by William Hole." 

I do not know exactly when this map was engraved ; but 
as it is mentioned (in CCXXVI.) as then " printed," it was 
probably engraved prior to August 7, or quite certainly be- 
fore November 5, 1612. 

The various editions of this map are discussed by Mr. 
James Lenox and Mr, Charles Deane, in " The Curiosities 
of American Literature," — " Norton's Literary Gazette," 
March 15 and May 18, 1854. 

It was a part of " The Oxford Tract" (CCXLIV.), and was 
evidently published under the same auspices, without the 
authority of the Virginia Council. When Smith was presi- 
dent in Virginia copies of the surveys must have come into 
his hands, and he probably furnished William Hole with the 
drawing from which the engraving was made ; but I do not 
believe that Smith made the drawing himself. He does not 
always claim to have done so. In CCCLV. he alludes to 
CCXLIV. and CCXLII. as the " Booke and Map printed 
in my name." It seems to me certain that this map was 
engraved from a copy of the Virginia part of CLVIII. Cor- 
rect maps must be alike ; but when one inaccurate map fol- 
lows so closely another, as in this case, it furnishes quite 
conclusive proof that the latter was copied from the former. 
As a further evidence that Smith did not make the draw- 
ing for the map (CCXLII.), it may be noted that the dis- 
tances given in the text of his work do not always corre- 
spond with the distances on the map. I have found no real 
evidence that Smith could draw a map. In 1618, "to 




lf f-i,... h. _. =, 



Smith's Map of Virginia. 



CCXLIII 

Coionial Papers, Vol. I, No. 42,-11. 
' A description of the land of Virginia." 



k,._ 





4« 



^1^ 
^1^ 

X'^^ 



0^ /^-^yn^d-iij^ c^'%9i^i^ i'o-i^ 



o 







JV--,— ^^ 



3 £i7?^^ ^ ^v^vW ;tmi,J ^jy>fw>f'='^ 









4 ^ '^'M^/ 4^ T^?^y?J 



o 



fC' 



.'...' 






,;::'>>V'" 



">:• 







9- 
10. 

II. 
12. 
13- 



Translations of the Old Script Legends, 

Here is 3 fathom of water. 

Secotan. 

This goeth to a great town called Nepoke. 

This to Warrea. 

Pomaioke. 

Fresh water with great store of fish. 

Here were great store of great red grapes. Very pleasant. 

The grass that beareth the silk groweth here plentifully. 

Ye Kings ill. 

The gallis art found here. 

Wococan. 

Here groweth je rind that dieth red. 

The Port of Saynt Maris, where we arrived first. 

The figures r, 2, j, etc., are not on the original dravjing. 



"THE OXFORD TRACTS." 597 

show the difference betwixt Virginia and New England," 
Smith sent Lord Bacon " maps of them both." The map 
of New England is missing ; I give the map of Virginia 
(CCXLIII.). I believe it to be an illustration of Smith's 
capacity as a draughtsman as it is probably an attempt by 
Smith to copy from some drawing of our present North 
Carolina coast. 



CCXLIV. AND CCLV. "THE OXFORD TRACTS." 

CCLIV. and CCXLV. were published at Oxford some 
time between the 5th of November, 1612, and 25th March, 
1613. The exact date is not known. Smith had evidently 
secured the sympathy and interest of certain clergymen and 
ladies in England, who thought that he deserved more credit 
than he had received from the managers of the Virginia 
enterprise ; and as this was the most trying time in the 
history of the colony, there were very many disappointed 
adventurers in sympathy with fault-finders. CCXLIV. is 
chiefly descriptive, and need not be reviewed at length. 
The avowed object of CCXLV. was to "give satisfaction 
to all indifferent readers, how the businesse hath beene 
carried," and " howe it came to passe there was no better 
speed and successe in those proceedings." It is a eulogy of 
Smith. It is a partisan criticism of the management of the 
enterprise ; it attempts to prove that the troubles which 
happened while Smith was in Virginia could not have been 
prevented, and that the troubles which had happened since 
he left, had happened because he was not there to prevent 
them. The Stationers' Company of London was a member 
of the Virginia Company, and it was evidently against their 
interest to license the publication of such tracts and maps 
as these (CCXLIL, CCXLIV., and CCXLV.) at that time, 
and we are probably indebted to the sympathy of Crashaw, 
Symonds, and Purchas for having them printed by the cler- 
ical press at Oxford. If so, the sympathy of these clergy- 
men may speak well for their hearts ; but their judgment in 
this matter was certainly at fault. 



598 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

I have carefully collated CCXLV. with the same as pub- 
lished by Smith in his " General History," and as pubKshed 
by Purchas in his '' Pilgrimes," and also with all the other 
evidences which I have found in the premises ; and without 
doubt the narrative is inaccurate and unjust. The summing 
up of the case on the title-pages and in the prefaces is very 
strong, and of course the evidence is also, if we accept it 
(as has been done sometimes) without question ; but a cross- 
examination will reveal its inaccuracy and injustice, and 
sustain the judgment of the managers of the enterprise. 
For instance, we are lead to believe that the tract was a dis- 
interested compilation by Richard Pots; but as Pots was 
clerk to Smith while in Virginia, their interests were probably 
identical. We are assured that the authors were many and 
that their " particular discourses are signed by their names ; " 
yet the discourse relating to events between September, 
1607, and January, 1608 (where we are told that Smith pre- 
vented the abandonment of the colony three times, and did 
other wonderful things), is signed by Thomas Studley, alone, 
who had died August 28, 1607, before any of these won- 
derful things happened. Of course Studley's death is not 
mentioned in the tract, and he is again used as a witness 
for events as late as June, 1608. Another leading witness 
was Ananias Todkill, who had been a servant to Captain 
John Martin, and evidently bore Martin malice ; but enough. 
CCXLV. is embraced in the fourth book of Smith's " Gen- 
eral History," where it is somewhat altered and enlarged. 
It is partisan evidence. It was against the interest of the 
managers of the enterprise, and of the enterprise itself, that 
aifairs should be made public at this time, and this is the 
only publication of the period which pretends to give a 
detailed account of events in Virginia, during the time that 
Smith was there. The managers had the correct accounts. 
This account is not correct ; but the public had no other. 
As to the witnesses to this tract then in England, it must 
be remembered that many of those sent to Virginia by the 
company had been guilty of a breach of trust by returning 



"THE OXFORD TRACTS." 599 

to England, and that the company had no adequate law for 
protection in these premises, until after the passage of the 
fifteenth article of the third charter. The enterprise was 
then going through the crucial test, which " enterprizes of 
this nature, especially in the Infancie thereof, are subject 
unto " (Kimbolton MSS. No. 344), and doubtless there were 
many swift witnesses in England among those referred to in 
the fourteenth article of the third charter (CCIII.). 

Although we cannot rely on this tract when it is relating 
the acts of Smith or criticising the acts of others, it is evi- 
dently more trustworthy than the same account as given in 
the " General History." It is curious to note how Smith 
continually alters it to his own advantage in the latter work. 
I wUl give a single illustration. It is a subject of illustra- 
tion in Smith's History. 

The account of how " Smith taketh the King of Paspa- 
heigh prisoner." 

From CCXLV. — " long they ^ struggled in the water, 
from whence the King perceiving two of the Poles^ upon 
the sandes would have fled ; hut the President held him 
hy his haire and throat till the Poles came in ; then see- 
ing howe pittifuUy the poore Salvage begged his life, they 
conducted him prisoner to the fort" 

From Smith's History. — "long they struggled in the 
water, till the President got such a hold on his throat, he 
neare strangled the King ; hut having drawn his faucheon 
to cut off his head seeing howe pittifuUy he begged his hfe, 
he led him prisoner to Jamestowne and put him in 
chaynes." 

The following is the title-page of CCXLIV. : — 
" A Map of Virginia, with a description of the Countrey, 
The Commodities, People, Government and EeKgion. Writ- 
ten by Captaine Smith, sometimes Governour of the Countrey. 

1 The president, Captain John Smith, Smith's life, as Newport had done ; 

and the Indian king. but they get neither acknowledgment 

^ Evidently the Poles aided in mak- nor thanks in Smith's History ; nor do 

ing the capture, and probably saved they appear in the picture. 



600 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

" Whereunto is annexed The proceedings of those Colo- 
nies, [CCXLV.] since their first departure from England, 
with the discourses, orations, and relations of the Salvages, 
and the accidents that befell them in aU their Journies and 
discoveries. 

" Taken faithfully as they were written out of the writ- 
ings of 

Doctor RusseU. Richard Wifiin. 

Tho. Studley. Will. Phettiplace. 

Anas Todkill. Nathaniel Powell. 

JefEra Abot. Richard Pots. 

And the relations of divers other diligent observers there 
present then, and now many of them in England, 

"By W. S. 

" At Oxford, Printed by Joseph Barnes. 1612." 

The larger part of this title really refers to CCXLV. 
CCXLIV. was, as stated, a description of the country, etc., 
accompanied with Smith's map (CCXLII.) which had been 
previously engraved. 

These two tracts and the map belong together. Origi- 
nals are various priced, as to condition, etc. Mr. Quaritch 
priced a complete and perfect set in 1885 at $650. Origi- 
nals are preserved in this country in the following libraries : 
Charles Deane, of Cambridge, Mass. ; of Congress, at Wash- 
ington ; John Carter-Brown, Providence, R. I. ; Mr. Kalb- 
fleiseh, and The Lenox, New York. 

CCXLIV. was again printed nearly as in the original in 
the second book of Smith's " History of Virginia," and in 
this shape is reprinted in Rice's reprint of Smith's works, 
Richmond, Virginia, 1819. The next, CCXLV., has been 
reprinted in England (by Mr. Arber) but not in America, I 
believe, except as it is in his " General History." It con- 
tains about 27,000 words. As in his " General History " 
(Smith having erased about 3,000 words and then added 
about 16,000 words) the tract contains about 40,000 words. 



BIONDI TO CARLETON. gQl 

The following is the title-page of CCXLV. : • — ■ 
" The Proceedings of The English Colonie in Virginia 
since their first beginning from England in the yeare of 
our Lord 1606, till this present 1612, -with all their acci- 
dents that befell them in their Journies and Discoveries. 
Also the Salvages discourses, orations and relations of the 
Bordering neighbours, and how they became subject to the 
English. Unfolding even the fundamental! causes from 
whence have sprung so many miseries to the under-takers, 
and scandals to the businesse : taken faithfully as they 
were written out of the writings of Thomas Studley the 
first provant maister. Anas Todkill, Walter Russell Doctor 
of Phisicke, Nathaniell Powell, William Phettyplace, Eich- 
ard Wyffin, Thomas Abbay, Tho. Hope, Rich: Pots and 
the labours of divers other diligent observers, that were 
resident in Virginia. And perused and confirmed by 
diverse now resident in England that were actors in this 
busines. By W. S. At Oxford, printed by Joseph Barnes. 
1612." 

CCXLIV. is dedicated " To the Hand," and the dedica- 
tion is signed " T. A." CCXLV. has an introductory 
address " To The Reader," signed " T. Abbay." Of course 
I cannot be perfectly sure, but it does seem to me that this 
dedication and address was written by the same hand, 
whosesoever it was, that wrote all of the works known as 
Captain John Smith's. 

CCXLVI. BIONDI TO CARLETON. 

January 7, 1613. London. Giov. Franc. Biondi to 
Carleton. 

..." Much talk about a Spanish Armada which is gath- 
ering; some say it is for Virginia; some for England; 
some for Ireland. The latter most probable, because of the 
intelligence of Spain with Ireland ; but the Hebrides Islands 
might afford a counterpoise." . . . 



602 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

[Mem. — CCLVII. mentions letters from Velasco of Jan- 
uary 22 and i, 1613, which I have not found.] 



CCXLVII. VELASCO TO PHILIP IIL 

GENERAL ABCHIVES OF 8IMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2590, FOLIO 92. 

Copy of an original letter of Don Alonso de Velasco to the 
King of Spain, dated London, January 25, 1613. 

" SiKB. — 

" The Embassador of the King here, who resides at 
your Court, has informed him, that Y. M. is fitting out a 
great fleet for this summer, with the intent to send the lar- 
ger part of it to dismantle the forts of Virginia and of Ber- 
muda. This report has been confirmed to them and thus 
they are now making ready five ships with fifteen hundred 
men, much ammunition and two engineers, to reinforce 
those posts, and they say, these vessels will sail towards the 
middle of March. They go with the understanding, that if 
those reports should continue, still larger forces would be 
sent, altho' they feel very confident, that Y. M's fleet wiU 
not be strong enough to drive them out from there. May 
Our Lord preserve Y. M. as is required by all Christendom. 

" London, January 25. 1613. 

"Don Alonso db Velasco." 

[Mbm. — About the last of January, 1613, the com- 
panies sent out two ships to the Bermudas, warning the 
colony there " to prepare with all expedition for their de- 
fence against the Spaniards, whom they understood ere 
long would visit them." These vessels were sent "the 
speedier, by reason of some distrusts they tooke of the 
Spaniards soudaine supplantinge of it in its birth (as not 
likely to endure patiently such a thorne in his West Indies 
sides)." One of these ships, the Ehzabeth, went on to Vir- 
ginia, reaching there May 14, 1613. The other went only 



PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 603 

to the Bermudas and returned to England prior to May 20, 
1613. SeeCCLXVIIL] 



CCXLVIII. EDMONDES TO JAMES I. 

January 26, 1613. Paris, France. Sir Thomas Ed- 
mondes ^ to James I. 

..." Though I make no doubt but that your Majestie 
is otherwise sufficiently advertised of that which passeth in 
Spayne ; nevertheless I holde it my duetie to make knowne 
unto your Majestie that manie advertisements which I have 
seene both out of Italie and from other partes, doe report, 
that the intent of the preparations which the King of 
Spayne maketh by Sea, is certainely to employe the same 
this Springe for the removing of our plantation in Vir- 
ginia." 

CCXLIX. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

QENEBAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANGA8. DEPABTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S67Z, FOLIO 3. 

Copy of a rough draft of a letter of H. M. to Don Alonso 

de Velasco, dated February 13, 1613. 

"In a letter dated December 14"' of the last year of 
1611 [CLXXXVIII.] you wrote me that the Ministers of 
Great Britain had repUed to you, that they would order the 
three prisoners of ours to be brought to London, whom 
they held in Virginia, and that they would hand them over 
to you, whereupon we would restore to them the pilot who 
was taken from the English on the same occasion — and 
because this man has already been brought to this court, I 
charge and command you to complete the exchange of 
aforesaid prisoners, asking that our men be handed over to 
you and assuring said King or his ministers that the pilot, 
for whom they ask, wiU be given up here to their ambassa- 
dor, or to any one they may select — and you will promptly 
inform me of what may be done in this matter." 

1 The English ambassador to France. 



604 PEEIOD in. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 



CCL. THE MASK AT WHITE HALL. 

" The Memorable Maske of the two Honorable Houses 
or Inns of Court ; The Middle Temple and Lyncoln's Inne, 
as it was performed before the King, at White-Hall on 
Shrove Munday at night ; being the IS*"* of February 1613. 
At the Princely celebration of the most Koyall Nuptialls of 
the Palsgrave, and this thrice gratious Princesse Elizabeth. 
Invented and fashioned with the ground and speciall struc- 
ture of the whole worke, by our Kingdomes most ArtfuU 
and Ingenious Architect Innigo Jones. Supplied, Aplied, 
Digested and Written, by Geo. Chapman. London, 
Printed by G. Eld for George Norton, and are to be sould 
at his shoppe, neere Temple Bar." 

Howes says : " At the Mask of The Middle Temple and 
Lincolnes Inne came two chariots Triumphat, very pleasant 
and full of state, wherein rode the choyce musicians of this 
Kingdome in robes like to the Virginian priests, with sun- 
dry devises, all pleasant and significant, with two rankes of 
Torches," etc. 

Mr. Neill, in his " Virginia Company of London " (pp. 
61, 62), quoting from " Nichols's Progresses, etc., of King 
James," says : " The chief maskers were in Indian habits, 
with high spriged feathers on their heads, their vezirds of 
olive coUour, hayre black and lardge waving downe to their 
shoulders." The musicians were attired like Virginian 
priests, who were supposed to adore the sun, and therefore 
called Phoebades. On the stage was the representation of 
rocks and caves, and Plutus, god of riches, was a principal 
person in the play. The following speech is made by one 
named Capriccio : " With this dull deity Riches, a rich 
island lying in the South Sea called Poeana, being for 
strength and riches called the navill of that South Sea is by 
Earth's round motion moved near this Brittan shore, in 
which island being yet in command of the Virginian Conti- 
nent, a troupe of the noblest Virginians inhabiting at- 



THE MASK AT WHITE HALL. 605 

tended hither the God of Eiches all tryumphantly shming 
in a mine of gould. For hearing of the most royal solem- 
nity of these sacred nuptials, they crost the Ocean in their 
honour and are here arrived." 

In the course of the play Honor and Eunomia allude to 
the Virginian priests. 

Manor. " Plutus, the Princes of the Virgine land 
Whom I made crosse the Britain Ocean 
To this most famed ile of all the world 
To do due homage to the sacred nuptials 
Of Law and Vertue celebrated here 
By this howre of the holy eve, I know 
Are ready to perform the rights they owe." 

After the Virginian princes sing they are addressed by 

Eunomia. " Virginian Princes, ye must now renounce 
Your superstitious worship of the Sun, 
Subject to cloudy darknings and descents ; 
And of your sweet devotions turne the events 
To this our Britain Phoebus, whose bright skie 
Enlighted with a Christian piety 
Is never subject to black error's night. 
And hath already offer'd Heaven's true light 
To your darke region ; which acknowledge now 
Descend, and to him all your homage vow." 

Of this celebrated mask, in which the Virginian idea 
obtained so largely, John Chamberlain wrote to Mrs. Alice 
Carleton : " London, 18. Feby 1613. ... On Monday 
night, was the Middle Temple and Lincoln's Inn Masque 
prepared in the hall of Court, whereas the lords was in 
the banqueting room. It went from the Rolls, all up Fleet 
street and the Strand, and made such a gallant and glorious 
show, that it is highly commended. They had forty gentle- 
men of best choice out of both houses, and the twelve 
masquers, with their torch-bearers and pages, rode likewise 
upon horses exceedingly well trapped and furnished, besides 
a dozen little boys, dressed like baboons, that served for an 
anti-masque, and, they say, performed it exceedingly well 
when they came to it ; and three open chariots, drawn with 



606 PERIOD III. NOVEMBEE, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

four horses a piece, that carried their musicians and other 
personages that had parts to speak. All which, together 
with their trumpeters and other attendants, were so well set 
out, that it is generally held for the best show that hath 
been seen many a day. The King stood in the gallery to 
behold them, and made them ride about the Tilt Yard, and 
then they were received into St. James's Park, and so out, 
all along the galleries, into the hall, where themselves and 
their devices, which they say were excellent, made such a 
glittering show, that the King and all the company were 
exceedingly pleased, and especially with their dancing, which 
was beyond all that hath been seen yet. The King made 
the Masters kiss his hand on parting, and gave them many 
thanks, saying, he never saw so many proper men together, 
and himself accompanied them at the banquet, and took 
care it should be well ordered, and speaks much of them 
behind their backs, and strokes the Master of the rolls [Sir 
Edward Phillips] and Dick Martin, who were chief doers 
and under-takers." 

[Mem. — Frederick Prince Palatyne and the Lady Eliza- 
beth were married on Shrove-Sunday [Saint Valentine's 
day] the 14th of February, 1613, in his Majesty's Chapell 
Eoyall at White Hall, by the Right Reverend father in God, 
George, Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by James Mon- 
tague, Bishop of Bathe and Welles.] 

CCLI. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

February 18, 1613. Madrid. Digbye to James I. 

. . . " It is true that they do make ready their Fleet at 
Lisbone. . . . The only action which I conceave possible 
(and indeed something probable) for them to enter into, is 
to Essay the removing of the English from their Plantation 
in Verginea ; the which they here generally profess, touch- 
eth this King (both in Honor and likewise in prevention of 
the inconvenience, which the EngHsh setling there may pro- 



LETTER FROM LISBON. 607 

cure to their West Indies) not to permitt. And this verie 
day, they have clapped up into close prison Clarke the 
English Pilot, whome two yeares since they brought from 
Virginea, having formerly used him well, and permitted him 
his libertie, only being attended by a keeper. . . . 

" Yf they attempt anything against Vergitiea it will be 
the West Indian galleons from the Havana, in the island of 
Cuba, with the forces of those parts. I do meane presently 
to send downe a couple of fitt persons, whome I have pro- 
vided to enter themselves into this King's service in his 
Navie, who I hope wilbe able to attaine in some part, to the 
knowledge of their intents, and to advertise me from time 
to time, of such things as they shalbe able to learne." 



CCLII. LETTER FROM LISBON. 

February 11, 1613. " An abstract out of a letter written 
from Lisborne bearing date the 21. of februarye 1613. stilo 
novo. 

" Here is upon the suddaine comaundment geven for the 
preparinge thirteene sayle of shippinge to bee readye to sett 
sayle by the 25*"" of march next : — First they are to sayle 
imto Cadiz there to take in soldiers munition and victuals ; 
from thence it is divulged amongst the common sort that 
they are to goe unto the Bermudas there to inhabit, others 
say playnelye that they goe where the English shall pay 
for it, which is for Virginia, for that is the marke they 
shoote at, as theire owne proceedings doe manifest. For in 
theire entertainment they receive of all nations that will 
offer themselves to goe in this service : Almains, Italians, 
French and Irish ; but neyther English, Scottish nor Dutch 
will be permitted nor entertayned to goe in the voyadge. 
To such straungers as will come . . . there shall be geven 
9 months pay before hand.'" 



608 PERIOD in. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

CCLIII. A BROADSIDE BY THE COUNCIL. 

Written between February and May, 1613. It is No. 
135 in the " Catalogue of Broadsides " in the possession of 
the Society o£ Antiquaries of London, 1866. I know of no 
other copy. 

" By his Maiesties Councell for Virginia. 

"Whereas sundrie the adventurers to Virginia in their 
zeale to that memorable worke, the plantation of that coun- 
try with an EngUsh Colonie, for the establishing of the 
Gospell there, and the Honour of our King and Country, 
have pviblished a little standing Lotterie consisting but of 
12 pence for every Lot. And therein have proportioned 
to the adventurers more then the one halfe to be repayed in 
money, of f aire Prizes without any abatement, besides sundry 
other Welcomes and Rewards ; hoping that the inhabitants 
of this honourable citie adventuring even but small summes 
of money, would have soone supplied so little a summe 
appointed to so good a worke : Which wee did purpose to 
draw out in Candlemas Tearme last ; yet now seeing that the 
slow bringing in of their money hath crossed our intents, 
either because there was no certaine day nominated for the 
drawing thereof, or for some lewd aspertions that no good 
successe was likely to ensue to this action. 

" Wee doe therefore signifie, that a month past, We sent 
away a ship thither with her competent number of good men 
and munition, and doe purpose continually to supply them 
to the utmost of our meanes. The rather for that wee have 
information from them, that they are now able to subsist of 
themselves, and want only more able labouring men, and 
convenient clothing for them. 

" In consideration whereof, We do certifie all men, that 
we do purpose (God willing) to begin the drawing of this 
Lotterie the 10. day of May next. And that the last day 
of bringing in any money shall be the 3. day of the same 
moneth. Betwixt which times the books shall be brought 
in, and made up, and the Lots written out proportionable 
according to the moneys that shall come in. 



CHARTER GRANTED TO THE RUSSIA COMPANY. 609 

" Imprinted by Felix Kingston for WilKam Welby, dwell- 
ing at the Signe of the Swanne in Pauls Churchyard, 1613." 

CCLIV. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

March 5, 1613, Madrid. Digbye to James I. 

. . . " I am advertised from SeviU and Lisbone, that they 
use all possible diUigence for the making ready of the ship- 
ping and soldiers ... so that by the end of Aprill they in- 
tend certeynely to put to Sea. Those that I imploye send 
me word that they every day growe more to doubt, that 
there wilbe something attempted against the Plantation in 
Verginea, and they are strengthened in this their beleife, 
for that though they have so greate want of men, that they 
have made publique Proclamations, that whosoever will serve 
in this voyage shall receave nine monethes pay beforehand, 
yet they refuse to admitt of English, Scottish and Holland- 
ers, but not of Irish. But men of good judgement here in 
Court (and in whome I have reason to have some confidence) 
assure me that there is no such intent : But howsoever it 
wilbe requisite that those of Verginea live in a Continuall 
expectation of being assailed, for first or last, the Spaniards 
will certeynely attempt them, for therof they make already 
publique profession." 

CCLV. CHARTER GRANTED TO THE RUSSIA COMPANY. 

March 13, 1613. King James granted new letters 
patents to the Muscovy Company " enlarging their Priv- 
ileges." 

" As the Company had been at vast charges in fitting out 
great Numbers of ships for the discovery of New Countries, 
Isles &e. And had discovered several countries, the trade 
whereof, is of very great advantage to this Nation, viz ; 
Cherry Islands, Greenland, Nova Zembla, Davyes's Streights, 
Grooneland, Hudson's Bay, New foundland, the North of 
America : as will at large appear by the Journals kept by 



610 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

their commanders, in the said voyages, and registered in the 
High Court of Admiralty." — Strype. 

This charter excluded all others from the seal and whale 
fisheries of the northern ocean, Greenland, Spitzbergen, etc. 
This company was managed by nearly the same officers as 
the East India and Virginia companies. 

CCLVI. CHAMBERLAIN TO CAELETON. 

London, March (14-25?), 1613. 

..." The elder Taylor, that was in the Gate-house, hath 
found the means to escape, so that now they are both gone. 
The keeper is committed, and a Florentine that served the 
Lord Vaux, as suspected to be privy to his escape. For 
my part, I am not sorry to be rid of them ; for, though 
they were notorious rascals, yet I know not what we should 
have done with them. Yet it was in consultation to send 
them to Virginia ; but I see not to what purpose." . . . 

CCLVII. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME ^S7S, FOLIO 7. 

Copy of an extract from a letter of H. M. to Don Alonso 

de Velasco, dated Madrid, April 1, 1613. 

" There has been received what you say in your letters 
of January 22* and 23"^ as to the subject of the marriage 
of the Palatine — and as to the preparations made for Vir- 
ginia — and I am well pleased with the zeal which you 
show in keeping me informed of aU that comes to your 
knowledge — and I shall be still more so, if you succeed in 
finding out what really goes on so as to give me an account 
of it — and if you can find decent and secret means for it, 
I shall be glad for you to prevent that marriage. 



" 1 



1 The marriage had already taken King, bishop of London, wrote to 
place, at an earlier day, I take it, than Carleton : « The festivals have passed, 
expected. On February 27, John not without caution against some prac- 




RICHARD HUMBLE, EsQuiRt 



CRASHAW'S EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 611 

[Mem. — " James by his letters patent dated March 29, 
1613, in his eleventh year, incorporated the Irish Society, 
by the name of ' The Governor and Assistants of the New 
Plantation in Ulster, within the realm of Ireland.' ' A 
new county was thereby erected, which, uniting the old 
name of Derry with its new Masters, the Corporations and 
Companies of London, is now called London-Derry.' This 
new settlement was mapped and divided by the Irish So- 
ciety, as nearly as could be, into twelve equal parts ; and 
the twelve companies,^ who had equally contributed to the 
raising of the £60,000, drew lots for their several shares." — 
Herbert's " Hist, of the Twelve Livery Companies of Lon- 
don."] 

CCLVIII. CRASHAW'S EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

I do not know the exact date of pubhcation of CCXXIX., 
CCXXX., and CCLVIII., as it seems they were not entered 
for publication at Stationers' HaU ; but as CCLIX. was 
probably published in April, 1613, and as CCLVIII., which 
probably preceded it, was evidently printed after CCXLV. 
I suppose we may place their publication about February 
or March, 1613. I have already given Whitaker's letter 
(CCXXIX.) and extracts from his book (CCXXX.). They 
were pubhshed with the following title : — 

" Good Newes from Virginia. Sent to the Councell and 
Company of Virginia, resident in England. From Alex- 
ander Whitaker, The Minister of Henrico in Virginia. 
Wherein Also is a Narration of the present State of that 
country, and our Colonies there. Perused and published by 
direction from that counsell. And a Preface prefixed of 

tise so much prognosticated. The in the American enterprise ; but these 
King shows Ms people that he will companies, as corporate bodies, soon 
not be surprised sleeping. Rome transferred their interest in the far 
would be mistress of the Church, and distant Virginia plantations, and de- 
Spain of Nations." voted themselves to their lands in 

^ Very many merchants of London Ireland, nearer at hand. . 
as individuals continued their interest 



612 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

some matters touching that Plantation very requisite to be 
made knowne. At London. Imprinted by Eelix Kyngston 
for William Welby, and are to be sold at his shop in Paul's 
Churchyard at the signe of the Swanne. 1613." 

The " Preface prefixed " is really W. Crashaw's " Epistle 
Dedicatorie" (CCLVIIL). 

Originals, worth over $500 each, are preserved in the 
libraries of Congress, Carter-Brown, and Mr. Kalbfleisch. 

I have never seen a complete reprint. Some extracts are 
given by Mr. Neill in his " Virginia Company," and by 
Professor Tyler in his " History of American Literature." 

Crashaw had a wonderful command of language and used 
a great many words in expressing his ideas. His " Epistle 
Dedicatorie " contains over 7,000 words. I cannot give 
the whole of it ; but as it has never been printed in this 
country I will give enough of it to show its character, and 
then make some extracts from the remainder. 

I quote from the book as printed, noting the pages ex- 
tracted from. 

[p. ii.] " To The Right Honorable, My very Good Lord, 

Raph Lord Uere, Lord President of Wales : Con- 
tinuance and encrease of all Honor and happinesse, from 
Christ Jesus. 

"Right Honorable, amongst the many discouragements 
that have attended this glorious businesse of the Virginian 
plantation : none hath been so frequent, and so forcible, as 
the calumnies and slanders, raised upon our Colonies, and 
the Countrey it selfe. These being devised by the Divell 
and set abroach by idle and base companions, are blowen 
abroad by Papists, Players and such like, tiU they have 
filled the vulgar eares : And having once entred, then 
they run (like wilde fire) from man to man : for as wilde 
fire, hardly findes a house which is not matter combus- 
tible; so these idles tales hardly meete a man who gives 
not (passage at the least, if not) credit to them : where- 



CRASHAW'S EPISTLE DEDICATOEY. 613 

upon the Divell and his associates (of all sorts) [p. iii.] 
hold and practise this rule, as a sure Maxime, 
speake anything, some will beleeve it : be it never so 
false, some will entertaine it. Truth and Inno- caiumniare 
cencie shall never so wipe it off, hut some thing ^Ij^*^*!^®""' 
wiU stick behind. Our onely Comforts is (next ^^eret. 
to the assurance of God's acceptation of the worke) that men 
of honourable minds, and ingenuous dispositions, and aU 
that are godly-wise, will check and controule these idle and 
slanderous surmises, as they meet with them : and for their 
better assistance, encouragement and direction in so doing, 
our Counsell and Governours hold it needfuU to make 
knowne to the world, such relations and informations as we 
receive from thence, from men of judgement and experience, 
and of approved faithfulnesse and integritie. And there- 
fore though this ensuing Treatise (written by Master 
Whitaker, one of our Ministers in Virginia) was spoken 
there, and sent hither rather for the private use and en- 
couragement of such, whose purses heere, or persons there, 
were engaged in the action, then with any intent to make 
it publike : yet for the reasons aforesaid, it was held fit 
after mature consideration to divulge it, that so the naked 
and plaine truth, may give a just affront to the cunning and 
coloured falsehoods devised by the enemies of this Planta- 
tion. And because the man was once so well knowne to 
me (as he is still, and ever shall be beloved of me) I was 
desired by them, that may command mee, to peruse the 
originall itself e, and for that I had (as they probably thought) 
some knowledge of his hand, to consider whether 
truly or suspiciously it bore his name. And if [p. iv.] 
I found cause of the least suspicion, to reject it : 
but if, by true and infallible tokens, to be his hand, then 
to give some testimony to the world of a truth so evi- 
dent? 

" Two points therefore I perceive needfuU to bee made 
knowne, which I desire all men to take notice of, from mee, 
who have peculiar reason to know them both, so well, as 



614 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

few or no other can : first, who the Author is ; and then, 
The first whether this come undoubtedly from him or no. 
Ete7wMt- " The Author is Master Alexander Whitaher, 
akeristhat Preacher to the Colonic at Henrico, under the 

wrote this ' 

Treatise. government of the valorous and worthy Knight 
Sir Thomas Dale, with whom also he went: he was sonne 
to that reverend renowned Doctor Whitaker : a Master of 
Arts of five or six yeares standing in Cambridge ; was 
seated in the North-Countrey, where he was well approved 
by the greatest, and beloved of his people, and had com- 
petent allowance to his good liking, and was in a good pos- 
sibility of better Hving, as any of his time : he had also 
some meanes of his owne left him by his parents : all 
which notwithstanding, he meerely of himselfe, for ought I 
know, entertained a purpose of going to Virginia, to assist 
that Christian plantation in the function of a Preacher of 
the Gospell. And having after many distractions and com- 
bates with himselfe (as he told me) settled his resolution, 
that God called him thither, and therefore he would goe : 
He accordingly made it good notwithstanding the earnest, 
diswasions of many his nearest friends, and the great dis- 
couragements which he daily heard of, touch- 
[p. v.] ing the businesse and Countrey itseUe : and ar- 
rived there with Sir Thomas Dale, by a very 
speedy and safe passage (scarce of eight weekes long) in May 
1611. from whence he hath since then written many com- 
fortable letters, both to the Counsell and Committies, and 
his private friends : and of late (after he had beene there a 
yeare and more) hath sent us this little Treatise, which as I 
The Second ^^'^ assurcdly to come from him, and to be a 
point: That great part of it written, and all of it subscribed 
ediy his, and with his owue hand. So I dare say if he had 
his ownJ'* thought wcc would havc published it, he would 
^^^^ otherwise have adorned it: for I know (and so 

do others that know him) hee is able to have written it in 
Latine or ia Greeke, and so to have decked it both for 
phrase and stUe, and other ornaments of learning and Ian- 



CRASHAWS EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 615 

gnage, as might shew him no unworthye sonne of so wor- 
thy a father : And I dare say, i£ he live (be it in England 
or Virginia) he will in due time manifest to the world by 
true and good evidence, that God hath made him heire, as 
of divers of the holy vertues, so of a good part of the 
learning of his renowned father. And the more liberall am 
I in giving him his due, the further he is off mee, and by 
that meanes can be the lesse sensible of it. 

" Nor speake I this so much for his sake (though I love 
him above many, and know it above any other) whose owne 
deeds will sufficiently approve him. As for the truth which 
is so much suppressed, and that Christian plantation so 
much disparaged in this base world : for are they not so 
impudent as to say; who go thither but base 
and bankerupt persons, and who have no meanes [p. vi.] 
of their owne ? or else such as are perswaded and 
wrought upon to go ? And when they come there, are 
they not starved, and do they not die like dogges ? But 
how false this is in respect of the Countrey, the narration 
interlaced in this discourse from him that lives there, will 
declare : and how slanderous the other is to the persons, I 
shall in some sort make it appeare. 

" I therefore hereby let aU men know (and malice itselfe 
shall never disprove it) that a SchoUar, a Graduate, a 
Preacher, well borne, and friended in England, not in debt 
nor disgrace, but competently provided for, and liked, and 
beloved where he lived, not in want, (but for a schoUer, and 
as these days be) rich in possession, and more in possibilitie, 
of himselfe without any perswasion (but God.s, and his 
owne heart) did voluntarily leave his warme nest, and to 
the wonder of his kindred, and amazement of them that 
knew him, undertooke this hard, but in my Judgement, 
heroicall resolution to go to Virginia, and helpe to beare 
the name of God unto the Gentiles. Men may muse at it ; 
some may laugh, and others wonder at it. But will you 
know the reason? God will be glorified in his owne 
workes, and what he hath determined to do, hee will find 



616 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

meanes to bring to passe, for the perfecting therefore, of 
this blessed worke; he hath stirred up able and worthie 
men to undertake the manning and managing of it : Magis- 
tracie and Ministery are the strength and sinewes ; nay the 
very life and being of a Christian body politique. There- 
fore seeing without these aU emptying of purses heere, 
and ventering of persons thither, is to no pur- 
[p. vii.] pose. God in his wisdome provided, and in his 
mercie provoked, godly and able men to furnish 
both these functions : and such as might at home have 
lived in place of honour and command, or in fashion com- 
petent and convenient to their conditions. 

" And this, Eight Honorable, is one of the foure Argu- 
ments, and as it were plaine demonstrations, that have con- 
vinced mee to beleeve that assuredly God himselfe is the 
founder, and favourer of this Plantation. And I will crave 
leave of your Lordship to put them downe, because I am of 
minde, that the want either of knowledge, or consideration 
hereof, hath beene, and is the cause of the error and mis- 
prision of the world, touching this busines ; and do thinke 
that if men did ruminate, and advisedly consider of these 
particulars, they would reprove themselves for their former 
thoughts, and say plainly, Digitus Dei est hie. 

" 1. The marvellous and indeed miraculous deliverance 
of our worthy Governours, Sir Thomas Gates, Liefetenant 
generall, and Sir George Somers, Admirall, with all their 
Company, of some hundred and fiftie persons, upon the 
feared and abhorred Hands of the Barmudaes, without 
losse of one person, when the same houre nothing was 
before their eyes, but imminent and inevitable death ; as 
never ship came there that perished not, so never was it 
heard of, that any ship wrackt there, but with the death of 
all or most of the people, save onely this of ours. Oh how 
the world should have rung of it ere this, if a 
[p. viii.] farre lesse deliverance had happened to any of 
the Jesuitical! plantations : and surely the Coim- 
sell of Virginia doe wrong themselves and the businesse : 



CKASHAW'S EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 617 

nay they must give me leave to tell them they obscure the 
glorie of God, if they take not order, that a full compleate 
and plaine narration of that whole action, both danger and 
deHverance be pubKshed to the world. [See CCLIX.] 

"2. The full discoverie (by meanes of their former 
deUverance) of those Barmuda Hands, which hitherto have 
beene held in the world, as inaccessible . . . and [Extracts 
given up to the divels power . . . are found a ''®s"i.] 
habitation of such safetie and securitie (having no enemie 
within nor any to be feared without, because the entrance 
is so difficult :) and of such plentie of all things for life. 
... as for the present they bee even as a new 
life [OCX.] and a seminarie to Virginia. ... [p. ix.] 

" 3. The speciall and most fatherly providence 
of God over this action, in upholding it when man had for- 
saken it, and giving it life againe when man had left it for 
dead : for had not Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Som- 
ers come into Virginia from the Barmudaes even when they 
did, the poore Colonic (which during that year of their 
absence, by enduring the miserie of mis-government,^ had 
fallen into all extremitie of distresse) had been gone away, 
and our Plantation possessed by the Savages : and (which 
was much more miraculous) when they being come in, and 
in all about 240. persons, and in such extreame miserie and 
faminine, as the Honorable Commander was even forced to 
yeeld to that which others moved (but himselfe had rather 
have died then done) namely to put themselves to the Sea 
to come for England, and quit the countrey: and when 
this (full sore against his heart) was put in execution, and 
every man aboord, their Ordenance and Armour buried, 
and not an English soule left in James Towne, and giving 

1 The disasters of this time made stating the fact that the trouble was 

"varnished reports," as the managers really " the sickness " and not " misgov- 

of the enterprise called them, neces- ernment." As a further proof of this 

sary, and the truth was not then fact, when De la Warr left Virginia in 

known to Crashaw or generally in March, 1611, he made especial selec- 

England. Some years after, Sir tion of Captain George Percy, in ap- 

Thomas Smythe was taken to task for proval of his government of 1609-1610. 



618 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

by their peale of shot, their last and wofull farewell to that 
pleasant land, were now with sorrowfull hearts going downe 
the Eiver : Behold the hand of heaven from above, at the 
very instant, sent in the Right Honorable La-War to meet 
them even at the rivers mouth, with provisions and com- 
forts of all kind : Who, if hee had staled but two 
[p. X.] Tydes longer had come into Virginia, and not 
found one Englishman : whereupon they all with 
as much joy returned, as with sorrow they had come away, 
and making as it were a new entrie and possession, tooke 
up their Ordnance and their Armour and the next day 
received their Honorable Lord Generall, with all joy and 
applause, and from that day by Gods blessing they never 
wanting government, they never wanted bread, for him 
that would take paines and do his dutie. If ever the hand 
of God appeered in action of man, it was heere most evi- 
dent : for when man had forsaken this businesse, God tooke 
it in hand ; and when men said, now hath aU the earth cast 
off the care of this Plantation, the hand of heaven hath 
taken hold of it : God therefore bee glorified in his owne 
worke." 

Crashaw then goes on to give his version of the cause why 

the colony "should fall in such extremities of want." 
[p. xi.] " When the two forenamed Commanders, in the 

great shippe (called the Sea -Venture) were lost, 
and yet saved upon the Barmudaes, their Fleet consist- 
ing of sixe or seven ships more, and fraught with almost 
foure hundred men landed (after a long and terrible tem- 
pest) in Virginia, where so many men wanting their Gov- 
ernors, and being too many to be commanded by the Col- 
ony they found there before them, fell first into factions, 
and at last into plaine distractions : and so one yeare of 
raisgovernment overthrew that body, which till then had 
prospered, and by good government was brought to so 
good a state, as at their landing they had corne sufficient in 
store,^ a harvest in the ground, good store of living cattell, 

1 This statement is not sustained by the facts. 



CRASHAW'S EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 619 

and had the Savages in good correspondencie : hut this one, 
yea our want of government (the most disasterous accident 
that ever befell that businesse) brought all to nothing, for 
it hindered the building of houses, and planting of corne, 
nay it burnt up the houses, and consumed the provisions ; 
so that of good store of poultrie, it left not one alive, and 
of six hundred living Swine, not three : and which was 
worse, consumed our men, and which was worst of all, it 
lost us the Savages, which since has cost many a man his 
blood, and to this day is not recovered. 

"All this while were the Commanders, and their Com- 
pany in the Barmudas," etc. 

"My fourth and last Argument [that the planta- [p. xiii.] 
tion was God's work] is, the stirring up of so many 
Honorable and worthy persons of all conditions, to disburse 
so freely and so willingly, such faire summes of money, and 
some of them even a good part of their estate, and that with- 
out any certaine or apparent hope of speedie profit," etc. 

On p. XV. he gives a sketch of Mr. Glover, who " went 
away with Sir Thomas Gates in June, 1611." On p. xvi., 
of Master Whitaker, and on p. xvii., of Master Bucke, who 
went to Virginia " with the commendation of a right rev- 
erned Prelate. Doctor Ravis, Lord Bishop of 
London." " And thus (Eight Honorable) you [p. xviii.] 
have the reason that have satisfied my conscience, 
that this worke is of God, and will therefore stand, though 
man should unfaithfully forsake it," etc. 

In conclusion he writes : " It may hereby 
appeare they have God their friend and pro- [p. xxiii.] 
tector, they have honorable and worthie Govern- 
ours, godly and painefull Preachers, a goodly Countrie and 
no want of necessaries, since they had government, they 
onely want the hands and helpe of men willing and able to 
do such duties of men, as be requisite in a Plantation, and 
the expence that principally and almost onely now lyes 
upon us, is the charge of sending away, a competent num- 
ber of men, the charge whereof will be about 20. pound a 



620 PERIOD III. NOVEMBEE, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

man. If this were done, it would soone appeare, that our 
cares and costs were at an end, and that a glorious and 
Comfortable Issue is shortly to bee looked for ; which how- 
soever it may be deferred, through the backwardnesse of 
some, back sliding of others, and coldnesse of all : yet that 
it will come assuredly in the end, the goodnesse, riches, and 
excellency of the Countrey, doth undoubtedly promise us, 
as may appeare (beside others) in the booke lately put out, 
[CCXLIV.] of Captaine Smithes^ who was there divers 
yeares, (and whose paines and service there, deserves in my 
judgement high commendations,) and by this exhortation 
and narration of Master Whitaker, who now is there." The 
editor has placed in a side - note, opposite the reference to 
Captain Smithes book : " See the booke called, The New 
life of Virginia." [CCX.] 

Crashaw ends with a courteous address to the Lord 
Eure : — 
[p. xxiv.] " And these true and welcome newes from 
Virginia, as they go out to the world ushered, 
and attended with this my poore preface. So I send them 
first to Your Lordship, as having a peculiar interest both in 
them and me : . . . 

" Your Lordships devoted in Christ. 

" W. Ceashawe." 



CCLIX. A PLAIN DESCRIPTION OF BERMUDA. 

" A plaine Description of the Barmudas, now called Som- 
mer Hands. With the manner of their discoverie Anno 
1609. by the shipwrack and admirable deliverance of Sir 
Thomas Gates, and Sir George Sommers, wherein are truly 
set forth the commodities and profits of that Rich, Pleasant 
and HealthfuU countrie. With an Addition, or more ample 
relation of divers other remarkable matters concerning those 

1 This shows from what source Cra- Crashaw evidently thought Smith 
shaw obtained his incorrect ideaiS ex- deserved more commendation than he 
pressed on p. xi. had received. 



rnsim^ 




■ .<tGm "J'nu^Coiuj^If./uvC^ktoftlu!Oartd 



WILLIAM KNOLLYS 
Fir^l f:,irl iil B„nbin r 



EEPORT OF THE SPANISH COUNCIL. 621 

Hands since then experienced, lately sent from thence by 
one of the Colonie now there resident. 

" Ecclesiastes iii. 11. God hath made everything beauti- 
ful! in his time. 

" London : Printed by W. Stansby, for W. Welby. 
1613." 

This tract was reprinted by Peter Force, in 1844, in vol. iii. 
It consists of "The Epistle-Dedicatorie " (to Sir Thomas 
Smith, " Treasurer for the Colonies and Companies of Vir- 
ginia, and Governour of Muscovia, East India, North-west 
Passage and Sommer Hands Companies") which was written 
just before the Martha sailed (in April, 1613 ?), and signed 
" your servant in Christ Jesus. W. C." (the initials of the 
Rev. Wm. Crashaw). Then Jourdan's relation (CXXXVII.) 
followed by " An addition sent home by the last ships 
from our Colonie in the Barmudas." April to August, 
1612. 

Originals, worth about $150 each, are preserved in the 
John Carter-Brown Library, and in the library of Mr. Kalb- 
fleisch. 



CCLX. EEPORT OF THE SPANISH COUNCIL. 

April 20, 1613. " Madrid, Spain. Advertisements sent 
from Don Alonso de Velasco, Ambassador in England, with 
the Councils opinion of them and the King's direction. 
April 30'^ 1613: 

" Three matters of great consideration in the despatches 
of Don Velasco. . . . 

" The Thirde, for exchange of the Prisoners, it is good to 
procure that, that may take effect which hath byne agreed 
upon, and that perfect and true information be procured of 
the estate of Virginia, which yf the Ambassador alreadie 
have not hee must procure speedilie, and accordinglie the 
fittiage remedie must bee ordayned, and in case ytt doe 
certainelie appeare to bee a matter of Consequence, provi- 
sion must bee made to remoove the English from thence. 



622 PEKIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

"The Marques of Velado agreeth with Don Juan de 
Idiaques and holdeth itt convenient that this matter of Vir- 
ginia bee lookt unto with much care, for that yf itt shoulde 
bee soe prejudicial! for the Indies (as some doe saye) a rem- 
edie may bee provided speedilie. 

"The Duke de Infantado agreeth with Don Juan de 
Idiaques, and addeth concerning the Prisoners, that the 
change of them was longe since agreed uppon and to this 
effect. The Spaniards shoulde bee sent into England and 
the Englishman to this Courte, and for which Don Alonso 
de Velasco ought so have laboured itt more earnestlie, and 
that ytt may bee written unto him, hee loose not time in 
procuringe performance of the agreement, and that hee hath 
understoode yt this Pylote, all whoe will, may see him, 
wherby hee judged the Spanish Prisoners to bee alreadie in 
England, hee holds itt meete this Englishman be restrained, 
and kept with more strictness ; because this care appearinge, 
they in Englande may esteeme him the more, and seek to 
procure him Release. 

" The Marques de Villa Franca and the Marques de la 
Laguna agreeth. . . . 

" The Kinges decree was that order shoulde bee given in 
all the particulars accordinge to the opinion of the Lordes." 

CCLXI. EDMONDES TO JAMES I. 

April 24, 1613. Paris, France. Sir Thomas Edmondes 
to James I. 

" Word brought to him that Mons"" de Hauterive a nephew 
of Mon" de Villeroy'-s, who is newely arrived out of Spayne, 
is certainly informed that the fleete which is there prepar- 
ing for the West Indies is intended to be employed for the 
removing of our Plantation in Virginia." 



BROOKE TO ELLESMERE. 623 



CCLXII. EDMONDES TO JAMES I. 

April 28, 1613. Paris, France. Sir Thomas Edmondes 
to James I. 

..." I have againe understood that parte of the forces 
which are prepared in Spayne are certainely intended to 
remove our plantation in Virginia." . . . 



CCLXIII. BROOKE TO ELLESMERE. 

The following is one of the documents preserved by Mr. 
John Smith of Nibley. A copy was presented to me by Mr. 
Kalbfleisch of New York. It has never been printed. 

April 28, 1613. Clapham. " To the Eight Honourable 
Thomas Lord EUesmere Lord Chauncellor of England. 

" Evelyn p. def . 

" Complaynynge shewen unto your Lordshippe your dayly 
oratours the Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and 
Planters of the cytty of London for the first Colony in 
Virginia That whereas diverse of his Majesties subjects in 
the tyme of the late Queene Elizabeth of happy and famous 
memory, did discover and finde out that parte of America 
which was then uppon that first discovery named Virginia 
in honour of the saide late Queene and is now generallie 
called and knowne by the same name and did after such 
discovery made continewe from tyme to tyme to plante and 
inhabite the saide countrey to theire greate charge and ex- 
pences untill the tyme of the happy goverment (sic) of our 
gracious soveraigne the Kings Majestic that nowe is Who 
beinge informed by the said planters and adventurers as 
well of theire greate charge bestowed in that discovery and 
plantacon, as of the greate comodities and advantages like 
to arise to his Majestie and this Kingdome by the saide 
plantacon did by his Letters patents under the greate scale 
of England bearinge date att "Westminster the three and 



624 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614 

twentith day of May in the seventh yeare of his raigne of 
England ffraunce and Ireland and of Scotland the twoe and 
ffortith, for the propagacon of Xtian religyon and reclaym- 
ynge of people barbarous to civilitie and humanitie, give 
and graunte that they the saide planters and Adventurers 
and all such and soe many as shoulde from time to tyme 
forever after be joyned with them as planters and Adven- 
turers in the saide plantacon and theire successors forever 
shoulde bee one bodie politique incorporated by the name of 
the Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and planters of 
the cittie of London for the first Colony in Virgynya with 
diverse graunts liberties ffranchises preheminences, priAd- 
ledges, proffitts, benefitts and comodities graunted in and by 
the saide Letters patents as by the same more att large ytt 
doth and may appeare And where as allsoe his gracious 
Majestie by other his Letters patents under the greate seale 
of England bearinge date att Westminster the twelveth day 
of March in the ninthe yeare of his raigne of England, 
ffraunce and Ireland, and of Scotland the five and ffortithe, 
tendringe the good and happy successe of the saide plantacon 
both in regard of the generall weale of humane society as in 
respecte of the good of his Majesties owne state and King- 
domes and beinge willinge to geve furthrance to all good 
meanes that might advance the benefitt of the saide Com- 
pany and which might secure the safetie of his subjects 
planted in the saide Colony under the favour and protection 
of God allmightie, and his Majesties royall power and 
authoritie, did likewise geve graunte and confirme unto the 
saide Treasurer and Company the said Countrey of Virgynya 
with further extent of grounde and islands adjacent in the 
saide last letters patents menconed and granted togeather 
with such further privyledges as to his gracious Majestie 
did seeme convenient for thadvancinge of so noble an 
action And his saide Majestie of his more abundant grace 
and favour to the saide plantation did allsoe cause a peculiei 
and speciall clause to bee incerted in the saide Letters patents 
namely that whereas the faylinge and none payment of 



BROOKE TO ELLESMERE. 625 

such monies as have benne promised in adventure for the 
advancement of the saide plantacon hath benne often by 
experience founde to bee dangerous and prejudicial! to the 
same and much to have hindered the progresse and pro- 
ceedinge of the saide plantacon And for that ytt seemed 
unto his Majestie a thinge reasonable that such persones as 
by theire handwritinge have ingaged themselves for the pay- 
ment of theire Adventures and afterwards neglectinge theire 
faithe and promise shoulde be compellable to make good and 
keepe the same that therefore his Majesties will and pleas- 
ure was that in any suyte or suytes comenced or to bee 
comenced in any of his Majesties Courts att Westminster or 
elsewhere by the saide Treasurer and Companie or other- 
wise against any such persones, that his Judges for the tyme 
beinge both in the Courte of Chauncerie and att the Comon 
Lawe shoulde favor and further the saide suyttes soe farre 
fourth as lawe and equitie will in any wise suffer and per- 
mitt as in and by the saide last recited letters patents 
amongst diverse other favours and pryvyledges therein con- 
teyned ytt doth and may more att large appeare And after 
the saide first graunte of Incorporacon soe obteyned the 
saide Treasurer and Company did sett fourthe diverse shippes 
fraught and furnished with all kinde of necessary provisyon 
and munition and well manned with soldiers and persons of 
other qualities and conditions fitt for such an enterprise 
hopinge and intendinge by that greate charge and prepa- 
racon to have perfected and setled that plantacon Butt 
findinge ytt afterwards to bee a worke of greater difficultie, 
and beinge informed by S' Thomas Gates knight whom 
they had imployed there with the charge and title of Gen- 
erall of that Colony who was newly sent home from Vir- 
ginia for that purpose, that greater supply of men and 
money was requisite and necessary for the accomplishment 
of that honourable action and the establishment of the saide 
plantacon the saide Company entred into a newe counsell 
and findinge that without a newe aide and supply to bee 
sent unto Virginia such as was required by the saide 



626 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

S' Thomas Gates in the name of the Lord Governour and 
Colony there, soe honourable and religious an action must 
fall to the grounde to the utter overthrowe of the saide 
Company, the losse of all theire former charges and expences 
the detriment of Christian religion and greate prejudice 
unto this Kingdome ytt was finaUie concluded and agreed 
that as well all those who had benne former adventurers in 
the saide plantacon and free of the saide Company as those 
who were to bee received into the freedome, society and 
ffellowshippe of the saide Company for the tyme to come 
shold severalhe and particulerly adventure and lay downe 
towards a newe supply to bee sent for the relief of the saide 
Colony in Virginia the some of three-score and ffifteene 
pounds att the least for every particuler mans adventure, the 
saide some to bee paide in three yeares. that is to say the 
some of five and twentie pounds every yeare and the first 
payment thereof to begynne and bee at the tyme of such 
persons underwritinge 

" Whereuppon the same beinge made knowne diverse and 
sundry persons as well of those who were free of the saide 
company as others that desired to bee free of the saide ffel- 
lowshippe and corporacon in consideracon of theire ffree- 
dome and for that theire names shoulde bee incerted as free- 
men and adventurers in the. saide second Letters patents 
and for diverse other good causes and consideracons them 
thereunto movinge did promise unto the saide Treasurer and 
Company that they woulde disburse, pay in and deliver 
unto the saide Treasurer everie one of them the some of 
threescore and ffifteene pounds att least and diverse other 
persons out of theire good affection and inclynation to soe 
honourable and Christian an action did promise to disburse 
and pay unto the saide Treasurer greater somes of mony 
whereof the payments were to bee made in three years pro- 
portionably in manner aforesaide 

" And thereuppon in the months of November and Decem- 
ber in the eight yeare of his Majesties raigne and att diverse 
tymes scince in a booke and in certeine rolles to that purpose 



BKOOKE TO ELLESMERE. 627 

made by generall advise and consent with a title and in- 
scription in the begynnynge of the saide booke and severall 
roUes conteynynge the purpose and premisses of the saide 
adventurers every one of the saide adventurers that had soe 
promised to adventure did write downe his name with the 
some that he did promise to adventure for the three yeares 
insuinge thereby testifieenge the saide agreement and prom- 
ises of purpose more assuredhe to binde themselves to the 
saide Treasurer and Company for the true performance of 
theire promised adventures and to geve incouragement and 
assurance of indempnitie to the saide Treasurer and Com- 
pany for the disbursinge and layinge out of such greate 
somes of money as shoulde bee thought requisite and nec- 
essary for the relief and supply of the saide Colony And 
afterwards accordinge to the saide promise agreement and 
underwritinge many reverend prelates Earles Lords honour- 
able and vertuous ladies knights gentlemen cittizens of 
good accompt and quallitie and others did pay in unto the 
Treasurer of the said Company such somes of mony as they 
had agreed and underwritten to pay — who uppon such pay- 
ment delivered them billes of receipt and infranchisement 
sealed with the comon seale of the saide Company After 
which severall agreements and promises soe made and ex- 
ecuted in manner aforesaide the saide Treasurer and Com- 
pany did undertake to furnish the saide Colony with aU 
things necessary, and did from time to time sende out 
shippes for the advancement of the saide plantacon suffi- 
ciently furnished with able governours and comaunders both 
att sea and land with sufficient nombers of men as well say- 
lers soldiers husbandmen fishermen as artezans of sundry 
kindes for the necessitie of that busines with all sorts of 
victualls and severall kinds of cattle with other necessaries 
and conveniences of severall natures requisite for the set- 
linge of that plantacon and for the sustenance and well 
beinge of the colony to theire greate and excessive charge, 
which charge amountinge to many thousand poundes more 
then they had ready meanes to satisfie the saide Treasurer 



628 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

and Company were inforced to ingage themselves and theire 
creditts for very greate somes of money which they the 
more readilie and willinglie did adventure to doe for the 
generall cause in hope to bee freed and saved harmeles by 
the monies to bee received from the saide adventurers, which 
they assured themselves everie one as hee was bounde in 
honestie and conscience, woulde pay in his due tyme ac- 
cordinge to that which hee had underwritten But nowe soe 
ytt is, may ytt please your good Lordshippe, that many "of 
the said adventurers out of a carelesse and covetous disposi- 
tion have not only refused to sende in theire saide adven- 
tures att the times due by theire owne agreement and under- 
writinge but being required and sent unto for the same 
monies some of them doe make slight and dilatorie an- 
sweares and others doe utterlie deny to pay the same unles 
they shalbee hereunto by lawe compelled as namelie S' 
Henry Nevill of [a blank, sic'] in the countie of Kent 

knight, havinge in November 1610 in and towards the saide 
adventure and plantacon and for the consideracons afore- 
saide promised att the tymes and dayes of payment afore- 
menconed to pay in the some of threescore and fifteene 
poundes and havinge in November aforesaide underwritten 
for the payment of the same hath not paide in the saide 
some of threescore and ffifteene pounds nor anye parte 
thereof accordinge to his saide promise and underwritinge 
and likewise S" Henrye Carye S' William Cornewallis S' 
John Cutts the younger Sir George Huntley S"" John Ead- 
cliffe S"^ Walter Chute S' Arthur Manwaringe S' John S' 
John and S' Thomas ffreake knights John Vaughan Rich- 
ard Monyngton, John Smithe and Arthur Ingram Esquires 
William Hall and Edmond AUen havynge in like manner 
about the same time everie one of them the saide Knights 
Esquires and others for himselfe severallie and respectivelie 
in and towards the saide adventures and plantacon for the 
consideracons aforesaid promised att the tymes and dales of 
payment before menconed to pay in and deliver everye of 
them severalKe the some of threescore and flSfteene poundes 



BROOKE TO ELLESMERE. 629 

a piece which they the aforesaid S' Henry Carey and the 
rest of the aforesaid Knights, esquires and others did every 
one of them severally and respectivelie assume and promise 
to pay in aecordinglie Yet never the les neither they the 
saide parties nor any of them have att all made payment 
of the saide some accordinge to theire severall premisses nor 
of any parte or parcell thereof But are all and everye of 
them behinde and areare with theire saide severall and re- 
spective somes of three score and ffifteene pounds a piece 
and with everye parte thereof 

" And further S"" Thomas Connyngsby of [_sic, a 

blank] in the Countie of Heref knight and Richard Hall 
of London marchant havynge likewise about the tyme 
aforesaide either of them severallie for himselfe in and 
towards the saide adventures and plantacon and for the 
consideracons aforesaide promised att the dayes and tymes 
before menconed by equall payments either of them sever- 
allie to pay in and deliver the some of flfiftie poundes a 
piece And likewise S" Willm Boulestrode of in the 

Countie of [sic, blanks] knighte havynge allsoe in 

November aforesaide promised and underwritten for the 
intent and causes aforesaide to pay in the some of five and 
twentie poundes att three severall dayes by equall payments 
proportioned and devided And allsoe Nicholas Wheeler of 
[sic, blank] havynge allsoe promised about the tyme 
aforesaide to pay in the some of twelve pounds and tenne 
shiUinges att a day by him agreed and underwritten, they 
the saide Sir Thomas Connyngsby Richard Hall Sir WiUm 
Boulestrode and Nicholas Wheeler nor any of them have 
made payment of the saide last menconed severall somes of 
mony nor any parte thereof soe by them severallie prom- 
ised as aforesaide but are all and everie of them likewise 
behinde and areare with theire saide severall and respective 
somes and with every parte thereof 

" By meanes of aU which promisses not only your Lord- 
shippes oratours are like greately to bee prejudiced in theire 
owne estates and utterly overthrowne in theire creditts 



630 PERIOD III. NOVEMBEE, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

and this soe honourable and Christian an action which 
was in soe greate forwardnes of prosequucon utterly relin- 
quished and neglected to the greate dishonour and detri- 
ment of this Kingdome but allsoe many of his Majesties 
subjects in a farre countrey must bee abandoned and lefte 
to the danger of famishinge and to the cruell rage of the 
barbarous infidels. In tender consideracon whereof and 
for the avoidinge of multiplicitie of suytes att the comon 
Lawes wherein your Oratours cannot hope for soe certeine 
and speedy a remedy as the extremytie of theire case and 
the present necessitie and importance of the busines re- 
quireth Your Lordshippes Oratours doe in aU humblenes 
beeseche your Lordshippe accordinge to his Majesties afore- 
saide direccon menconed and recomended unto Your Lord- 
ship and other his Judges in the saide last recited letters 
patents and of your accustomed goodnes to graunte unto 
your saide Orators his Majesties most gracious writte of 
supna to bee directed to the said S' Henry Nevill, S"" Henry 
Carey, S"" Willm CornewaUis, S' John Cutts the younger, 
S' George Huntley, S' John Radcliffe, S"^ Walter Chute, S' 
Arthur Manwaringe, S' John S* John, S'^ Thomas fEreake, 
John Vaughan, Richard Monyngton John Smythe Arthur 
Ingram, Willm HaU, S' Willm Boulestrode and Nicholas 
Wheeler [Edmond Allen, Sir Thomas Connyngsby, and 
Richard Hall are not named ; but their names have been 
probably omitted by an oversight.] comandinge them and 
every of them att a certeine day and under a certeine payne 
therein to bee lymitted to bee and personallie to appeare 
before your Lordshippe in his Majesties highe Courte of 
Chauncery then and there to answeare the premisses and 
to sett downe uppon theire Corporall oathes wheather they 
and every of them have not made such promise or under- 
written theire names in such booke or roUes [a word torn 
off] aforesaide as adventurers towards the saide plantacon 
or supply of the saide Colony of Virgynya And whether 
they or any of them have paide the saide severaU somes 
which they severally promised as aforesaide and for which 




NICHOLAS LEATE 



PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 631 

they underwritt or how much thereof they or anie of them 
have paide and what or how much thereof is behinde and 
unpaide And to abide such further order and direccon 
herein as to your Lordship etc. 

" Chris : Brooke." 

[Mem. — On the 26"' of April 1613 seven good ships 
sailed from London and on the 13* of May, set sail from 
Queenborough — set forth by the Muscovy Company, under 
their charter of March 13*'' last to fish for whale, to drive 
away interlopers and to make further discovery. [See 
the account of this voyage in " Archseologia Americana," 
vol. iv. pp. 239-314, and Purchas, vol. iii. pp. 716- 
720.] They returned to England September 6. See 
CCLXXXVIIL] 

CCLXIV. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF 8IMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME ^572, FOLIO 10. 

Copy of a part of a deciphered letter of H. M. to Don 
Alonso de Velasco, dated Madrid, May 19, 1613. 
*'You will make every effort to carry into effect the 
exchange of the prisoners of Virginia, since it is so long 
ago now that it was agreed upon and the pilot of the Eng- 
lish is detained here all the time to surrender him here as 
soon as over there they shall surrender to us our men — and 
you wiU not take your hand from it tiU it is accomplished." 

CCLXV. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S5n, FOLIO 11. 

Copy of a deciphered letter of H. M. to Don Alonso de 

Velasco, dated Madrid, May 23, 1613. 

" Although it is understood that for the present the col- 
onization and the fortification of Virginia by the EngHsh 



632 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

cannot cause any apprehension, nevertheless I shall be glad 
to hear all the details that can be ascertained about this 
matter — and thus I charge and command you to try to find 
them out by all possible means — also the plans which they 
now have there, since the death of the Prince of Wales, 
on the same subject — and you wiU report to me all about 
this and about anything else that may present itself." 

CCLXVI. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

May 13, 1613. Madrid. Digby to James I. 

..." They have further the last weeke had a Consulta- 
tion concerninge Virginia, but theire resolution is not to 
stirre therein untUl they shall bee better informed of ye true 
state thereof. For that here, by the advertisements that 
they have had out of Englande, they are yet in a greate hope 
that the businesse wiU fall of ittselfe. Though Don Pedro 
de Cuiiiga att his Laste beeing in England, mooved that the 
remoovinge of our Plantation might bee noe longer deferred 
as your Majestie shall see by the Copie of a Letter sent from 
him in September laste." [CCLXVII. ; but see CCXXIII. 
of July 22, 1612, which is evidently the same.] 

CCLXVII. ZUNIGA TO PHILIP IIL 

The following was iaclosed in the foregoing letter ; it is 
a contemporary translation. 

" A Letter from Don Pedro de Cunega of ye 22, of 7^"" 
1612, concerning Verginia, to the King of Spain. 

" S' There is come hether a shippe from Virginia and 
although some principall men and others suppose that the 
Plantation there doth rather diminish then increase, I have 
understoode by a friende of good Credit, that they treate 
and have a determination to marrie some of ye People that 
goe thether with the Virginians ; and hee telleth mee that 
there are fortie or fiftie persons alreadie married there and 



VELASCO TO PHILIP III. 633 

other English intermingled with them and that the weomen 
which were sent over live amongst the Virginians and are 
receaved and used Mndelie by them, and that they wonded a 
certain zealous Minister of their secte for reprehendinge itt. 
They have made a Lotterie out of which they will raise 20. 
thousande Ducattes and herewith sende away six shippes 
with all the People they can procure, uppon this pretext of 
their turninge Infidels, itt wilbee an easie matter to remove 
theise People from thence in the beginninge, for the not 
punishinge hereof is the cawse why they soe boldelie attempt 
others, as your Majestie may well perceave, for they have 
alreadie howses and begin another Plantation in Terra Nova, 
in the partes where the greate fishinges are, and now itt will 
bee to ye purpose to punish itt, which if itt may bee done 
they shall perceave that your Majestie will not proceed with 
them altogether by intreatie, which hath alreadie made them 
more presumptions, then theire owne forces can promise 
them. 

" London 22. of Septem'. 

" God preserve Your Majestie." 



CCLXVIII. VELASCO TO PHILIP IH. 

GJENJEBAL ABCHIVE8 OF SIMANCA8. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME B590, FOLIO 66. 

Copy of a letter from Don Alonso de Velasco to the King of 
Spain, dated London, May 30, 1613. 

"Sire.— 
" Of the two ships which sailed from here for Bermuda at 
the end of January [21] of this year, one has returned and 
the report which it brings, is that the Country is good and 
healthy, and that all they had planted brought forth much 
fruit — that on the East and the West side of this island 
the Coast is steep and and there is no port; but on the 
North they have found a very good harbour, altho' the 
entrance to it was very difficult — that there fell also a 



634 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

river, that could be sounded and had good water, into this 
harbour. They had commenced to settle at this port the 
people who remained behind, who might be about two hun- 
dred and fifty persons. With a view to this, some mer- 
chants are now exerting themselves to put two other ships 
in order, in which every kind of workmen shall go, who will 
receive a share in the distribution of land. From Virginia 
no news has been received for several months, and from the 
straights in which they were according to the last reports 
from there, great fears are entertained that hunger may 
have made an end of those people. The Indians were hold- 
ing them in such strict confinement that they could not leave 
their forts without running great danger. Thus they are 
here discouraged about this plan, on account of the heavy 
expenses they have incurred, and the disappointment, that 
there is no passage from there to the South Sea, as they had 
hoped, nor mines of gold or silver. 

"May our Lord preserve Y. M. as all Christendom 
needeth. 

" London. May 30. 1613. 

" Don Alonso de Velasoo." 



CCLXIX. DIGBY TO CARLETON. 

May 22, 1613. Madrid. Digbye to Carleton. 

. . . "Concerning our plantation of Virginia (which I 
have often written unto your Lordship is a greate eye-sore 
unto them) thei have lately had severall consultations about 
yt. Their resolution is, that yt must bee removed, though 
thei have thought yt fitt for a while to suspende ye execu- 
tion, till thei gett perfect information of the state thereof. 
For that thei are not yet out of hope, that the businesse 
may fall of ytselfe, since thei see yt not mantayned by the 
King nor State, but only uphelde by Lotteries, and such like 
uncertaine shiftes. For our new plantation in ye Bermudos 
(whereof your Lordship will have formerly heard) yt yet 
prospereth better then that of Virginia, and giveth greater 



DIGBY TO LAKE. 635 

incouragement to prosecute yt. For that good commodities 
have allready been brought from thence. And yt is written 
unto me for certaine, that a poore fellowe by stealth con- 
voyed home into Englande as muche Amber-greece, as was 
solde in London for six hundred pound starling. The 
Spaniards had thought to have attempted this yeare the 
removing of us from thence ; and to that ende, the laste 
summer sent a shipp thither to make discoverye; and to 
informe them of ye fittest course that was to be helde for 
the assayling of us. But the sayd shipp is returned without 
having donne anything. AUeaging, that thei by no meanes 
could finde the Islande. But by examination yt is probable, 
that thei were afrayd to come neere yt, bycause of the Eng- 
lishe. Moste of the men are clapped up in prison at Sevill. 
And the Captaine and eight more of the cheife of them are 
brought up to this Towne in cheines, where yt is thought 
thei will bee proceeded against with muche rigour." 

CCLXX. DIGBY TO LAKE. 

May 26, 1613. Madrid. Digbye to Sir Thomas Lake. 

..." They have latelie had here severall Consultations 
about our Plantation in Virginia, The resolution is — That itt 
must bee remooved but they thinke itt fitt to suspende the ex- 
ecution of itt 'till they receave perfect information in what 
state itt nowe is, for that they are in hope that itt will fall of 
ittselfe. They have geven precise order to theire Ambassa- 
dour speedilie to advertise what hee can learne of itt, and that 
hee use all meanes for the restitution of the Spaniards that 
were left there. And to this ende have clapt upp Clarke the 
Englishe Pilote into close Prison, and I heare they meane to 
sende him to the Galleis, hopinge therebie that Clarke's 
freinds, to redeeme him will labour for the restitution of the 
other, by whome they hope to discover the true State of 
Virginia." 



636 PERIOD III. NOVEMBEE, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

CCLXXI. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

June 4, 1613. Madrid. Digbye to James I. 

..." There went from hence ye Spanish Ambassadour ^ 
in England with directions to this effect : that though yt was 
conceived by ye King of Spayne that the plantation and 
fortifications of the Englishe in Virginia neede not (in the 
case yt now standeth) give muche cause of feare, yet to the 
ende, that heere may bee taken ye fittest resolutions, hee 
commaundethe him to procure a true and certaine informa- 
tion of the present estate thereof. And what the intent of 
your Majestic and the Enghshe is in this pointe. And 
whether bussinesses of that nature growe not muche colder 
since the deathe of the late Prince. And likewise, that 
hee informe himself very particularly concerning the Ber- 
mudos, and give speedy advertisement hither." 

CCLXXII. INSTRUCTIONS TO GONDOMAR. 

1613. " Extract from the Secret Instructions of Don Diego 
Sarmiento de Acuna, sent by the King of Spain as his 
Ambassador into England." (Translation.) 
" And itt shalbee fitt for you having perused those copies 
(of despatches sent heretofore to Don Pedro de Quniga,^ 
Marques de Flores et Avila) and informed yourselfe uppon 
them from the said Marques and Don Alonso de Velasco in 
what estate these matters (the marriages made with France) 
stande, as also these others specified in the saide Copies 
about the League of ye Protestants, the Peopling of Vir- 
ginia, the suits of ye English, of ye Pyrates, and of ye 
ConsuUs and that yowe prosecute al those matters, as yf 
they were here given yowe in your Instruction, and that 
yowe advertize mee often of whatsoever shall succeede 
thereuppon." 

1 This was the celebrated Diego mar, going to try to suppress English 
Sarmiento de Acuna, Count de Gondo- colonization in America. 

2 ZuSiga. 



SHAKESPEARE'S HENRY VIH. 637 

[Mem. — Rev. Thomas Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering, 
Bart. 

" London, June 30. 1613. ... No longer since than yes- 
terday, while Burbage's Company were acting at the Globe 
the play of Henry VIH., and there shooting off certain 
chambers in way of trimnph, the fire catched and fastened 
upon the thatch of the house, and there burn so furiously, 
as it consumed the whole house, all in less than two hours, 
the people having enough to do to save themselves." 

Burbage and Shakespeare had been associated in this 
house, in which the latter gained his great reputation, and 
" the play of Henry VIH." was Shakespeare's. Cranmer's 
prophecy, act v. scene 4, contains these words : — 

" But as when 

The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phoenix, 

Her ashes new create another heir. 

As great in admiration as herself ; 

So shall she [Queen Elizabeth] leave her blessedness to one, 

(When heaven shall call her from this cloud of darkness.) 

Who, from the sacred ashes of her honour, 

Shall star-like rise, as great in fame as she was. 

And so stand fix'd : Peace, plenty, love, truth, terror, 

That were the servants to this chosen infant, 

Shall then be his [King James I.], and like a vine grow to him ; 

Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shine^ 

His honour and the greatness of his name 

Shall be, and make new nations : He shall flourish, 

And, like a mountain cedar, reach Ms branches 

To all the plains about him, : ^ Our children's children 

Shall see this, and bless heaven."] 

^ We find this idea also in Bacon's the New World by the plantation of 

Advertisement touching an Holy War: Virginia and the Summer Islands. 

" As one saith in a brave kind of And certainly, it is with the kingdoms 

expression, the sun never sets in the on earth as it is in the kingdom of 

Spanish dominions, but ever shines heaven ; sometimes a grain of mns- 

upon one part or other of them." tard-seerf proves a great free. Who can 

^ Bacon, in his celebrated speech to tell ? " 

the speaker of the House of Commons, The Virginia Council, in CXIV., 

January 30, 1621, when enumerating prayed to God "So to nourish this 

the " benefits, attributes and acts of graine of seed, that it may spread till 

government " of James I., says, " This all people of the earth admire the 

kingdom now first in his Majesty's greatnesse, and seek the shades and 

times hath gotten a lot or portion in fruite thereof." 



638 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

CCLXXIII. VELASCO TO PHILIP III. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S590, FOLIO 62. 

Copy of an original letter from Don Alonso de Velasco to 
the King of Spain, dated London, July 12, 1613. 

The italicized part is in cipher in the original. 

Sire. 

" In a letter of May 23d. [13] which I received two days 
ago, Y. M. commands me, without ever taking my hand 
from it, to insist with the King here upon granting their 
freedom to the prisoners in Virginia, in exchange for the 
EngUsh pilot who is at your Court. 

" I have reported to Y. M. the last effort I made in a 
special audience which the King gave me, and how he 
ordered that they should at once write to the Governor of 
Virginia, that he should send the prisoners here, and how 
this order went out in a ship which sailed for Bermuda 
about a month after, in order to reinforce the colony which 
they have been establishing on a large harbour, which, how- 
ever, is difficult of access, and which they discovered in the 
northern part of the island, because all the rest of the 
island is inaccessible. From there it was to sail from Vir- 
ginia, but now for more than nine months no news of it 
have been received, and according to the last reports it is 
believed that the people must have perished, partly from 
disease, to which the country is subject and partly from 
starvation, with which they were threatened, as the Indians 
kept them so closely besieged, that they could not come out 
from the fort to search for provisions. Thus this planta- 
tion has lost much ground, as it was sustained by companies 
of merchants, who were disappointed at finding no gold, 
nor silver mines, nor the passage to the South sea, which 
they had hoped for. They now fix their eyes upon the 
colony in Bermuda, partly because of its fertility and being 



DALE TO SIR THOMAS SMITH. 639 

unoccupied (by savages) so that they will meet with no 
opposition. When as it seems to them that m the course 
of time there must be a rupture with T. M., they loill he 
able from this island, which lies right in the way of 
ships returning from the Indies, to take many prizes, 
especially as there is but one safe harbor in the island, if 
they have time to fortify that, as they mean to do with 
great earnestness. May our Lord preserve Y. M., as 
Christendom needeth it. London July 12. 1613. 

"Don Alonso db Velasco." 

[Mem. — The Elizabeth, Captain Adams, left Virginia 
about June 28, 1613, and arrived in England about July 
20, 1613, bringing the following documents : Dale to 
Sir Thomas Smith (CCLXXIV.), Argall to Hawes 
(CCLXXV.), Molina to Velasco, May H (CCLXXVIIL), 
Molina to Velasco, June 28 (CCLXXIX.), and probably 
other documents now lost. 

This ship brought the first news from Virginia which 
had reached England since about September, 1612, " which 
put some life into that action, that before was almost at the 
last cast." See CCLXXXI. She also, probably, brought 
to England Rolfe's crop of tobacco of 1612 ; which is said 
to have been the first crop cultivated by an Englishman in 
America, and the first third of " the amber-greece " from 
the Bermudas.] 

CCLXXIV. DALE TO SIR THOMAS SMITH. 

Sir Thomas Dale's letter to Sir Thomas Smith, dated June, 
1613. An extract only, but all that remains. 
" Let me tell you all at home this one thing, and I pray 
remember it ; if you give over this country and loose it, 
you, with your wisdoms, will leap such a gudgeon as our 
state hath not done the like since they lost the Kingdom of 
France ; be not gulled with the clamorous report of base 
people; believe Caleb and Joshua; if the glory of God 



640 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

have no power with them and the conversion of these poor 
infidels, yet let the rich mammons' desire egge them on to 
inhabit these countries. I protest unto you, by the faith of 
an honest man, the more I range the country the more I 
admire it. I have seen the best countries in Europe; I 
protest unto you, before the Living God, put them all to- 
gether, this country will be equivalent unto them if it be 
inhabitant with good people." 

See also Stith's "History of Virginia," pp. 132, 287. 



CCLXXV. AEGALL TO HAWES. 

" A Letter of Sir Samuell ArgoU touching his Voyage to 
Virginia, and Actions there : Written to Master Nicholas 
Hawes. June 1613." [From Purchas, iv. pp. 1764- 
1765.] 

"Master Hawes, within seven weekes after my depart- 
ure from the Coast of England, being the three and 
twentieth of July, 1612. I fell with the Coast of Virginia, 
in the Latitude of fortie degrees, the twelfth of September, 
with all my men in good health, the number being sixtie 
two, and all my victualls very well conditioned : my course 
being fiftie leagues to the Northward of the Azores. The 
seventeenth, I arrived at Point Comfort, where by the dis- 
creet and provident government of Sir Thomas Gates, and 
great paines and hazard of Sir Thomas Dale, I found both 
the countrey and people in farre better estate there, then 
the report was by such as came home in Sir Robert Mans- 
field's ship. From my arrivall untill the first of Novem- 
The Deliver- bcr, I Spent my time in helping to repaire such 
ance. ships and Boats, as I found heere decayed for 

lacke of Pitch and Tarre : and in pursuing the Indians with 
Sir Thomas Dale, for theire corne, of which we 

This was in . . , . , ti ^ i 

the river of got somc quautitic, which we were uke to nave 
a samim . jj^^gj^^ yg^y. (J^ercly : for by the Providence of 



God, Sir Thomas Dale escaped kilhng very narrowly. Then 




RICHARi) MART IN, Es:ju 



AKGALL TO HAWES. 641 

about the beginning of November, by the advice His voyage 
of Sir Thomas Gates, I carried Sir Thomas Dale ^^f^^' 
to Sir Thomas Smiths Island to have his opinion ^i^"^- 
of the inhabiting of it; who, after three dayes march in 
discovering it, approved very well of the place : and so much 
the better, because we found abundance of fish there, and 
very great Cod, which we caught in five fathome water, of 
which we are in hope to get a great quantitie this Summer, 
for the reliefe of our men, as also to find safe passage for 
Boats and Barges thither, by a cut out of the bottome of 
our Bay, into the De la Warre Bay. For which pe la War 
fishing and better Discovery, I have my ship ^^^^^ 
readie, with my Company in as good health, as at my arri- 
vall, and as they have continued ever since : for which God 
be glorified, to whom we give daily thankes, for the contin- 
uance of his mercy. 

"After my returne from Sir Thomas Smiths Hand, I 
fitted my ship to fetch corne from Patowomeck, -g^ ^^^ ^^^_ 
by trading with the Indians, and so set sayle agetoPato- 
from Pomt Comfort the first of December : and Pentrooke 
being entred into Penbrooke River, I met with 
the King of Pastancie a hunting, who went pres- Ayapassus 
ently aboord with me, seeming to be very glad anee 0!'°^ 
of my comming, and told me thatt all the Indians p^**"""**- 
there were my very great friends, and that they had good 
store of corne for mee, which they had provided the yeere 
before, which we found to be true. Then I carried my 
ship presently before his Towne, and there built me a stout 
shallop, to get the corne aboord withaU, which being done, 
and having concluded a peace with divers other Indian 
Lords, and likewise given and taken * Hostages : * ^^^ ^^^^^ 
I hasted to James Towne, beeing the first |^|°® 
[31. ?] of January, and arrived at Point Com- Rob. Spartes 
fort the first of February. 

" In this Voyage I got 1100. bushels of Corne, which I 
delivered into the several! storehouses, according unto the 
direction of Sir T. Gates : besides the quantitie of 300. 



642 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

bushels, reserved for mine Company. As soone I had 
unladen this Corne, I set my men to the felhng of Timber, 
for the building of a Frigat, which I left halfe finished in 
The second the hands of the Carpenters at Point Comfort, 
pSooke *^® 1^- ^^ March : and returned myselfe with the 
Biver. gjiip Jnto Pembrook Eiver, and so discovered to 

the head of it, which is about 65. leagues into the land. 
Note.— ^^^ navigable for any ship. And then marching 
Great store i^to the Couutrie, I found great store of Cattle as 

01 Oxen m , . , ^^ , 

Penbrooke big as Kine [Bison], of which, the Indians that 
were my guides, killed a couple which wee found 
to be very good and wholesome meate, and are very easie to 
be killed in regard they are heavy, slow, and not so wild as 
AiMyne. Other beasts of the wildernesse. In this Journie 
A medici- ^ Hkewise f ouud a Myne, of which I have sent a 
naWe Earth, triall into England : and hkewise a strange kind 
of Earth, the vertue whereof I know not ; but the Indians 
A water that eate it f or Physicke, alleaging that it cureth the 
fc^teo^* sicknesse and paine of the belly. I likewise 
Aiium. found a kind of water issuing out of the Earth, 

which hath a tart taste much hke unto AUum-water, it is 
good and wholesome : for my men did drinke much of it, 
An Earth and never found it otherwise. I also found an 
Hke Gumme. g^rth like a Gumme, white and cleere ; another 
iLrxe^rr'' ^^^^ ^^^ ^^® Terra sigUlata ; another very white, 
sigiiiata. and of SO light a substance, that being cast into 
the water, it swimmeth. 

*' Whilst I was in this businesse, I was told by certaine 
Indians, my friends, that the Great Powhatans 
King^prto- Daughter Pokahuntis was with the great King 
womeo . Patowoneck, whether I presently repaired, resolv- 
ing to possesse myselfe of her by any stratagem that I could 
use, for the ransoming of so many Englishmen as were pris- 
oners with Powhatan ; as also to get such armes and tooles, 
as hee, and other Indians had got by murther and stealing 
from others of our Nation, with some quantitie of corne, 
for the Colonies rehefe. So soone as I came to an anchor 



ARGALL TO HAWES. 643 

before the Towne, I manned my Boate and sent on shoare, 
for the King of Pastancy and Ensigne Swift (whom I had 
left as a pledge of our love and truce, the Voyage before) 
who presently came and brought my pledge with him : 
whom after I had received, I brake the matter to this King, 
and told him, that if he did not betray Pokohuntis into my 
hands ; wee would be no longer brothers nor friends. Hee 
alleaged, that if hee should undertake this businesse, then 
Powhatan would make warres upon him and his people ; 
but upon my promise, that I would joyne with him against 
him, hee repaired presently to his brother, the great King 
of Patowomeck, who being made acquainted with the mat- 
ter, called his CounseU together: And after some few 
houres deliberation, concluded rather to deliver her into 
my hands, then lose my friendship, so presently, pooahuntis 
he betrayed her into my Boat, wherein I car- *'^^®"- 
ried her aboord my ship. This done, an Indian was dis- 
patched to Powhatan, to let him know, that I had taken 
his Daughter : and if he wovild send home the EngHshmen 
(whom he deteined in slaverie, with such armes and tooles, 
as the Indians had gotten, and stolne) and also a great 
quantitie of corne, that then he should have his daughter re- 
stored, otherwise not. This newes much grieved this great 
Eang, yet, without delay, he returned the messenger with 
this answer. That he desired me to use his Daughter well, 
and bring my ship into his Kiver, and there he would give 
mee my demands : which being performed, I should dehver 
him his Daughter, and we should be friends. 

" Having received this answer, I presently departed from 
Patowomeck, being the 13. of Aprill, and repayred with all 
speed to Sir T. Gates, to know of him upon what condition 
he would conclude this peace, and what he would demand : 
to whom I also delivered my prisoner, towards whose ran- 
some within few dayes, this King sent home seven of our 
men, who seemed to be very joyfuU for that they 
were freed from the slavery and f eare of cruell 
murther, which they daily before lived in. They brought 



644 PERIOD in. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

also three pieces, one broad Axe, and a long whip-saw, and 
one canow of Corne. I beeing quit of my prisoner, went 
forward with the Frigat which I had left at Point Comfort, 
and finished her. 

" Thus having put my ship in hand to be fitted for an in- 
tended fishing Voyage, I left that businesse to be followed 
by my Master with a ginge of men, and my Lieutenant for- 
tified on shoare with another ginge to fell timber, and 
cleave plankes to buUd a fishing Boat ; my Ensigne with 
another ginge was imployed in the Frigat, for getting of 
fish at Cape Charles, and transporting it to Henries Towne 
for the reliefe of such men as were there : and myselfe with 
a fourth ginge departed out of the River in my shallop, the 
His third ^^^^ ^^ May, f Or to discover the East side of our 
Discovery. Bay, which I found to have many small Rivers 
in it, and very good harbours for Boats and Barges, but 
not for ships of any great burthen ; and also great store of 
Inhabitants, who seemed very desirous of our love, and so 
much the rather, because they had received good reports 
from the Indians of Pembrock River, of our courteous 
usage of them, whom I found trading with me for corne, 
whereof they had great store. We also discovered a mul- 
titude of Hands bearing good Medow ground, and as I 
thinke, Salt might easily be made there, if there were any 
Kerned Salt po^ds digged, f Or that I found Salt kerned where 
found. j^i^Q -vvater had over-flowne in certain places. Here 

is also great store of fish, both shel-fish and other. So 
having discovered along the shore some f ortie leagues North- 
ward, I returned againe to my ship, the twelfth 
^^ ' 'of May, and hasted forward my basinesse left in 
hand at my departure : and fitted up my ship, and built 
my fishing Boate, and made readie to take the first oppor- 
tunitie of the wind for my fishing Voyage, of which I be- 
seech God of his mercy to blesse us." 
He was going fishing for Frenchmen. 



VELASCO TO PHILIP III. 645 

CCLXXVI. PORTION OF VIRGINIA AND SUMMER 
ISLAND HISTORY. 

KIMBOLTON MS. NVMBEB SOS. 

March 12, 1612-3, to June, 1613. Portion o£ what ap- 
pears to have been a history of the Virginian and Summer 
Islands settlements. The eight pages remaining consist 
chiefly of an abstract of the *^ third charter" to the Vir- 
ginia Company, dated March 12, 9 James I. Mention is 
made also of the " separation of the Summer Islands from 
the Virginian body," of Captain Argall's voyage in 1612, 
and of a letter from him to Mr. Nicholas Hawes in June, 
1613, in which he gave a more favorable account of the 
colonies than had been expected. 



CCLXXVII. VELASCO TO PHILIP IH. 

GENBBAL ABCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. BEPABTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2590, FOLIO 46. 

Copy of a holographic letter of Don Alonso de Velasco to 
H. M., dated London, August 2, 1613. 

Sire. 
"Three days ago, [July 20?] came to this city a ves- 
sel from Virginia, after more than nine months, during 
which no news had reached here from that country, and 
as this special opportunity offers, I send herewith a letter 
[CCLXXVIII.] which I have received from Don Diego de 
Molina, whom I believed to be dead with the others who 
were with him. The bearer of the letter is sick ; as soon 
as he gets better I shall make him come to me and I will 
open communications with the others as to what is doing, of 
which I shall render an account to Your Majesty, ascertain- 
ing as positively as it can possibly be done that all I can 
see so far shows that Avhat I have written to Y. M. about 
that country, has come true. From the Bermuda this ship 



Q4:6 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

brings a few pearls and some amber, and they are every 
day more bent upon aiding that Colony. 

" May On' Lord protect Y. M. as is needful. 

" From London, August 2" 1613. 

"Don Alonso de Velasco." 



CCLXXVIII. MOLINA TO VELASCO. 

GUNEBAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S590, FOLIO Jf/ (CONNECTED WITH FOLIO 46). 

Copy of a holographic letter of Don Diego de Molina (it is 
not said to whom it is directed), dated Virginia, May 28, 
1613. (It must have been addressed to Don Alonso de 
Velasco.) 

" The person who will hand you this is perfectly trust- 
worthy and you can rely upon all he tells you, and thus I 
shall not say much in this letter, but only state what is most 
important. 

" Altho' my imprisonment followed by such extraordinary 
adventures will have opened H. M.'s eyes and led him to see 
this new Algiers in America, which is being established here, 
I do not marvel that he should not have corrected this evil 
in all this long time, since the delivery would require a 
voyage — especially as there is wanting all certain knowl- 
edge for its carrying out — altho' I believe that with your 
own great intelligence and with the going of this Caravel to 
Spain, H. M. will have been able to decide what is of most 
importance, and that this would be to cut short the advance 
of a Hydra in its infancy, since the intention is the destruc- 
tion of the whole West, by sea as well as on land, and I do 
not doubt that great results will follow, because the advan- 
tages of this place are such as to make it a rendezvous of all 
the pirates of Europe, where they will be well received. 
This nation has great ideas of a league with them and it will 
be very powerful, even by itself alone, because on the day, 
when there shall be produced here a sufficiency of grain 



MOLINA TO VELASCO. 647 

and an abundance of cattle, there will not be a man of 
whatever quality he may be, who will not, alone or in com- 
pany with others, arm a vessel to come out here and join 
the others — because as you know, this Kingdom abounds 
with poor people, who abhor peace, and this is necessarily s^ 
because in peace they perish — and the rich are so haughty 
and so selfish that they even covet the wealth of the Indies, 
their gold and their silver — altho' this will not be wanting 
much here, as they have discovered some mines which are 
considered productive, altho' they have not yet been able to 
benefit much by them, until they shall be well established 
here. There are great expectations of what they will find 
in the mountains in great abundance ; so say the Indians 
and offer to show the places which they know. They say 
that at the headwaters of the rivers, after they have come 
forth from the mountains, there is a great quantity of grains 
of silver and gold ; but as they do not attach any value to 
them, but only to copper which they esteem very highly, 
they do not collect them. Until now these men have not 
been able to go out to discover them, however eagerly they 
may desire it — and to pass beyond towards New Mexico, 
and from thence to the South Sea, where they think of 
establishing great colonies, and fit out fleets, with which to 
make themselves masters of those waters ; as of this Sea, by 
colonizing a few islands of those that lie Easterly of the 
Bahama Channel, and by conquering others like Portorico, 
San Domingo and Cuba. Altho' this may be difficult for 
them at least we have already seen evidences of these pur- 
poses in the settlement of Bermuda, where it is said, they 
have strong fortifications, because the conformation of the 
land is such that a few can defend themselves against a 
large number, especially by preventing a landing and dis- 
embarking troops. According to what is understood, the 
depth is not great enough for ships of a hundred tons, but 
I believe they make it shallower than it is, because I have 
described that island from the relation of Captain Diego 
Ramirez, who was slrande(J there, and it seems to me that 



648 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

other and larger vessels may enter. I do not remember it 
■well, because it is long ago, but the description is in the 
house of Don Eodrigo de Aguiar, of the India Board, and 
the [padron?] in Sevilla, in the house of the Licentiate 
Antonio Moreno, Cosmographer of the same. But above 
all this Captain will give you a sufficient account of the isl- 
and, and this is very important on account of the military 
measures which may hereafter be taken there. Its fertility 
is great ; fish and game abound infinitely, and pork is there 
as much as they can wish, and thus they are very comfort- 
able in that Colony, because they have little need of Eng- 
land, since they are likewise rich in amber and pearls, of 
which they say they have in very few months sent to this 
Kingdom more than fifty thousand ducats in value, counting 
the ounce at a moderate value. About four days ago there 
arrived here a vessel which brought them men and supplies, 
and they do not cease praising the good features of this 
island and its advantages. 

" The soil here is fertile, good for every variety of *"pf^ 
except for such as require very great heat, because it is cold 
here. There is much hunting and fishing, but as they have 
not yet had any profit from the mines, — except only in tim- 
ber which is very good, the merchants have not been able 
to support this colony with such liberality as is required, 
and thus they have suffered much want with only a miser- 
able supply of wheat or maiz and dressing wretchedly, so 
that i£ to-day three hundred men should come the first year 
consumes a hundred and fifty of them, and there is no year 
that half of them do not die. Last year there were seven 
hundred people here, and only three hundred and fifty 
remain, because the hard work and the scanty food, on pub- 
lic works kills them, and increases the discontent in which 
they live, seeing themselves treated like slaves, with great 
cruelty. Hence a good many have gone to the Indians, of 
whom, some have died at their hands, and others have gone 
out to sea, being sent out to fish, and those who remain do 
so by force and are anxious to see a fleet come from Spain 



MOLINA TO VELASCO. 649 

to release them from this misery, because from the griev- 
ance which they suffer they call upon God and appeal to 
Your Majesty, in whom they place great hopes. And thus 
let a fleet come and give them a passage to that Kingdom, 
not a single person will take up arms. They will rather 
give up all respect and obedience to their rulers, who think 
they can keep this up until death, and altho' there it is 
understood that the merchants are abandoning this Colony, 
it is not so, because this is a stratagem, by which they think 
they mislead Y. M., making it look as if this matter were to 
finish by itself and that thus there would be no necessity for 
going to the expense of fitting out a fleet of any size that 
might come with eight hundred or a thousand men and set- 
tle the matter with great facility — and even with five hun- 
dred, because no succor is expected from England to resist, 
and the fortifications which they have are levli and so fragile 
that a kick would destroy them, and when they are once 
supported by walls, those on the outside are better than those 
within because their beams and loopholes are common to 
both parts, a fortification without skill, and made by people 
who do not understand it. Nor are the men soldiers, altho' 
the rulers and Captains make a great profession of them, 
because of the great assistance they have rendered in Flan- 
ders, in favor of Holland, where some of them have com- 
panies and castles. The men are badly disciplined and not 
drilled at all, altho' their hopes are based upon one of two 
colonies, which they have established twenty leagues from 
here, up the river, in a turn of the river on a peninsula, 
which is very rough, with a small harbour for landing, and 
they are convinced that there they can defend themselves 
against the whole world. I have not seen it, but I know 
that the fortifications are like the others, and that one night 
the Indians broke in and took the whole place without resist- 
ance being made, shooting arrows in at all the doors, so that 
I do not fear any difficulty in taking this place nor Bermuda, 
especially if my advice is taken in both cases, as coming 
from a person who has resided here two years and who 



650 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

has examined all most carefully. I am looking for the 
decision of Y. M, desirous of being of some service, and I 
lay no stress upon my captivity nor the suffering which I 
have endured as a prisoner, by hunger, pain and illness, 
because he who suffers from love, looks upon his afflictions 
with indifference. The Ensign Marco Antonio Perez died 
fifteen months ago, more from hunger than from sickness, 
but certainly with the patience of a Saint and the spirit of a 
good soldier. 

"I have not suffered excessively, altho' considerably, 
because since I came here I have been acceptable to the 
people here, and they have sympathised with me, in propor- 
tion to their own misery, but with real good will. The sailor, 
who came with me, is said to be an Englishman and a pilot. 
He claims to be from Aragon and really no one would take 
him to be a foreigner. 

" This country lies in the midst of thirty-seven degrees 
and a third, in which lies also the bay which ^^ call Santa 
Maria ; five rivers fall into it, very wide and very deep ; 
this one measures at the entrance nine fathoms, and inside 
from five to six. 

" The others measure five, seven, eight and twelve. The 
bay measures eight at the mouth, but in some parts it is 
very wide, up to thirty leagues. There is much valuable 
timber there and material for shipbuilding; trees fit for 
such purposes as they may desire — very dark walnut wood, 
which they esteem very highly, together with other kinds of 
valuable trees. 

" The bearer is a gentleman from Venice, very honor- 
able, who, having fallen into certain grave errors, is now 
restored to his first religion, and says that God has made me 
His instrument in this change, for which I am deeply grate- 
ful. He desires to go to Spain and to make amends for his 
sins. If I am restored to freedom, I think, I shall assist him 
as far as I can. I beseech you to do me the favor and to 
make him some present, since I believe it will be a kindness 
very acceptable to Our Lord. You see. Sire, that I do not 




HENRY MONTAGUE 
First .Ed) I of Manche':i<'r 



MOLINA TO VELASCO. 651 

believe Charity to be extinct yet in Spain, and think it must 
be excited in you by a man who leaves here poor and sick, 
who cannot make any use of his good parts, and if I shall 
have to remain here long, I shall be no less in need of your 
assistance. By the information of this man, who will tell 
you what I endure you might assist me with some shipstores, 
such as brought here for certain private persons, and espe- 
cially hnen and cloth for clothing ourselves, this man and 
myself, since we go naked or so ragged, that it amounts to 
the same ; not being able to change shirts for a month, 
because as the soldiers say, my shirts are odd and do not 
amount to three. I trust in God, who will assist me, since 
He begins already by giving me health after eleven months, 
during which I had none. I have not space enough to 
write to His Majesty and you wiU be able to do it, inform- 
ing him of all I state. 

" May God preserve you, as I desire it. Prom Virginia, 
May 28*'' (as it is counted in Spain) 1613. 

" If you have the Key to my cipher you can write to me 
in the same cipher ; but this letter goes between the soles of 
a shoe, where it is sewed in, and thus I trust to God that I 
have not done wrong in writing in this manner. At first 
when I came here, I wrote to His Majesty a letter which 
required some interpretation and I addressed it, with some 
others to you. I do not know if you have received it. I 
hoped I would be able to send a description of this country, 
but the public nature of my lodging does not permit it; 
but the most important feature is the Bay which extends 
N. W. - S. E — and at the distance of four leagues from the 
mouth is this river in a Southerly direction, with 9 fathoms 
depth. At the entrance there is a fort, or, to say more cor- 
rectly a [flaco de tablas ?] ten hands high, with 25 soldiers 
and 4 iron guns. Half a league from here there is another 
one, but smaller, with 15 soldiers, without artillery. There is 
still another smaller one, all of which are inland, half a league 
off, against the Indians ; this has 15 soldiers more. Twenty 
leagues higher up is this Colony with 150 persons and 6 guns. 



652 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

Still higher up, twenty leagues off, is another strongly situ- 
ated settlement, to which all of them will be taken, when the 
occasion arrives, because there they place their hope. Here 
there are a hundred persons more and among them as 
among the people here there are women, boys and field 
labourers, so that there remain not quite two hundred effec- 
tive men and they are badly disciphned. 

"Don Diego db Molino." 



CCLXXIX. MOLINA TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S590, FOLIO Ul. 

Copy of a holographic letter of Don Diego de Molina to 
Don Alonso de Velasco, dated Virginia, July 8, 1613. 

" When I was captured in this province I wrote to you 
and to His Majesty, and addressed my letters to the care of 
the President of the Merchants Board, who have repeatedly 
assured me that they were handed to you — on which 
account I am very much astonished, that you have never 
replied to me, even as a comfort in so long a captivity — 
and thus I determined not to do it again, but to leave in 
God's hands as in the hands of a Father of Mercy and 
Compassion all my affairs. But having asked Mr Thomas 
Guietz [Gates] the Governor of this country, to send me on 
board the ship that is now saihng, to that kingdom, he has 
replied to me and actually ordered me to write to you 
beseeching you to manage it so that Master Clare [Clark] 
be restored and I be at once taken to Spain. If it be not 
for any other reason of yours, I should venture to trust the 
word of the Board, because the men of this nation, who do 
not like to bind themselves much, pride themselves much to 
keep their word, and thus it seems to me that if they offer 
to send me to Spain as soon as the others (are surrendered) 
in England this exchange might be made without any diffi- 
culty whatever. I understand very well that you will have 



MOLINA TO VELASCO. 653 

left no means untried, but one who is suffering, always likes 
to speak of his own affairs and suggest something that 
might be of advantage to him. I beseech you to do in this 
matter all that you can do, since it is a righteous cause. 
Here they have certainly treated me with great courtesy 
and Mr. Thomas Guiets has been a father to me, to whom 
I am greatly indebted, — and everybody here in particular, 
have shown me such love, that if I had been in need, they 
would have assisted me with everything that I could have 
needed — but as all the necessaries of life are provided by 
the Government and as there are many private persons 
here, there are given out to them every year provisions and 
cloth and fine linen for clothes, and I have desired to 
request that the same be done to me, so that I may not be 
compelled to weary the Governor and to exhaust the good 
will which he shows to myself and to the sailor who came 
with me, and who they say is an Englishman and a pilot — 
a thing very new to me who have always taken him for a 
Spaniard of Aragon, as he himself asserts. — and as Marco 
Antonio Perez the soldier who died here fifteen months 
ago, told me, has assured him that he came from the same 
country and on account of their intimacy, asked him to 
embark and to provide him with something from the Havan- 
nah to Spain. His captivity and mine are very free and 
we go about in the same manner as if we were Englishmen. 
They are certainly courteous and kindly disposed, Captain 
Adams, who sails in this vessel and it is understood will 
soon returne in it, I have asked to speak with you about 
my business, primary and secondary, about food and wear- 
ing apparel, because with that, they say, troubles are less. 
He will carry everything you may give him, for so he has 
promised me, and above all I beseech you, write to me, and 
if you do not do it, upon my word, this is my last, because, 
although a prisoner, I have my [juntos y coUares ?]. Par- 
don me, I pray, my eccentricity, and may Our Lord protect 
you as I desire, since all my affairs are summed up in this 
letter, and in my previous letters I gave you an account of 



654 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

all that I did until I was captured and the manner in which 
my misfortune came about. 

" From Virginia, July S*** 1613, according to the Grego- 
rian Calendar. 

"Don Diego db Molina." 

CCLXXIX. was probably not forwarded to Philip III. ; 
it was evidently only a bhnd intended to be shown for the 
purpose of deceiving the English. 



CCLXXX. PHILIP in. TO GONDOMAR, 

GENEBAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2572, FOLIO 17. 

Copy of a draft of a letter of H. M. to Don Diego Sarmi- 
ento de Acuna, dated San Lorenzo, August 10, 1613. 
" I have these last days, written to the Ambassador Don 
Alonso de Velasco in reply to another letter of his what 
you will see in the enclosed copy on the subject of the free- 
dom of three sailors from Spain, who had been captured in 
Virginia — and since it is not known as yet whether they 
have come back to that kingdom, nor what is done in this 
special case — I charge and command you to ascertain the 
state of this question. You will endeavour with great 
energy to secure these three sailors their freedom, taking 
for this purpose all such measures as may be most efficient, 
in conformity with the contents of the aforesaid copy — 
and you will promptly inform me of whatever may . . ." 

CCLXXXI. CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 

Chamberlain to Carleton. " From Ware-Parke this first 
of August 1613." 

..." Arthur Ingram for his good service was Knighted 
before the Kings going. I heard not long since that the 
younge Lady Rich is brought a bed of a daughter at Ken- 
sington. The Countesse of Cumberland wife of the now 



CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 655 

Earle is lately dead and so is old Simons of Oxfordshire. 
. . . There is a ship come from Virginia with newes of 
theyre well doing, which puts some life into that action, 
that before was almost at the last cast. They have taken 
a daughter of a King that was theyre greatest ennemie, as 
she was going a feasting upon a river to visit certain 
frends : for whose ransome the father offers whatsoever is 
in his power, and to become theyre frend, and to bring 
them where they shall meet -vsith gold mines : they pro- 
pound unto him three conditions, to dehver all the English 
fugitives, to render aU manner of armes or weapons of 
theyrs that are come to his handes and to geve them 300 
quarters of corne. The two first he performed redeHe and 
promiseth the other at theyre harvest. Yf his daughter 
maybe well used in the meanetime. But this Ship brought 
no commodities from thence but only these fayre tales and 
hopes. Marrie touching at the Bermudaes she hath brought 
thence some quantitie of perle, and between 20 and 30 
pound weight of ambergreece worth £900. at least; and 
by the next that is to come thence they are promised to 
have a return of fowre times as much. 

" When the business of Virginia was at the highest, in 
that heat, many gentlemen and others were drawn by per- 
swasion and importunitie of frends to underwrite theyre 
names for adventurers, but when yt came to the payment 
(specially the second or third time) theyre handes were not 
so redy to go to theyre purses as they were to the paper, 
and in the end flatly refused, wherupon they are sued by 
the companie in the Chauncerie, where this action findes such 
favor that they have redy dispatch, and the underwriters 
are forced to make payment, which amounts to a round 
summe, between three and fowre thousand pound : among 
the rest your cousen Will. Lytton was drawne on by Sir 
Walter Cope with perswasion that he shold not neede to 
adventure anything unles he list, but only to geve his 
name for incouragement to others and for a countenance to 
the cause : but now yt comes to the reckening he is faine 



656 PEEIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

to disburse £40. and his frend Sir Walter cannot protect 
him, et sic solet heare (sic) amicus." . . . 



CCLXXXII. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

August 15, 1613. Madrid. Digbye to James I. 

..." Desire of this State to maintain peace : they med- 
dle not in slight or uncertain enterprises : if they were fit 
for war, and that any occasion of important advantage 
were offered, they would not omit to layhold of it ; But 
herein I restraine myself to these parts of the world, for 
that I knowe they would have attempted the removing of 
the English from Verginea, but that they are certeynly 
informed ; the Buisines will fall of itself. And within these 
two dales I knowe both the Councell of Warr and of State, 
have satt about the over throwing of our new plantation in 
the Bermudas ; of the resolution taken therin, your Majes- 
tie shall, I hope, by my next, be particularly advertised." 

[Mem. — " Gondomar (to call him by a title not yet con- 
ferred on him as count, though he possessed the name 
seignorially) landed at Portsmouth, as Philip the Third's 
Ambassador, at the close of July, 1613." — " Life of Ra- 
legh," by Edwards, vol. i. p. 571. 

The exact date of his arrival in London I do not know. 
In his letter to the king, of September 25 (0. S.), 
(CCLXXXVIL), he mentions having previously written 
regarding the English- American colonies on the 27th of 
August (0. S.) ; but I have not found a copy of this letter, 
which was probably his first on the subject. In the same 
letter (CCLXXXVIL) he mentions having received from 
the king, on August 30 (0. S.), two letters, one CCLXXX., 
and the other of August ^j which has not been found.] 



PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 657 

CCLXXXIII. THE HARCOURT COLONY. 

August 28, 1613. " Grant to Robert Harcourt, Sir 
Thomas Challoner and John Rovenson [Robenson], and to 
the heirs o£ Harcourt, of all that part of Guiana or continent 
of America, between the rivers Amazon and DoUesquebe," 
etc. — Grant Book, Domestic, Jac. I., p. 126. 

" A Relation of a Voyage to Guiana, Describing the 
Climat, Situation &c of that Country. . . . The Pattent 
for the Plantation of which Country, his Maiestie hath 
granted to the said Robert Harcourt under the Great Seale. 
... At London Printed by John Beale, for W. Welby. 
. . . 1613." 

Dedicated to Prince Charles. Now worth $125. 

CCLXXXIV. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

Madrid, September 3, 1613. Digbye to James I. 

..." Touching Verginea ; The Spanish Ambassador in 
England hath receaved Letters from MoHna the Spaniard 
that is there, of the misery and distress in which they live ; 
So that it is determined by this Councell, not to speake any 
more in that Buisines, being a thing (they suppose) which 
will die of itself ; only it is ordered that the Spanish Ambas- 
sador shall represent unto your Majestie, the yll usage that 
the Spaniards have had in Verginea, and that one of them 
is dead with Hunger, notwithstanding that the English 
Pilot which was brought from thence and is here, hath beene 
verie well used." 

CCLXXXV. PHILIP III. TO VELASCO. 

GENERAL ABCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OP STATE, 
VOLUME S57S, FOLIO «. 

Copy of a deciphered letter of H. M. to Don Alonso de 
Velaseo, dated San Lorenzo, September 14, 1613. 
"I have seen your letter of the 2^ ult. [CCLXXVIL] 



658 PERIOD Hi. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

and also that which came with it from Virginia from Don 
Diego de Mohna [CCLXXYIII.], and I am thus made 
aware of all that is there said of the state of things in those 
countries. It will be well and I charge you, to succour 
him in the way which he suggests to you, with all the 
stores, cloth and Hnen he asks for, so that his sufferings 
may be somewhat relieved and his captivity eased. I also 
charge you to present to your King new and urgent remon- 
strances, so that they may as promptly as possible bring the 
said Don Diego over here, teUing him how the Ensign 
Marco Antonio has died there (calling him however a 
sailor), and how his pilot here is well treated, and that in 
justice the treatment ought to be the same, Molina being 
treated there as his pilot is treated here — and you will 
report to me all that . . •" 

[Mem. — The Martha returned from the Bermudas about 
the 19th of September, bringing the second third part of 
the " amber-greece."] 

CCLXXXVI. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

Madrid, September 22, 1613. Digby to James I. (In 
cypher-deciphered.) 

. . . "Heere is lately arrived a Poste from the newe 
Spanish Ambassadour,^ And I have founde meanes to come 
by a sighte of his dispatche.^ . . . 

" Hee (the ambassador) advertizethe further diverse things 
coneerninge Don Alonso de Velasco's departure and your 
Majesties bountie in presenting him : As likewise of ye state 
of our people in Virginia. And of ye course which is helde 
in ye newe Plantation of ye Vermudos." 

1 Gondomar, who has succeeded had bribed Velasco. I suppose this is 
Velasco. the letter of i^'g'S'i;,' mentioned in 

2 From this it seems that Gondomar CCLXXXVII., which has not been 
insinuated that the King of England found. 



GONDOMAR TO PHILIP III. 659 

CCLXXXVn. GONDOMAR TO PHILIP III. 

GENERAL ABCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2590, FOLIOS 118, 119. 

Copy of an original letter of Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuna 
to H. M., dated London, October 5, 1613. 

" Sire. 
« Y. M.'s letters of the 10*" and 20* ^ August were re- 
ceived by me on the 9"" ult : with a copy of what Y. M. or- 
dered to be written to Don Alonso de Velasco, on February 
7*'' of this year,* concerning the release of Don Diego de 
MoUna, who is a prisoner in Virginia — in which Y. M. com- 
mands me to make every effort that may be necessary, until 
the desired result be obtained. In compliance with this I 
have tried to inform myself as to the condition in which this 
matter is, and I have ascertained that more than a year ago 
this King here ordered Don Diego de Molina and his com- 
panions to be exchanged for the English pilot, who is in 
Spain and that this order has not been carried out because 
nothing was known of this pilot until now and because there 
was no opportunity of getting Don Diego de Molina here. 
And having renewed now the remonstrances which Don 
Alonso de Velasco had presented on this subject, I have 
caused the merchants of the Virginia-Board to be compelled 
to have Don Diego de Molina and his companions brought 
over here to be put into my hands, with the first ship that 
comes, and now Antonio de Acosta, a Portuguese merchant, 
an honorable man, who resides here, thro' who at the same 
time the English pilot in Spain will be handed over to the 
ambassador of this King, with which an order will be dis- 
patched by a vessel * which sails within 20 days from here to 

1 Philip III.'s letter of a'&w, 1613, * The Elizabeth, which sailed Octo- 
CCLXXX. bor 14th, on the nineteenth day there- 

2 Philip IIL's letter of August gth, after, thus showing that Gondomar 
1613. Not found. was correctly informed on this point. 

8 Philip III.'s letter of SiS,l^^^> But he is not generally more accurate 
1613. Not found. than the previous ambassadors. 



660 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

Virginia, that the Governor shall send Diego de Molina to 
this city, him and his companions by the first opportunity 
that may ofPer. By this vessel I shall send him some sup- 
plies of cloth and linen and some money, so that he may be 
able to dress himself more suitably than he says he is now 
able to do. Y. M. commands me to have him brought over 
and I hope that within six months this ship will be back 
here and that these men will come in her. 

''Considering that Colony and Bermuda I reported to 
Y. M. on the 6"' ult : ^ as to the state in which they are, and 
desirous to ascertain the correctness of that information, I 
have examined several persons of those who have come from 
Virginia in the last ship, and they all agree upon this : That 
there is a good bar and the entry into the harbour is by a 
river higher up — that upon the river they have erected five 
fortifications : the first Gomes [James] which is the name 
of this King here in English ; the second is called ' Hen- 
erique ' after the Prince who died ; the third is Charles, Wee 
the one who came to-day ; ^ Point Comfort the fourth, and 
Fort Henry the fifth ; and these forts are surrounded with 
earthworks, on which they plant their artillery. The Com- 
mander is now Don Thomas Gates, and Marshall Don 
Thomas Dale; there are about three hundred men there 
more or less; and the majority sick and badly treated, 
because they have nothing to eat but bread of maize, with 
fish ; nor do they drink anything but water — all of which 
is contrary to the nature of the English — on which 
account they all wish to return and would have done so if 
they had been at liberty. 

" The cattle which they take with them from here does 
not produce, nor does it improve, because there is but scanty 
and bad grazing on the fields. 

" The Savages and natives of the Country stand in bad 



^ Gondomar's letter to Philip III. of had found out something of the con- 
t"p?,mwii not found. It was received tents. See CCLXXXVI. 
prior to September 22d, when Digby ^ That is, the third is called Charles 

after the present prince. 




JAME;S MONTAGUE 
Bishop of Bath and Well^ 



GONDOMAR TO PHILIP III. 661 

relations to them and no Englishman can leave his fort with- 
out running great risk of his life. When the General some- 
times goes a hunting, he takes a guard with him to protect 
his person. 

" Nothing is brought from Virginia, of any importance, 
but there is an abundance of good timber for ship building. 

" In Bermuda there is as a Captain and Governor, a Mas- 
ter Mour, who was a carpenter in this city. It is about six 
days that a ship ' from there arrived here, and it brings 
sixty-four pounds of Ambergris, which is sold in this city at 
fourteen ducats an ounce ; it also brings some of the wheat 
that has been sown there, which, however, I am told, does 
not produce very well. 

" They have erected there a fort which is well intrenched, 
and with some few pieces of artillery and eighty persons, 
counting men and women, as I reported to Y. M., in my let- 
ter of the 6"" ult : and on this subject there is nothing new 
to be added. 

"Don Thomas Esmit [Smith] who is President of the 
Merchants' Council and Board, who have maintained and 
still maintain those Colonies at their own expense, has given 
us to understand that they have spent as much as forty-six 
thousand pound sterling in this enterprise, which make in 
our money a hundred and eighty four thousand dollars, 
counting the dollar at ten reales. All this has been contrib- 
uted by merchants and has been obtained by some lotteries 
which they have had here, and without costing the King a 
single real. But weary of spending so much money without 
any hope of reaping a profit, because the soil produces 
nothing, they now think of carrying all the people that are 
there to Bermuda or to Ireland by the coming Spring.^ 
For the ship which they now are dispatching, they have 

1 The Martha. quently very few, if any, people out- 

' A great deal of this talk was evi- side of the council were correctly in- 

dently intended to mislead the Span- formed as to the facts. Thus it hap- 

iard. From the beginning the enter- pened people were misinformed then, 

prise was necessarily carried on with and have been misled since. 
great diplomacy and secrecy. Conse- 



662 PERIOD III. NOVEMBEE, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

found only low and lost people to sail in it, because it has 
become known that of the thousand persons who last year 
went there, and of the few who were still there, up to now 
more than eight hundred have died, so that there remained 
there only three hundred. 

" May God preserve Your Catholic Majesty, as all Chris- 
tendom needs it ! 

"London, October 5*'' 1613. 

"Don Diego Sarmiento db AcuSa." 



CCLXXXVIII. EDMONDES TO JAMES I. 

Sir Thomas Edmondes to King James. Paris, France, 
October 11, 1613. 

..." I understand, that they are nothing well satisfied 
here, . . . that the french shippes were hindred this yeare 
by the English from the making of anie benefitt of the 
whale fishing at Greenland ; ^ which discontentment is also 
further aggravated by another advertisement which is come 
hither that the English shippes at Virginia ^ tooke a french 
shipe, which was going to make a plantation in those 
partes, and killed diverse of the men ; but as they here say, 
used greatest crueltie against certaine Jesuittes which were 
in the said shippe." 



CCLXXXIX. DIGBY TO JAMES I. 

Madrid, Spain, October 13, 1613. Sir John Digbye to 
James I. 

In reference to the dispatch of the Spanish ambassador, 
he says : " It is appointed. That for the business of Vir- 

1 These voyages of Captain Joseph ter of March 13, 1613 ; accounts of 

and Captain Argall caused a great the voyage will be found in Purchas, 

commotion at the time. The first will iii. pp. 716, etc., and Archceologia 

be mentioned several times hereafter Americana, iv. pp. 239-314. Argall's 

in these documents. It only belongs voyage is of course frequently men- 

to this work in an illustrative way. tioned hereafter. 
The expedition sailed under the char- 



PHILIP ni. TO GONDOMAR. 663 

ginea and the Bermudos, his advertisements be made 
known unto the Counsell of the Indies, and that ye Spanish 
Ambassador bee willed to advertise what hee shall farther 
heare of them ; and that ye Spanish Ambassador particu- 
larly labour to gett the liberty of Don Diego MoUna, the 
Spaniard that was left in Virginea." 

[Mem. — On the lith of October, 1613, the Elizabeth, 
Captain Adams, sailed from England to Virginia via the 
Bermudas, taking potatoes to the island and silkworms to 
Virginia.] 

CCXC. PHILIP III. TO GONDOMAR. 

GENERAL ABCHIVE8 OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 257^, FOLIO 27. 

Copy of an extract from a deciphered letter of H. M. to 
Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuna, dated Ventosa, October 
24, 1613. 

" It was well in you to give me an account of what has 
become known concerning Bermuda and Virginia, and I 
shall be pleased if you continue, so that here may be done 
whatever may be proper — and you will carry out the 
exchange which has been agreed upon, of Don Diego de 
Molina and the sailor with him, for the English pilot who 
is here — remembering that the said Don Diego is likewise 
called a sailor, which you must use instead of the other 
name, so as to prevent any difficulty in the exchange — and 
you will attend to the matter of clothing and provisions as 
he has requested." ^ 

1 This request was made in move the English from Virginia by 
CCLXXVIII. The contrast between force, as Zuniga did. To the contrary 
CCLXXVIII. and CCLXXIX., which his letters seem to be intended to pro- 
were written by the same person, pos- duoe the impression that the colony 
sibly to the same person, but for dif- would be abandoned. He was thus 
ferent purposes, will show very clearly " playing into the hands " of the Eng- 
what little reliance there is to be lish ; but whether intentionally, or 
placed in partisan evidence. Gondo- not, I cannot say. 
mar does not urge Philip III. to re- 



664 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

CCXCI. MONTMORENCY TO JAMES I. 
H. de Montmorency, Admiral of France, to King James. 

" SiBB. 

"I thought it was my duty to accompany the letters^ 
which the King my master wrote you, with some of my 
own, in order to have the honor to offer to your Majesty 
my very humble service, and to entreat you to be favorable, 
(since as Admiral under the authority of the King, I have 
the charge of the marine affairs of this Kingdom,) that I 
represent to you the just complaint and the injury which 
the French have received from some of your subjects who, 
being in an Enghsh ship called the Treasurer, whereof 
Samuel d'Argail is Captain, went to that country of Can- 
ada, called New France, to the harbor of Pentagoet, where 
they found a small settlement, which was begun by per- 
mission of the King with our leave, and at the expense of 
Madame La Marquis de Guercheville, lady of honor to the 
Queen, through a good and holy zeal to lead the poor Sav- 
ages of the said country to a civil conversation, and to 
preach to them the doctrine of Jesus Christ, and for that 
purpose, a number of Jesuit fathers were there- 

" But your said subjects have ruined this plan ; they 
have attacked the colony ; they have slain many men, and 
among others, two of the said Jesuits ; and besides, they 
carried away two others with them into Virginia, (by what 
people say) ; and have abandoned the rest of the people to 
the mercy of the waters, in a small skiff. We know well 
enough, Sire, the goodness, and the usual clemency with 
which you are filled, and that you are so far removed from 
such inhumanity that you will assuredly do justice in this 
matter, when you are informed of it. Therefore in the 
name of France, and of the private parties interested in 

1 I suppose these were the " French ceedings of the Mass. Hist. Society, 
Complaints." (See CCCXVIII.) 1884. 
CCXCI. was published in the Pro- 



CHAMBERLAm TO CAKLETON. 665 

these Countries, I beg your Majesty for three things : — 
One, that you will command the two Jesuit fathers to be 
returned in safety with the other prisoners ; the other, that 
restitution shall be made for so remarkable a robbery, 
•which costs the said dame Marquise more than a hundred 
thousand Hvres of loss. And the third, that your Council 
or the Company of Virginia may be obUged to declare and 
explain as far as where they understand to be carried, the 
boundaries and confines of the said country of Virginia, in 
asmuch as we thought the difficulty might have come on 
account of the neighborhood of the two Colonies. But your 
Majesty knows that for more than eighty years, the French 
have been in possession of it, and have given to it, the name 
of New France. The hope that your Majesty will be . . . 
how prudently to remedy this, and find it good, if it please 
you, that Mons. de Buisseaux, Ambassador may be inter- 
ested more particularly with it, to give us an answer to it as 
favorable as the complaint of it is reasonable, and full of 
justice. 

" Nevertheless I pray God, Sire, That he may give your 
Majesty a very long and very happy Hfe. 

" Your very humble Servant, 

" H. De Montmorency. 

" At Fontainebleau the xxviij of October. 1613." 

Indorsed : To the King of Great Britain : " A letter 
from the Admiral of France to his Majestie concerning 
Samuel ArgaU," etc. 

CCXCII. CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 

... "I have heard underhand that Sig' Fabritio [Sir 
Henry Wotton] is like to be sent into Spaine about some 
match, which I beleve the rather for that the Spanish 
Ambassador hath ben heard to say that he marvailes we 
shold treat or incline to Savoy or Fraunce, wheras his mas- 
ter is able to part with more then they both. Yesterday 



666 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

here arrived an ambassador from the new elected emperor 
of Moscovie, he had a peale of ordinance at his landing at 
towre-wharfe, and was receved by a 100 citizens on hors- 
back in velvet coates and chaines of gold and most of the 
Aldermen in scarlet, with about twenty coaches furnished 
with courtiers and gallants : The Spanish, the Archdukes 
and Savoy ambassadors stoode in windowes not far asunder 
to see him passe. . . . Our Companie of Moscovie have for 
these three or foure yeares found out a new and rich trade 
of fishing for the whale, about green-land or certain ylands 
there along, which yeelds above cento pro cento, with a 
short return and small charge, they in joyed yt quietly till 
this yeare that both Hollanders, French-men and Spaniards 
wold have come in for a share, but our men having some 
inckling of yt went well appointed with seven goode ships 
and so put them by, and sent them away, wherat there is 
much murmuring and complaint specially by the Holland- 
ers, who have sent certain deputies hither about yt, but our 
men pretend possession, and mean to maintain yt, though 
peradventure yt will come to blowes : this yeare they killed 
almost fowre-score whales, and almost ten times as many 
morses or seahorses, whose oyle, finnes and teeth are a 
great commoditie. 

" From the Bermudas or Sommer ylands there hath come 
great store of amber-greece this yeare, which is the only 
commoditie they have thence as yet, but they hope for 
more hereafter of many kindes though nothing so rich, and 
begin to nestle and plant there very handsomely : wher- 
with the Spaniard is nothing pleased but threatens the next 
yeare to remove them, which advertisement they have by 
goode meanes and many wayes, but they aseme nothing 
dismayed therewith trusting rather to the difficultie of 
accesse, then to any other strength of theyre owne : the 
greatest peece of amber in one lumpe that hath ben heard 
of was found there this yeare, beeing as bigge as the body 
of a giant and aunswerable or resembling almost in all 
points saving for the want of the head and one arme : but 



CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 667 

they handled the matter so foolishly that they hrahe yt in 
peeces, and the biggest they brought home was not above 
68 ounces : which sells better by twelve of fifteen shillings 
in an ounce then that which is smaller. Since Michaelmas 
we have had fowre ships come from the east Indies well 
and richly laden, and though they have ben long missing 
yet this return doth recompence theyre stay. . . . Ned Blunt 
tells me he hath sent you Sir Era : Bacons essais and other 
bookes, which I was willing to have provided according as 
you gave order in one of your former letters. There went 
a ship away in my absence, which I could not heare of till 
yt was gon. For almanachs I will send you one in a letter 
so soon as they come forth, for I cannot yet meet with any 
better conveyance. So with all due remembrance to my 
Lady I commend you to the protection of the Almighty. 
From London this 2T^ of October 1613. 
" Your Lordships to commaund 

"John Chambeelain." 

Addressed : " To the right honorable S' Dudley Carleton 
K* L"^ Ambassador for his Ma*'" at Venice." 

[Mem. — October 29. The Lord Mayor's pageant " The 
Triumphs of Truth " (the triumph of England's true pol- 
icy ?) was emblematical of the new trades, traffics and dis- 
coveries. 

October 30, 1613. Digby wrote to King James from 
Madrid : " Concerning the North-West Passage to the 
East Indies, the Spaniards always ' conceived that it would 
never prove matter of any consequence, but they are very 
glad now to b3 freed of this care, and that the Spanish 
Ambassador in England be thanked for his vigilancy 
therein." This, I suppose, is based on Captain Button's 
report. He returned to England from Hudson's and But- 
ton's Bay early in the autumn of 1613 ; but the exact date 
of his arrival is not known to me.] 



668 PERIOD III. NOVEMBEE, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

CCXCIII. DIGBY TO CAELETON. 

Madrid, Spain, November 3, 1613. Digbye to Carleton. 

Describes his interview with the Spanish Secretary of 
State, who " fell soddainelie into a very great complaint of 
his Majesties proceeding with this King, that hee woulde 
(as hee sayd) cause so great an Innovation as that the 
Spaniards, which had for so manie yeares fished in the 
Northerne-Seas over which hitherto no Prince had chal- 
lenged any particular Dominion shoulde now by his Maj- 
esties Subjects bee prohibited. And yet that his Majestie 
would give permission to his subjects to plante & inhabite 
in Virginia, and the Ilandes of ye Bermudos which had for 
manie yeares byne esteemed & knowne to belong unto 
the Conquest of Castile, for that hee thought yt strange 
that his Majestie should att the same tyme sufPer his people 
to possesse themselves of what was rightlie the King of 
Spaynes and shoulde forbidd the Spaniards from that which 
they had long used & to which hee knewe not what partic- 
ular clayme his majestie coulde pretend." 

Digbye's reply : " I told him, that first I coneeaved hee 
had byne misenf ormed, that the Spaniards had divers yeares 
used to theise parts now spoken of ; which had byne of late 
discovered & the Spaniards were never there untill the last 
Summer, when an Enghshman lead them thither. — Second- 
lie, I could no way yeeld unto him that eyther Virginia or 
ye Bermudos were . . . parts of the conquest of Castile but 
that the . . . selves the first Possidents. — Soe that I sup- 
posed what is sayd of the Whale-fishing was to bee debated 
& disputed in the same nature the Indies were, which the 
Crown of Castile without controversie discovered and pos- 
sessed. And that then hee would see that his Majestie 
onelie followed theire owne foote steppes. For that there 
were att the present divers of his Majesties subjects in 
theire Gallyes for having ofEred to trade to the Indies beeing 
onlie taken in the way thither. And that I coneeaved the 
same reason of beeing the first Possident was equallie to 



LIMITS OF THE SPANISH POSSESSIONS. 669 

holde in both. And that as his Majestie had followed 
theire example in reserving the trade of his discoveries unto 
his owne subjects, so hee would willinglie give free accesse 
unto them, when they should hold yt fitt to permitt the like 

unto theirs And that for the Pope's donation it 

was grown to be so lightly esteemed, that it was almost 
left to be alleadged by them." 

Digby says there were arguments on both sides ; and that 
he ' desired the Secretary would provide against the English 
merchants being wronged by way of fact, and that disputes 
as to title might be decided by fair courses between the two 
kings.' 



CCXCIVi. AND CCXCIV2. LIMITS OF THE SPANISH 
POSSESSIONS. 

These papers are apparently rough notes for a reply to 
the Spanish claims to America. They are from the Eng- 
lish State Paper Office. — Colonial Papers, vol. i. No. 32. 
They are filed under 1613 ; but their date is indicated as 
questionable thus, " 1613 ? " They were written after 
December, 1609, and I am inclined to think before 1613 ; 
but I place them here about as I find them in the State Paper 
Office. The name of the author is not given, but the doc- 
uments were evidently written either by the Rev. Richard 
Hakluyt, or with his assistance, or were compiled from his 
works. They contain many of his ideas, expressed almost 
in the same words as in his publications. 

CCXCIVi. 

"The true limites of all the countries & provinces at 
this present actually possessed by the Spaniards & Portu- 
gales in the West Indias. 

" All that parte of the West Indias which at this day is 
inhabited by the Spaniards & Portugales is almost included 
within the two Tropiques ; excepting the two small townes 
of Sant Augustin & Santa Helena in Florida & the province 



670 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

of Nuova Biscaia northward, & 5 townes in the river, namely 
Buenos Aeres, Santo Spirito, Santa Anna, the city of Ascen- 
sion, & Santa Fee beyond the Southerne tropique, as also in 
the Kingdome of Chili upon the South Sea, the townes of 
Coquimbo, Penco, Angol, Sant Jago, La imperial. Villa 
rica, and Villa del lago. 

" I doe not deny, but that northward & southward they 
have discovered much farther : but that they have no farther 
actual possession then before is specified, their own later 
histories, ruttiers & Journals which We have to shew, & 
our Englishmens manifold experience do assure us. 

" The most Northerly provinces of Nueva Espanna within 
and near the Tropique, are Nueva Galicia upon the South 
Sea & Guastecan upon the bay of Mexico. The most north- 
erly Spanish towne in Culiacan a province of Nueva Ga- 
licia is S* Michael situate in 24 degrees of North latitude 
and the Northernmost Spanish townes in Guastecan are 
Tampico, Panuco, Sant Jago de las Valles; as evidently 
appeareth by the 8"" & 9*'' mappes seen in the last edition of 
Ortelius his Theatrum Orbis, who was the sworne cosmog- 
rapher of the King of Spaine. 

" Southward of these lyeth the Kingdome of Mexico com- 
prehending in it the provinces of Yucatan, the Honduras, 
Guatimala & Veragua on the east parte, as likewise Mechu- 
acan, Colima & Sacatula on the west, & downe more south- 
erly the provinces of Soconusco, Chiapa, Nicaragua & Costa 
ricas besides other inferiour provinces ; and it streatcheth to 
the townes of Panama and Nombre de dios standing both 
upon the Istmus or Neck-land of Darien. 

" The second general part of the West Indias called by the 
Spaniards Tierra firma beginneth upon the North Sea at the 
gulfe of Uraba [Darien] & is inhabited eastward by the 
Spaniards both on the sea coast, & within the land as far as 
the isle of Trinidad. Their principal inland townes are 
Mompox, Santa Fee, Caly, Angerma, Popaian, Pasto, Victo- 
ria, Carthago, Timana, Meriola, Pamplon, Tunxa, Santa Fe, 
Tocayma, St Jago de Leon, &et. Their chief townes & 




GEORGE MONTAIGNE 
Archbishop of Tork 



LIMITS OF THE SPANISH POSSESSIONS. 671 

havens on the sea-coast are Cartagena, Santa Marta, Rio de 
Hacha, Coro, Burburate, Caracos, Cumana, wherunto may 
be added the isles of Margarita & Trinidad. 

" From the isle of Trinidad standing in 10 & 9 degrees 
of North latitude all along the coast to the Equinoctial line, 
& thence forward to Paraiba, Petiguaras, & Fernambuck 
situate in 7. & 8. degrees of southerly latitude, to the space 
of 500 leags, there are no Christians at all inhabiting, as we 
are taught by our owne late & yearly experience. 

" From Paraiba in 7 degrees of latitude southward, the 
Portugales doe inhabite upon the Coste of Brasill the townes 
of Fernambuc, Baija de todos Santos which is the seat of 
the \dzroy & bishop of Brasil, the towne of Baija das Ilhas, 
Porto Seguro, Baija del Spirito Santo, with the townes of 
Santos & Sant Vincente, which towne of Sant Vincents 
standeth in 24 degrees of south latitude. 

"From Sant Vincente to the streights of Magellan all 
along the sea-coast, for the space of 700 leags ther are no 
Christian inhabitants : onely the Spanniards have planted 5 
inland townes before mentioned upon the river of Plate. 

" Within the streights of Magellan they have not anie 
towne either upon the North or South shore. And as for 
the townes of Nombre de Jesus, & ciudad del Rey Phil- 
ippe, they have bin found long since by M'' Candish in both 
his voiages & by diverse others of our notion, to be utterly 
ruined and dispeopled. 

" Also from the streights of Magellan to the Isle of Santa 
Maria standing within the South Sea in 37 degrees, to witt, 
for the space of 300 leags they have no habitation at all. 

" From this isle to the Tropique of Capricorne streatch- 
eth the lande of Chili containing the 7 townes before men- 
tioned. 

" At this tropique beginneth the province of Peru which 
extendeth between the sea-coast & the mountaines called 
Andes somewhat to the northward of the Equinoctial. And 
here the Spaniards have many townes & cities both upon 
the coast & also within the country. On the coast they 



672 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

have Arica, Arequipa, Pisca, Lima, the seat of the Vizroy 
containing 2000 housholds, & the townes of Santos, Tru- 
sillo, Cherepe, Paita, & the isle of Puna. The chief places 
of the inland are Potossi, Charcas, Cusco, & Quito. 

" From Quito to Panama the coast lieth in a manner 
desolate. 

" These before mentioned are the principal provinces, 
cities & townes actually possessed by the Spaniards upon 
the maine of America. 

"The chief islands that they possesse as parte of this 
new World are St Juan de Puerto rico, Hispaniola, Cuba & 
Jamaica. As for the great multitude of those other small 
Isles called Las AntiUas adjoining to these 4, they are either 
utterly desolate, or inhabited by a few Salvages. 

" So that besides all those huge coasts & mighty inlandes 
lying southward of the Tropique of Cancer, which hitherto 
are quite free from any Spanish government ; all those large 
& spatious countries on the East parte of America from 32 
to 72. degrees of northerly latitude, have not nor never had 
any one Spanish Colonic planted in them ; but are both by 
right of first discovery performed by Sebastian Cabota at the 
cost of King Henry the 7''' & also of later actual possession 
taken in the behalf e & under the sovereign authority of her 
Majesty, by the several deputies of Sir Walter Ralegh, & by 
the two English Colonies thither deducted (wherof the later 
is yet ther remaining) as likewise by Sir Humfry Gilbert, 
Sir Martin Frobisher, M'' John Davis, & others, most justly 
& inseparably belonging to the Crowne of England. Which 
countries being greater then all Europe, & in goodnes of soile 
nothing inferiour therunto, are by no meanes by us to be 
given over unto them, who have already a great deal more 
then they can well wield. 

"Lastly on the backside or west of America, beyond 
Cape California, from 24 degrees of Northerly latitude to 
43 degrees (all which coast Sir Francis Drake in his voiage 
about the world discovered & took possession therof for her 
Majestic in 38 degrees, calling the country Nova Albion) 



LIMITS OF THE SPANISH POSSESSIONS. 673 

they have not one foot of actual possession, much lesse more 
Northerly. And therfore in time to come they shall have 
no pretense of cavillation against a Northwest passage, if 
it should please God to lay open the same. 

" FINIS." 



CCXCIV^. 

" Whither an Englishman may trade into the West In- 
dies, with certain answers to the Popes BuU.^ 

" First it is to be understood that the King of Spaines 
title to the Indias dependeth upon a guift or bull of Pope 
Alexander the 6*^ dated 1493. Against which it may be 
said that the Pope had no authority to subject temporally 
the infidels, or to take away their landes without a cause. 

" Secondly the consent of the pope if it ever ratified, was 
only conditional, and is to be understood, that 
things already safe should be kept. And the very Barthoiome 
wordes of the BuU be not to grant a conquest or 
such an absolute power, but a meanes to converte & reduce 
them to Christianity ; although the usage of the Spaniard 
hath bin otherwise, & so the grante voide. 

" Thirdly the Bull or grante is to be understood in eases 
lawfuU, & not tending to the prejudice of a thirde person. 

" All princes & estates had & have by the laws of nations 
the right of navigation in the sea, & the right of traf&que, 
which the Pope by the f nines of his authority cannot take 
from them : & the wordes of the said Bull are express 
that the Pope did not intende to take from any Christian 
Prince such right as he had obtained. 

"Fourthly in case any such guift or inhibition of the 
Pope were lawful!, & the right were soly ia the King of 
Spaine, as he pretendeth : yet wheras after the date of the 
same bull his auncesters accorded & covenanted with the 
King and crowne of England, that the subjects on both 

1 This paper is indorsed " Certayne tion, with reasons why the English 
briefe answeres to the Bui of Dona- may trade into the West Indies." 



674 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

sides might freely traffique in the Kingdomes & dominions 
of both the parties contracting, ther is no doubt but that 
Englishmen may lawfully repaire into the West Indias being 
parcel of the dominions for trade & traffique of marchandise. 
For the wordes of the treaties with King Ferdinand & his 
wife Queen Isabell of Castile, & likewise with the Emperor 
Charles are general & generally to be understood. And as 
it would be hardly taken, that the King of England con- 
tracting of free traffique, & commerce in his kingdomes 
& dominions, should (for examples sake) inhibite the Span- 
iard to come into Irland : so the like reason is, that the 
King of Spaine contracting in like sorte should permitt 
onely a traffique in Spaine & in no other places. 

"Seing therfore, that the Sea & trade are common by 
the lawe of nature and of nations, it was not lawfuU for 
the Pope, nor, is it lawfuU for the Spaniard to prohibite 
other nations from the communicatio & participatio of 
this lawe. 

" And if they do prohibite them from those things which 
are allowed by the lawe of nations, that is from marchan- 
dise, which also are due by special consideration, every man 
may defend himselfe & resist violence by violence. 

" And therfore the Sjjanish lawiers themselves have con- 
cluded that the Venetians cannot inhibite that none but 
themselves shall navigate and trade within their Gulfe in 
the Adriatick Sea : neither can the Spaniards or Portugales 
make any such prohibition of their Indies, to prohibite law- 
full & orderly traffique ; which right appertaineth unto all 
nations, by the lawe of nations, as well as unto them. 

" Such were the first navigations of Sir John Hawkins, 
Sir Francis Drake, and others. 

"And considering that the hostility & injuries offered 
unto them traffiquing peaceably & lawfully (which are to 
be sett downe) were both against the lawe of nations, and 
also special treaties between both nations ; they might de- 
fend themselves, & lawfully continue traffique with the In- 
dians both subject & not subject to the King of Spaine. 



GONDOMAR TO PHILIP III. 675 

" And SO mucli may be alleaged for the excuse of Sir 
Francis Drakes first voiages into the West Indias. 

" For the maintenance of the justice of his two last voiages 
thither with some of her Majesties ships, the first to St 
Domingo & Cartagena & the second (in which he died) 
to Nombre de Dios being no private but publique actions, 
another course must be holden. Viz : of injuries & hos- 
tihties declared by the open actions of the King of Spaine 
from time to time against her Majesty & her realme, & this 
to be deducted particularly & at large. 

" Besides the cruel usage of her Majesties subjects law- 
fully & peaceably traffiquing into Spaine, without offence, 
by inquisicion against the lawe of nations, & the treaties. 
And this point is to be amplified by examples : and the evil 
usage of her subjects traffiquing unto the Indias. 

" The preparation of an intended conquest, as appeared 
afterwards by the fleet sent under the charge of the duke 
of Medina Sidonia, & such like. 

" FINIS." 



CCXCV. GONDOMAR TO PHILIP III. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME 2590, FOLIO 18. 

Copy of an original letter of Don Diego Sarmiento de 
Acuna to the King of Spain, dated London, November 
16, 1613. 

" Sire — 

" The ship ^ which I reported to Y. M. on the 5th ult : 
[September 25] as getting ready for Virginia, sailed from 
here on the 24th [October 14] and carried the supplies 
of cloth and linen, which Diego de Molino asked for, and 
some money to treat himseb: with. I hope that he wiU come 
to this country, with the return of this vessel, which from 
what I hear, will be in four or five months. 

1 The Elizabeth. 



676 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

" May God protect the Catholic person of Y. M. as Chris- 
tendom needeth so much. London, November 16, 1613. 
"Don Diego Sarmibnto de Acxjna." 

[Mem. — In November, 1613, the English merchants 
went " roundly to work and in less than a fortnight sub- 
scribed £400,000 [equal to about $10,000,000 present val- 
ues] to be employed in the trade to East India." 

In 1613, Champlain published his journals, maps, etc., of 
his voyages to America made in 1604-1613. This work 
gives the result of his surveys along the coast of Massa- 
chusetts and Maine, made in the summers of 1604, 1605, 
and 1606. Purchas had Champlain's works, and gave 
translations from them. Translations have also been pub- 
lished in this country by the Prince Society of Boston in 
1878, 1880, and 1882. 

" The Description and use of the Sphsere Devided into 
three principal Partes : . . . By Edward Wright . . . Lon- 
don, Printed for John Tap, dwelling at S. Magnus corner. 
1613." I merely call attention to the above work as a 
sample of sundry books which were appearing from year 
to year, having an indirect bearing on the enterprises of 
which we write.] 

CCXCVI. ORDER IN THE PRIVY COUNCIL. 

From London " Documents relating to the Colonial His- 
tory of the State of New York," vol. iii. p. 1. Albany, 
1853. 

Order in Council respecting certain complaints against 
Captain Argall, etc. 

" At the Court at Whitehall the 2. of January 1613. 
being Sunday before noone. 

Present. 
[Geo. Abbot] Lo. Archbp. of Cant. [Wm.] E. of Pembroke. 
[Thos. Egerton] Lo. Chancellor. [Edwd.] Lo. Zouche. 



EDMONDES TO JAMES I. 677 

[Robt. Carr] Lo. Privie Seale. [Wm.] Lo. KnolKs. 

[Thos. Howard] Lo. Chamberlaine. [John] Lo. Stanhope. 
[Edwd. Somerset] E. of Worcester. S"" Jul : Caesar. 
[Sir Edwd. Coke] Lo. Chiefe Justice." 

This council sent the following letter to Sir Thomas 
Smythe : — 

" We have lateiie received divers Complaints exhibited by 
the French Ambassador on the behaKe of eertaine French- 
men of Eochelle, St. John de Luz, and others, some of 
them concerninge outrages committed upon them (as is 
alleged) on the coast of Canada by Captain Argall em- 
ployed for Virginia, others on their fishing voyage towards 
Greenlands by one Captain Benjamin Joseph, who com- 
manding a ship of the Moscovie Companie this last summer, 
found some of those Frenchmen in those parts and tooke 
from them a great quantitie of Traine and whalebones, 
wherewith they had laden their shipp, and sent them away 
emptie, as appeareth by the memoriaUs presented by the 
French Ambassador, which we send you here withall. 

" Forasmuche as it will be expected that His Majestic 
should forthwith give some satisfaction to the said Ambas- 
sador, touchinge both complaints we have thought good 
first to require you to acquainte some of the Councell of 
Virginia herewithall, as also some of the Moscovie Com- 
panie so far as it coneernes eyther of them respectively and 
to returne us their severaU and particular answers unto 
eache of them with all expedition, that the ambassador, 
may likewise receive his answer from his Majestie or his 
Boord." . . . 

CCXCVII. EDMONDES TO JAMES I. 

Sir Thomas Edmondes to King James. Paris, France 
January 2, 161|. 

« SiKB. 

..." Finding Mons'' de Villeroy, that tyme, in a better 
moode, then when I formerly debated these matters with 
him, I made it appeare unto him by manie instances, that 



678 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

the interest which they (the French) pretended to have in 
the discovei'ies which we had made with great perill and 
charge (concerning the which he had before spoken to me 
much out of square) was contrarie to the received custome 
and practise of all nations, wherewith he was so well satis- 
fied, as he said, that he would no more dispute that matter 
with me." . . . 



CCXCVIII. THE MASK OF FLOWERS. 

January 6, 1614. " The Maske of Flowers, presented 
by the Gentlemen of Graies-Inne, at the Court of White 
Hall at the Banquetting House, upon Twelfe-Night 1613. 
Being the last of the Solemnities and Magnificences which 
were performed at the marriage of the Earle of Somerset 
and Lady Frances, daughter of the Earl of Suffolke. Lon- 
don. Printed by N. 0. for Kobert Wilson . . . 1614." 

This mask was prepared by Sir Francis Bacon. In it 
Florida Indians and tobacco are made to play important 
parts. There is a colloquy between Silenus (in praise of 
wine), and Kawasha, the god of the Florida Indians (in 
praise of tobacco) : — 

" Silenus. Kawasha comes in majestie, 

Was never such a God as he: 

He 's come from a farre countrie 

To make our nose a chimney. 
Kawasha. The Wine takes the contrary way 

To get into the hood, 

But good Tobacco makes no stay 

But seizeth where it should. 

More incense hath burned at 

Great Kawashae's foote 

Than to Silen and Bacchus both, 

And take in Jove to boote. 
Silenus, The Worthies they were nine, 't is true, 

And lately Arthurs' knights I knew, 

But now are come up Worthies new, 

The roaring boys, Kawashae's crew. 
KawasJia. SUenus toppes the barrel, but 



ORDER IN THE PRIVY COUNCIL. 679 

Tobacco toppes the braine, 

And makes the vapours fire and soote. 

That man revives againe — 

Nothing but fumigation 

Doth charm away ill spirites, 

Kawasha and his nation 

Pound out these holy rites." 



CCXCIX. ORDER IN THE PRIVY COUNCIL. 

From London " Documents relating to the Colonial His- 
tory of the State of New York," vol. iii. p. 2. Albany, 
1853. 

"At the Court, Whitehall the 23. of January 1613. 
being Sonday afternoone. 

Present. 

Lo. Archb. of Cant. Lo. KnoUys. 

Lo. Chancellor. [Thos.] Lo. Wotton. 

Lo. Pr. Seale. Lo. Stanhope. 

Lo. Chamberlaine. S"^ Jul : Caesar. 

'' The answer of the Lords of His Majesties unto the com- 
pleynts exhibited by the Lord Embassador of France touch- 
inge spoyles and other violences supposed to be committed 
by His Majesties subjects of Great Brittaine upon the sub- 
jects of France on the Coast of Greeneland and Cannada. 
. . . [The part relating to Greenland is omitted.] For the 
matter of Cannada, their Lordships having required The 
Treasurer and Councell of Virginia, whom it concernes, to 
make answer thereunto, they say, that since the month of 
June, they have not received any shipp or advice from Vir- 
ginia, whereby they cannot be informed of any such misde- 
meanors, but upon Captain Argall's returne, which they 
expect about the beginning of the Spring, or upon any 
other notice of the fact, (whereof they will seeke to be 
informed by all the means they may,) they will eertifie their 
Lordships, whereupon such course shall be taken for resti- 
tution and punishment of the offenders as shall be to the 



680 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

good satisfaction of the sayd Lord Embassador, and the 
parties interested." 

[Mem. — Court minutes, East India Company. February 
26, 1614. " Permission to Sir Thomas Dale, now employed 
in Virginia, to adventure £100. in the joint stock, at the 
request of Sir Wm. Throgmorton." March 3. " Lent two 
culverins to The Virginia Company." 

In March the States General grant the Dutch charters, 
for making discoveries, trading, etc., in America. 

Captain Marmaduke Roydon, Captain George Langam, 
Master John Buley, and Master William Skelton sent two 
ships from London, under Master Thomas Hunt and Cap- 
tain John Smith, for our New England coast. They went 
from the Downes the third of March, 1614, " Set out by 
certaine Merchants for the love of gaine." 

The Somers Islands Company sent out about this time 
for the Bermudas, the Blessing, the Starr, the Margaret, 
and two pinnaces, the Thomas and the Edwin.] 

CCC. GONDOMAE TO PHILIP III. 

GENEBAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S592, FOLIO U- 

Copy of an original letter of Don Diego Sarmiento de 
Acuna to the King of Spain, dated London, March 17, 
1614. 

« SlEE. 

" Since I have come here I have continued reporting to 
Y. M. about the condition of the Colonies of Virginia and 
Bermuda, as far as I have heard. About Virginia they 
tell me that a resolution has been passed to abandon that 
colony, and carry the people to Bermuda ; because Virginia 
does not in any way answer to what had been expected, 
and is on the contrary very expensive to the company here, 
which sustains it, and the King gives nothing but Patents 
and Titles towards the establishment of these Colonies. 




SIR HENRY NEVILLE 



GONDOMAK TO PHILIP III. 681 

The members of the Virginia Company have now asked 
permission from the Eang and the Council, to Avithdraw the 
people from there this Spring, before the few survivors 
should die. This permission has not been granted, (has 
been refused) with the suggestion that it was well to pre- 
serve that place, altho' it be good for nothing more than to 
kill people and to afford an outlet to them from here ; 
since in this Kingdom here, they grow and multiply so as 
to be innumerable. Thus they have gone back and tried a 
kind of fortune, which here they call a Lottery, to succor 
and maintain that colony of Virginia, which as Y. M. no 
doubt has heard had its beginning more than twenty years 
ago. He who first brought the English here was Captain 
'Don Guater Rale' [Sir "Walter Raleigh] a great favorite 
of the Queen Elizabeth, and for her sake he called it Vir- 
ginia. We expect Don Diego de Molina very shortly here 
and he will surely tell us what there is in all this ; but some 
of the English themselves who have been over there have 
spoken to me about it exactly as I have informed X- M. 

" It is three years since the English have had a footing 
in Bermuda, by the accidental loss of a ship on that coast. 
It was coming from Virginia ; the Captain was called ' Neo- 
porte,' a famous sailor ; with a part of the timber and the 
rigging of the wrecked ship they built themselves on the 
island of Bermuda another small vessel, and in this ship 
building and in well reconnoitreing the country they spent 
ten months. Here they say that of old that Country was 
called the Land of the Devils on account of the dangers of 
the Sea, the coast and the harbour ; but now this Colony 
appears with great power, and here they speak of it with 
great consideration. A company has already been formed 
of ^"j'ghtrall of this city, for its benefit, which counts, I am 
told, more than four hundred Members, and among them 
the Earl of Pembroke of the Council of State, the Earl of 
Southampton, Count Montgomery, Baron Walden, eldest 
son of the Earl of Suffolk and other great lords and 
knights ; but the majority are merchants, and great hopes 



682 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

are entertained from this discovery, if the peace with Spain 
should ever be broken. The people that were there last 
year, were one hundred persons men and women. There 
will probably leave here three hundred persons, two hun- 
dred and fifty men, and a few women, most of them lost 
people, or put in jail as vagabonds, and thus now they send 
them out to help in Bermuda. These people go out in a 
ship and in two pinnaces ; the ship is called ' The Star,' of 
two hundred and sixty tons, carries twenty-four pieces of 
artillery. The pinnaces are of 20 tons each and in each of 
them go some twenty five men ; they also carry some very 
small little pieces of artillery. They also send out in this 
ship some engineers and skilled workmen, who know how 
to throw up fortifications (earth-works), with some elderly 
men to be put in charge of these ships and to govern on 
shore, with a list, and the rank of those who are, each one 
to succeed others, precisely as if they were dying men and 
failing ; because he who has so far been the Head of the 
English in Bermuda, is Master ' Mun ' [Moor] a carpenter. 
They go to this place with the intention of well fortifying 
that post and to keep putting into it up to a thousand 
Englishmen, and thus they propose very shortly to send 
another ship there, which is called ' Mateo ' of two hun- 
dred and fifty tons, with twenty two pieces of artillery and 
carrying out a hundred settlers. They say that there is 
but one single channel by which you can enter the port, 
that this channel is one ' mile ' long in passing, which is 
the third part of a league. They go to the entrance of 
this channel intending to erect a fort on each side, and to 
furnish them with much artillery. They have destroyed 
and shut up every other landing place in the whole island, 
so that in no part of it a vessel can come to the shore, 
unless it be thro' this one channel, the entrance of which is 
on the Northside, or on the other side, almost directly oppo- 
site of it towards the South, which they have not been able to 
close entirely. Nor do they trouble themselves much about 
this, because, they say that no large ship can approach it, 



GONDOMAK TO PHILIP III. 683 

but only launches and small boats. It is for this purpose 
that they carry the two pinnaces, because it seems to them 
that they will be sufficient to prevent any one from entering 
that Koad and little harbour. Those who are now going 
out carry with them power and authority to distribute lands 
as heirlooms to private Englishmen, as it may appear best 
to them in order that they may work them and reap the 
benefit, as if they were their own. They find in this island 
of Bermuda such a number of pigs that they need not 
much meat ; there is also a great abundance of birds and 
fishes there. The principal hope of profit which they cher- 
ish of this Colony is in the amber, which has been found in 
abundance, and in Pearls likewise, because in a very shallow 
water and without its being necessary to ^"^ they have 
already found a large number, and have brought some 
home with them, which have been sold at forty reales each 
pearl ; while they hope in deeper water they will find more 
of them and larger ones. For this purpose they take out 
with them some famous divers, and as they have also been 
told, that it was on this coast Don Luis de Cordoba was 
lost with the four silver-Galleons, they go with the inten- 
tion of making these swimmers and divers search carefully, 
if they may discover some of these ships, which they pre- 
sume must hold great treasures. In pursuing the pearl 
fishery within the sea they meet on the coast of Bermuda 
with one great difficulty which has prevented them so far 
from fishing except on the coast, and this is a great quan- 
tity of certain fishes larger than dogs, which it is said the 
English call from their form * Jarques ' [sharks] and the 
latter say that they attack and at once, dispatch any man. 
The English, however, are also full of hope, to catch them 
and clear the coast of them. This Company continues to 
possess much property and thus that Colony will be liber- 
ally assisted and helped with everything that may be neces- 
sary. 

" They tell me that the Embassador of this king here, at 
your Court, has written to him that Y. M. was bent upon 



684 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

destroying- this Colony of the English and to drive them 
out of Bermuda. Now Count Somerset has also thus 
informed the members of the Bermuda-Company, in order 
that in conformity with this they may arrange matters, pre- 
pare all that may be necessary and send succour promptly. 
It is this which makes this vessel sail now with the two 
pinnaces, and the other ship wiU also sail very shortly. All 
the Members of this Company, therefore, teU me, that they 
are fiUed with anxiety, especially as they have also been 
told that there are several English pilots in the navy of Y. 
M., who know that coast perfectly well, as also the harbour, 
having been there themselves ; on this account it is that, 
altho' they had given orders to these ships who are now 
carrying these people over there, after having landed them 
in Bermuda, to go and catch codfish at Newfoundland; 
they have now, after this warning, changed their plan and 
ordered those ships to lie by and assist in guarding the 
island. 

" Y. M. will see from all these statements what may be 
most important to be done for His Royal service, and if it 
should be necessary for me here to take any special meas- 
ures, Y. M. win be pleased to command me. 

" May God protect the Catholic person of Y. M. etc. 

"London March 17. 1614. 

"Don Diego Sarmiento de Acxjna." 

[Mem. — Entered at Stationers' Hall, March 9, 1614, by 
Felix Kingston — under the handes of Sir Thomas Smithe 
and M' Warden Feild. " A declaration of the present estate 
of the English in Virginia, with the final resolucon of the 
Great Lotterye intended for their supply." 

Copies of this publication seem to have been sent to 
all the city companies of London ; and it has been said 
that none can now be found; but I am convinced that 
CCGXLII. was a later issue of the same pubUcation. The 
reference in CCCXLI. is certainly to CCCXLIL, and the 
reference in CCCI. is certainly to this publication, and I 



PRIVY COUNCIL TO CITY COMPANIES. 685 

am sure that both references are to the sarae publication. 
See, also, the remarks on CCCXLII. and that number 
itself. The following letter was sent with this Declara- 
tion (of March 9, 1614), to the several city companies of 
London.] 



CCCI. PEIVY COUNCIL TO CITY COMPANIES. 

" To Our very loving frindes the Master Wardens and As- 
sistants of the Company of . . . 

" After our harty commendations, wee send you herewith 
a true declaration of the present estate of the English Colony 
planted in Virginia together with a project by help of a 
lottery to bring at length that work to the successe desired. 
Wee shall not need to commend unto you that worthy and 
Christian enterprize full of honour and profitt to His Majes- 
tie and the whole realme, yf the endes in the sayd declara- 
tion expressed may in processe of tyme be attained unto, 
whereof the hopes (as you may perceave) nowe are great 
for advancing and bringing whereof to some good perfec- 
tion, we hartily pray you to employ your good endeavours 
amongst the Brethren of your Company to adventure in the 
sayd Lottery destined to soe good a purpose such reason- 
able sumes of money as each of them may conveniently and 
can willingly spare, nothing doubting but that excited by 
your good example and persuasion they will shew them- 
selves forward to adventure in soe faire a Lottery wherein 
hapily they may be gainers, and what soever any shall loose 
shall be bestowed on soe good a worke and so behovefuU to 
the whole realme. 

" You shall alsoe receave herewith from the Treasurer and 
Councell of Virginia such Bookes as are requisite for the 
registring of the sayd sumes adventured which we pray you 
with as much expedition as may be (in regarde of their 
present wants to sett forth a shippe thither this Springe) to 
return with the money gathered to the sayd Treasurer, from 
whom wee will take notice of your proceedings herein that 



686 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614 

we may accordingly give you deferred thanks for the sama 
And so we bid you hartily farewell. 

" From the Court of Whitehall this first of April 1614. 
" Your loving friends. 
G. Cant, Exeter, 

Lenox, Pembroke, 

T. SUFFOLKE. W. KnOLLYS, 

E. WoKOBSTEE. J. Stanhope. 

Jul. CiESAE." 

[Mem. — " Chamberlain to Carleton, London, 7. April, 
1614. ... On Tuesday the 5"^ of this present, the King, 
Prince and Lords, rode in their robes to the Parhament 
. . . The King made a long and excellent speech, consist- 
ing of three principal parts wherein all his care lay — to 
continue to his subjects hona animi, bona corporis, et bona 
fortunce, by maintaining religion, preserving of peace, and 
seeking their prosperity, by increasing of trades and traf- 

ficsr 

In the spring of 1614 Captain William Gibbons, who had 
been with Button the previous year, sailed on a voyage for 
the discovery of the northwest passage ; but took shelter in 
" Gibbons his hole " on the coast of Labrador, and returned 
to England in the autumn.] 

CCCII. EXTRACT FROM GROCERS' RECORDS. 

Court of Assistants — Grocers' Company. 
"Curia Assist: die veneris scilt. 15. die Aprilis 1614 
anno . . . xij. ' . . . Jacobi aug. 
" Present : — 

Sir Thomas Middleton K' Lo'^ Mayor. 
Sir Robert Napier K* & Baronet. 
M"^ Nicholas Stile and M' George BoUes, Aldermen. 
W Wm. Dale, M' Tho' Longston and M' Tho^ Westrow. 
Wardens, 



EXTRACT FROM GROCERS' RECORDS. 687 

M' John Newman, M" Richard Denman, 

" Robert Cox, " Humphrey Walcott, 

" Richard Burrell, " Richard Aldworth, 

" Anthony Soday, " Edmond Westall, 

" Robert Bowyer, " W" Pennyfather, 

" Roger Gwyn, " Laurence Grene, 

" Richard Bourne, " Danyel Wynche, 

" Thomas Moulson, " Humfrey Robinson, 

" Robert Johnson, " Robert Mildmay. 
" Wm. Barrett, 

" This day alsoe were read openly to the generallitye of 
the Company here assembled the letters of the right Hon- 
ourable the lordes and others [CCCI.] of his Majesties most 
Honourable privy Counsaile directed to M"' Wardens for 
adventures in Lottery by the several Brothers of this Com- 
pany for supporting the plantation in Virginia which letters 
are dated primo Aprilis 1614:. The tenour whereof ensueth 
in these wordes viz*. [See CCCI.] 

" Alsoe was then publickly read to the whole Assembly a 
declaration printed of the present estate of the English 
Colony planted in Virginia with a finall resolution of the 
great Lottery entended for their supply sett forth by his 
Majesties Councell for Virginia [see 9th March, 1614]. 
Together with a Lottery Booke with certen directions sent 
to Mr. Wardens and Assistants of this Company by the 
Treasurer and Counsell of Virginia for Registring the 
names of the adventurers with their several somes of money 
to be adventured therein. 

" And thereupon Mr. Warden Dale with many forcible 
reasons for the general advancement of Christianity and 
good of the common-wealth moved and persuaded the whole 
assembly then present to write perticulerly with their owne 
handes how much every of them would willingly sett-downe 
severally to adventure in the sayd Lottery entended to soe 
good a purpose. 

"Whereupon it then pleased the Right Honourable Sir 



688 PERIOD III. November; i609-july, lei*. 

Thomas Middleton, K' Lord Mayor of this city and many 
other Brethren of this Company with their several handes 
to write in the sayd booke howe muche they woulde therein 
voluntary adventure as by the sayd booke may appear." 

[There are no more entries in minute books nor war- 
dens' accounts of the Virginia Company after this. The 
book mentioned is not now among the muniments of the 
Grocers' Company. It is presumed that whatever was done 
after this was by Grocers in their individual and not in their 
corporate capacity. The Irish plantation is mentioned at 
nearly every court for some years following this date as a 
serious business of the company as a body ; not so the Vir- 
ginia plantation. — J. A. Kingdon, 1885.] 

CCCIII. THE LORD MAYOR TO CITY COMPANIES. 

A letter from Sir Thomas Middleton, Lord Mayor, directed 
to the master and wardens of the city companies. 

" After my hearty Comendacons. 

" These are to lett you understand that I am required by 
the Lords of his Majesties most honorable privy Counsell to 
recommend unto your care the efPecting of their Lordships 
desires for the furtherance of the Virginia plantacon, as by 
their Lordshipps letters [CCCL] herewithall sent may ap- 
peare. 

" Wherefore I pray and require you forthwith to call a 
Courte and to use your best endeavours to accomplishe their 
Lordshipps pleasures in regard it is for soe charitable and 
Christian a worke, and by which meanes wee maybe- dis- 
burthened of many idle and vagrant persons which other- 
wise are, and wilbe more and more, chargeable, dangerous, 
and troublesome unto the state. 

" And soe I bid you hartely farwell. xx*** of April, 1614. 

" Your Loving ffreind. Tho : Midleton, Maior." 



EXTRACT FROM COMMONS JOURNAL. 689 

[Mem. — The Elizabeth, Captain Adams, which sailed 
from England October 14, 1613 (see CCXCV.), taking the 
first potatoes to the Bermudas, reached Virginia, bringing 
silkworms, etc., in the winter of 1613-14. She sailed from 
Virginia in March following, having on board Sir Thomas 
Gates, the Sieur de la Motte, etc. 

Gates carried to England the official accounts of " Argall's 
Voyages to the Northward," and other documents now un- 
known. He certainly reached England some time before 
the 12th of May, and I am inclined to think before the 
20th of April, 1614. Howes says : " This yeere 1614. Sir 
Th : Gates came from Virginia into England, using his best 
meanes for more supplies to continue their plantation, hav- 
ing left behind him not full 400. men of all that were sent 
thither, over whom Sir Th : Dale, Knight, a valiant souldier 
and discreet Governour had the full charge and rule."] 

CCCrV. EXTRACT FROM COMMONS JOURNAL. 

The Muscovy Company was now upon the question, with 
Spain, France, and Holland. The English-American enter- 
prise was " between two fires," France and Spain. The 
colony was in jeopardy, and the company wished to yield 
up their patent, and have the colony attached more directly 
to the crown. Among the " Bills to be drawn by his Maj- 
esties most gracious direction for the good and comfort of 
his people upon certain of the propositions exhibited to his 
Majesty [about February, 161f], and to be offered to the 
[next] Parliament," was " An act for the better plantation 
of Virginia and supply thereof." — See Bacon's " Letters 
and Life by Spedding," vol. v. p. 17. 

Mr. Neill in his " Virginia Company of London," pp. 67, 
68, says : " Sir Thomas Smith, a member of the House of 
Commons, in a debate on the 20th of April, said that 
if he as the Governor of the Company could influence 
the members, the patent should be brought in. Sergeant 
Montague declared that the patent was against law, and 



690 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

a member by the name of Middleton said, ' That the Com- 
pany were willing to yield up their patent, that it had 
not been their intention to use it otherwise than for the 
good of all parties, and confessed that there had been some 
miscarriages. The shopkeepers of London sent over all 
kinds of goods, for which they received tobacco instead of 
coin, infinitely to the prejudice of the Commonwealth. 
Many of the divines now smell of tobacco, and poor men 
spend 4d. of their day's wages at night in smoke, and wished 
that this patent may be damned, and an act of Parliament 
passed for the government of the Colony by a Company.' 

"After considerable discussion it was ordered by the 
House of Commons that the patent should be brought the 
next day." 

CCCV. EXTRACT FROM MERCHANT TAYLORS' RECORDS. 

From the minutes of a court of assistants of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, held May 6, 1614. 

" At this Courte was openly read a letter receaved from 
the Lords of his Majesties most honorable privy Counsell, 
the words whereof are these, viz : [See CCCL] 

" Alsoe another letter from the right honorable the Lord 
Maior directed to the Master and Wardens in these words, 
viz* : [See CCCIIL] 

" Alsoe a paper booke under the hand of Sir Thomas 
Smyth Knight, and the Virginia Companyes Seale, for such 
as shalbe disposed to make any Adventure in the Lottery to 
sett their hands to such somes of money as they purpose to 
putt into the Lottery. 

" And lastly there was alsoe presented to this Courte a 
true declaration in print of the present estate of the English 
Colony planted in Virginia. [See March 9, 1614.] 

" All which letters and printed declaration being openly 
read and duely considered of — It is ordered and agreed at 
this Court as well in respect of the Counsells letters, as in 
regard of the future good that may come thereby. That 




SIR JOHN OGLE 



CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 691 

the some of ffifty pounds shalbe putt into the Lottery, out 
of the stock of this howse, and what prizes or other proffitt 
soever may growe or come thereby to be truely aunswered 
agayne to the use of the howse, Our Master to pay the same, 
and have it allowed in his Accompt. And soe many of the 
assistants as please in particular to make any adventure in 
the said Lottery to sett their hands and somes to the said 
booke. And after the assistants have done. It is ordered 
that our Mr. and Wardens shall cause the whole Livery and 
all of the Batchellers Company to be sommoned unto the 
Hall, and there to lett them understand, what the Counsells 
pleasure is, and what hath bin done by the assistants, that 
as many as have any desire to further, this worke intended, 
may sett their hands and somes to the booke before men- 
tioned." 



CCCVI. CHAMBEELAIN TO CARLETON. 

John Chamberlain to the right honorable Sir Dudley Carle- 
ton, Knight, Lord Ambassador for his Majestie at 
Venice. 

..." Sir Thomas Gates is come from Virginia and brings 
word that that plantation will fall to the ground yf yt be 
not presently supplied. He speakes of wonderf uU commod- 
ities that are to be had there, yf we could have the patience 
and would be at the cost to bring them to perfection. . . . 
" From London May 12«> 1614." 

There was so much diplomacy in the management of the 
enterprise, and in the various reports given out — so many 
" stratagems," as Molina calls them, — that it is really im- 
possible to know exactly how much reliance to place in the 
various contemporary letters, reports, publications, etc. 



692 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

CCCVII. EXTRACT FROM COMMONS JOURNAL. 

Mr. Neill in his " Virginia Company of London," on p. 
68, gives the following. [See CCCIV.] 

" On the 12* of May the Council for Virginia presented 
a petition for aid, which was read, and the next Monday 
[16th], at nine o'clock in the morning, was designated as the 
time to hear the case ; but on the 16"" M'' Brooke moved 
that the Virginia business should be taken up the next day 
at seven o'clock. 

" On the 17"" of May it was ordered that Lords South- 
ampton, Sheffield, and others, should come in to hear the 
discussion of Virginia affairs, and shall sit with uncovered 
heads until otherwise requested by the Speaker. It was 
further ordered that any member that stood in the entry 
should pay a fine of 12d. to the Sergeant-at-arms, and that 
there should be great silence while the Lords were present." 
[See CCCVIIL] 



CCCVIII. EXTRACT PROM COMMONS JOURNAL. 

COMMONS JOURNAL, VOLUME L PAGES 487-4S9. 

I give CCCVIII. ; and CCCIX. as they are in the Com- 
mons Journal, in "the short hand" of the period, without 
attempting to fill them out. The report is a merq outline ; 
but it probably affords a fair idea of the debate. 

"Martis. 17'" Mail. 12.'^ Jacobi. A. 1614. . . . 

"Mr. Martyn of Counsel with the Company cometh in 
before the Lords — The Bar, first down taken up at the 
Lords coming in. The Lords stood bare, till after M'^ Mar- 
tyn had begun. Then M"" Speaker spake to him to stay ; 
And then, in the n^-me of the House, spake to them, signi- 
fying to them the pleasure of the House, that they should 
sit down, and be covered, 

[Mr. Martyn continuing.] " Queen Eliz. of ever-growing 
memory, compared by the King to Augustus. That the 



EXTRACT FROM COMMONS JOURNAL. 693 

Lady of the Seas, whole fleet stooping — the Red Cross 
in one of her Ships. The discovery by her subjects, of all 
the Seas about the world. 

" Amadis. And after, Whyte, Employed by Sir W. Ra- 
leighe, in those Discoveries. He termed a subject of Envy, 
in his Greatness ; now a Mirror of the Vanity of all Earthly 
things. 

" This Plantation began 1606. Religion. Captain New- 
port. Sir Tho. Gates. Virginia, a Bridle for the Neopoli- 
tane Courser, if our Youth of England able to sit him ; for 
which they will give them golden spurs. 

" L. d' la Warre. 

" That now a settled Plantation : all things necessary 
for food. 

" That this conquest just. The Spanyards course in the 
Indyes — Don John D'Aquyla in Ireland. Our usage of 
the Indyes merciful & respective — That this country never 
yet felt the yoke of the plow. 

" 1. Objection, that, if this undertaken by this House, and 
King, this might prove to a War. 

" Ans. That this no just cause of offence. The name 
given by the Queen. The Spanyards defend the West In- 
dyes ; the Por'. the East ; the French the River of . . . 
The Hollander their forts in the Moluccos. 

" That the Spanyard, by our Forces, drawn to that ex- 
tremity, that they would — 

" That this city hath not three Armourers — 

" This time of ReHef for the King — 

" That they require, is but a few honest Labourers, bur- 
thened with children. 

" Moveth, a committee may consider of the means for this, 
for seven years ; at which some of their Company may be 
present. 

" Columbus his offer to H. VII. neglected, because no pre- 
ent Profit. 

" That this Country giveth Hope of aU those commodities 
which a Southern Country can promise." . . . 



694 PERIOD III. NOVEMBEE, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

[Old Fuller, says of Martin, " He is eminent, as for 
many speeches, so especially for that he made in parha- 
ment in the tenth [twelfth ?] year of King James, when ac- 
count was taken of forty gentlemen in the house which 
were not twenty, and some of them not sixteen, years of 
age. " Formerly,' said this Kecorder Martyn, ' it was the 
custom of old men to make laws for young ones ; but now 
nature is invaded and inverted, seeing young men enact laws 
to govern their fathers.' "] 

When Martin concluded. 

"Sir Roger Owen. [Moved.] That the Treasurer of 
Virginia, and those that be of that Company, shall with- 
draw themselves, 'till the matter be debated. 

" Mr. Brooke, contra : For, if a Bill here that concerneth 
Yorke, he not to be withdrawn ; for that it concerneth the 
Commonwealth. 

" Mr. Edw. Montague : That the Speech of Mr. Martyn 
the most unfitting that ever was spoken in this House." 

[Here follows a debate on the unfitness of Mr Martyn's 
speech.] 

" 8ir E. Hdby was for calling him to the bar. 

"Mr. Duncombe said he patronized as a schoolmaster- 
teaching his scholars. 

" Sir R. Phillips, while admitting that he had made a 
great mistake, spoke in the defensive. 

" Sir G. Moore, said it was an extraordinary step to ad- 
mit counsel in the House upon the hearing of a petition, 
and that the speech was still more strange." . . . 

It was finally. 

" Ordered. He (Martyn) shall come to the Bar to-mor- 
row, standing (not kneeling). 

" Mr. Speaker to charge him : He to make his submis- 
sion." 



CCCIX. EXTRACT FROM COMMONS JOURNAL. 
" Mercurii. 18° Maii 12° Jacobi. ... He offered to kneel. 



EXTKACT FROM COMMONS JOUENAL. 695 

[Sir Randolph Crewe.] '■'■Mr Speaker. That he had 
done himself much Right in the Beginning. Petition of 
Virginia. Order for the Counsel. That he then for Coun- 
sel appeared, with divers Lords. That at first prepared to 
hear him with all Respect and Love. The remembrances of 
the Plantation well accepted, and looked upon with eyes of 
our love. 

" That after unfortunately digressed to matters of much 
weight, impertinent. That took upon him to censure some- 
things and advise. 

" That the House took this for a great Presumption, and 
did disdain and contemn it. That the House, zealous of 
the honour of the House, hath thought fit to convene him 
to the Place, where his ofPence, to receive satisfaction from 
him. That hath many Friends here ; yet now all look upon 
him with Eyes as Judges, not as private Friends. 

" Mr Martyn : That all mens actions subject to Error ; 
his more, because so weak. Yet not in Love with Error, 
and is willing, as any man, to be divorced from it. Con- 
fesseth, he hath digressed from order and from his own 
Purpose. 

" This occasioned by the Presense of the Lords, he not 
well instructed in the Business. That when he came, like 
to a ship, that cutteth the Cable, and putteth to Sea — So 
he, to cut his memory and trust to his Invention. 

" That never knew of the Lords Presence. 

" When here, the zeal of this House eat up his judgment. 
That he f orgat himself e — Acknowledge his Error, not for 
Fear of Punishment. 

" Glad, be Example to all others. 

" Submitteth himself to their censure. 

" Doth it not with dejected countenance ; for cannot but 
receive Comfort in acknowleging of his error." 

[Here foUows short debate.] 

" Sir Wm. Maynard. Glad the House yesterday in- 
clined to mercy — Commended the carriage and answer. 

" Sir Ro.Phillippes. . . . moveth, he may now be called 



696 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

for, and the Pleasure of the House signified to him. That 
the House taketh his offence great, and of a high Pitch : 
That they have likewise inclined to the Height of Mercy ; 
respecting his Person, good affections, and former service 
here. They, upon his acknowledgement here really made, 
are pleased to be remitted, presuming, he will sin no more 
in the like. 

"Mr. Martin. That this Doom sheweth, they not per- 
suaded he came to offend with a high Hand. Thanks for 
their Favour. Petitioneth, that, to fill up the Measure of 
their Grace, they would be pleased to appoint a Committee, 
to consider of the Virginia Business." 

This Parhament did not take the Virginia business in 
hand. It is known in history as the " Addled Parliament," 
from the circumstance that it never passed a single measure. 
It will be noted that the Lords are mentioned in the trou- 
ble with Martin. The Parliament was dissolved June 7th 
following, in consequence of the quarrel with the House of 
Lords arising out of the question of the legality of certain 
impositions or exactions, which the Commons insisted should 
be removed before supplies were voted. 

CCCX. CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON. 

..." On tewsday Dick Martin came to the Parliament 
house as a Counsaillor to plead for some course to be held 
for the upholding of Virginia, and to countenance the cause 
the Earle of Southampton, the Lord Sheffield and the Lord 
De la Ware, came with him and were admitted to be present : 
but after a while having spoken but little in the cause he 
came for, he fell to ripping up what had passed since theyre 
sitting, taxing them for theyre slow proceeding, for theyre 
disorderly cariage, and schooling them Avhat they shold do, 
with divers odde glaunces, wherwith he so discontented 
them that after he was gon there was much arguing what 
course they shold take with him, and in the end yt was 



LORKIN TO PUCKERING. 697 

agreed he shold be called to the barre and aunswer his mis- 
demeanure : so yesterday he appeared there and with much 
shew of humilitie and submission did so insinuate himself 
into them that after a while they remitted his kneeling, and 
in respect of his goode service heretofore in that house did 
after some admonition cleerly release him : but the Lords 
that accompanied him are more angry with him then all 
the rest, and will not be satisfied. Thus you see though 
he abstained from beeing of the parlement for feare of 
being transported and doing himself Iiarme, yet yt was in 
fatis that he should shame himself in that house. . . . 

" Sir John Digby carries himself high and lookes after 
great matters, sayeing he hath ben in the greatest employ- 
ment the King hath except the Deputiship of Ireland, and 
yet his allowance exceeds that : yt seemes he can stoope no 
lower from his cloth of state that he used in Spaine, as like- 
wise his Lady, but I know not per quam regular e : he de- 
maunds a £1.000 for his transportation or ayhdas de costa 
for his comming home, but he is like to get yt at leasure. 
So with all due remembrance to my Lady, I commend you 
to the protection of the Almighty. From London this 19"* 
of May 1614. 

" Your Lordship's to commaund. 

"John Chamberlain." 

Addressed : " To the right honorable S' Dudley Carleton, 
Kt L* Ambassador for his Ma*''' at Venice." 



CCCXI. LORKIN TO PUCKERING. 

Eev. Thomas Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering, Bart., at 
Madrid. [From London, May 28, 1614.] 

..." Not many days since, Mr. Martin, the lawyer, pre- 
suming to tax the House, incurred the danger of a severe 
censure, if many friends, accompanied by an humble submis- 
sion of his own, had not the more powerfully mediated for 
him. He was no member of the House ; but entertained by 
the Virginia Company to recommend unto the House a 



698 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

favourable consideration of something that imported that 
adventure. Coming therefore to speak, he left his theme 
which was appointed him, and began to reprove the House 
for wasting so much time, to so little purpose ; and then, as 
if had had more brain than all, undertook to become their 
pedagogue, and to instruct them (chiefly the younger sort, 
whereof there is some number) in what steps they ought to 
tread, and in what order they are to proceed. The next 
day he was called to the bar, and there arraigned for his 
presumption ; where, upon the earnest mediation of many 
friends, and his own submissive acknowledgment upon his 
knees, he was pardoned his offence ; the House contenting 
themselves to have remonstrated unto him his temerity and 
arrogance, without inflicting further punishment." . . . 

CCCXII. EXTRACT FROM CARAYON. 

Extract from " Primiere Mission des Jesuites au Canada," 
page 1, note 1. See CLXVHI. and CXCVI. 

" We shall add to the letters of our first missionaries in 
Canada a fragment of a memoir, entitled : Monumenta 
NovcB Francice, db anno 1607, ad annum 1737. Insulm 
Martinicm, ah anno 1678. Insulce Gayennensis, db anno 
1668. 

" The translation of the second chapter of this MS., pre- 
served in our Archives at Eome, will give a collection of 
facts concerning New France, which is not found in the let- 
ters which we publish. . . . 

" The year following their arrival, two more of our So- 
ciety [Jesuits] went to join them : they were Father Quentin 
and the Brother-Coadjutor Gilbert du Thet. 

" Two years spent at Port-Eoyal convinced our Fathers 
that it was impossible to make this the centre of their mis- 
sion, partly because of the difficulty to draw to that place a 
great concourse of Savages, partly because of the trouble 
caused by those who were in command. 

"They transferred the seat of their mission to another 



EXTRACT FROM CARAYON. 699 

point of the same Coast, under the 45"" degree 30 minutes 
of Latitude, and this upon a Command of the King. This 
estabhshment took the name of Saint Sauveur. 

" They had been but recently established there, when the 
Eiiglish, coming upon them unexpectedly, took possession of 
the French vessel, seized the Commander's Letters Patent, 
and by signal wickedness, treated him as a pirate. At the 
time of the attack several Frenchmen were killed, and 
among them Brother Gilbert du Thet, a man remarkable for 
his courage and his piety. 

" The triumphant English, after having leisurely plun- 
dered everybody, abandoned a portion of the French in a 
wretched bark, and carried the Fathers Biard and Quentin 
with them to Virginia. Our two prisoners expected to be 
condemned to death, especially, when, upon being brought 
back to Port Koyal, they refused to betray the retreat of 
those Frenchmen, who kept themselves concealed in the 
neighborhood. Sent back once more to Virginia, they 
would there probably have met their death, if Divine Prov- 
idence had not defeated all efforts made by the English 
sailors to effect a landing. The violence of the storm 
driving them back upon the Azores, which belong to the 
Portuguese, and where, in spite of them, they were compelled 
to go ashore. 

" The English themselves were compelled to admire the 
loyalty and the charity of our Fathers, who, by simply 
showing themselves to the Portuguese, might have brought 
about the seizure of the ship and the condemnation to death 
of the English, by being declared pirates. Before entering 
the harbor, they had exacted from their prisoners the 
promise that they would not denounce them, and would keep 
themselves in concealment during the whole time of their 
stay at the Azores. During the visit which the Portuguese 
paid to the ship the Fathers remained down in the hold, 
where they escaped all curious eyes. This generosity and 
this faithfulness in keeping the promise they had made, 
surprised the Enghsh so greatly, that they immediately 



700 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

changed their behavior towards their prisoners and carried 
them directly to England, where they praised them aloud. 

" The French Ambassador, when he heard of their arrival, 
hastened to reclaim them officially, and caused them to be 
honorably carried back to their native land in the month 
of May, 1614." . . . 



CCCXIII. BIARD TO ACQUAVIVA. 

From Carayon's "Premiere Mission," etc., pages 106- 
116. (SeeCLXVIII.) 

" Letter written by Father Pierre Biard, to the very Rev*^ 
Father Claude Acquaviva, General of the Society of Jesus." 

Translated from the Latin original preserved in the Ar- 
chives of Jesus at Eome. 

"Amiens, May 1^,1614. 

"My Very Eevebend Father! 

" Pax Christi ! 

" Since thanks to a special blessing of God and to the 
prayers of your Fatherhood, we have quite recently escaped 
from various most serious dangers, both gratitude and duty 
compel me this day to throw myself, as fully as I can at the 
feet of your Fatherhood, filled with most lively thankfulness 
and most earnestly, in order to present to you my regard 
and to prove to you my affection. I must, in fact, look 
upon myself as chosen by the Lord Himself, both to repent 
and to show the triumph of Grace, so very great are the 
dangers from which I now see myself delivered, to my 
great joy and surprise — but this is scarcely the time to 
mention all the events in detail ; and I think your Father- 
hood must have heard many things already from Father 
Ennemond Masse ; leaving other things aside, I shall be 
content to tell you to-day, how, after our capture by the 
Enghsh in New France, we were dragged from place to 
place and finally restored to our own Country. 

"During the last year, 1613, we were in all, as your 
Fatherhood knows, four (Fathers Biard, Masse, Quentin 




CAPTAIN GEORGE PERCY 



BIAED TO ACQUAVIVA. 701 

and Brother du Thet) members of the Society in New 
France. At that time, we laid at last at a suitable place, 
the foundations for a new establishment, and for a new 
Colony. 

" Just then, all of a sudden, I know not by what fortuitous 
chance (for certainly it was not a premeditated plan) the 
English of Virginia throw themselves upon our coast, take 
possession, with great fury, of our ship, whilst almost all 
our defenders were busy on shore. After some resistance, 
we were compelled to surrender ; two Frenchmen were killed 
in the fight and four wounded, without counting our brother 
Gilbert du Thet, who was mortally wounded. He died 
piously in my arms on the next day. 

" When the vessel was taken and everything else stolen, 
they did us, priests and Jesuits, a great favor by not taking 
our lives ! However, under such circumstances, life is 
something more cruel even than any kind of death. Stripped 
of everything and in want of everything what could we 
have done at this place so completely deserted and unculti- 
vated ? The Savages, to be sure, came to see us secretly at 
night. They grieved over our misfortune, and promised 
most heartily and sincerely, that they would do for us all 
they covild do, but such was the state of things and the 
nature of the place that we saw nothing but Death around 
us, or a wretchedness worse even than death. We were 
thirty people, suffering the same anguish. What made our 
Englishmen less cruel, was that one of our boats, evading 
their vigilance, had escaped. They saw themselves com- 
pelled to spare us, because they knew very well, that there 
were witnesses now abroad who could testify to the violence 
they had done us. They feared the lex talionis and the 
vengeance that our King might take. They told us at last 
(a noble favor indeed!) that for us thirty who remained, 
they would leave at our disposal a boatj in which we might 
sail along the coast and try to meet some French vessel, 
that could take us back to our own country. They were 
shown that this boat could not hold more than 15 persons, 



702 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

but they would not grant us any more, not even one of our 
own vessels. 

"There was no time to lose. In this perplexity, each 
one did what he could for his safety. Father Ennemond 
Masse got with 14 others into the boat, of which we have 
spoken, and God has protected him, as your Fatherhood 
has already heard. 

" I went to see the English Commander ; and obtained for 
myself and Father Jacques Quentin, my companion, as well 
as for Jean Dixon, who had been admitted into the Society, 
and for one servant, that we should be carried to some 
island near by, where the English are in the habit of fish- 
ing, and that we should be recommended to these fisher- 
ermen in order that they might carry us to England, from 
whence we could easily return to France. I obtained this, 
I say, as a promise, but they did not keep their word. In 
fact, we and the other Frenchmen who remained, fifteen in 
number, were taken straight to Virginia,^ nearly 250 post- 
leagues from where we had been taken prisoners. There, 
new dangers ! The Governor of this fort wanted to hang 
us all, but especially the Jesuits. The Captain who had 
taken us prisoners opposed this, pleading the promise he had 
given. This pledge or the fear of the King finally pre- 
vailed. 

" This Captain was afterwards ordered to return to that 
part of New France where he had plundered us, to destroy 
all French vessels that he might find there, and to burn all 
forts and all houses. 

" In fact, the French had there still two settlements, that 
of Saint Croix, and that of Port Royal, where I had lived 
two years. They fitted out three ships for this expedition, 
two of them had been taken from us ; the third, larger and 
fitted out for war, was that which had made us prisoners. 

1 The situation at Jamestown in (Molina), a renegade Englishman who 

August, 1613, was very interesting, pretended to be a Spaniard (Lymbry), 

There were fifteen Frenchmen, inolud- and the Indian maiden Pocahontas, all 

ing two Jesuit fathers, naval officers prisoners there. 
and others ; a Spaniard of distinction 



BIAKD TO ACQUAVIVA. 703 

They allowed only eight Frenchmen to get on board these 
vessels ; with the intention of availing themselves of -^the 
first opportunity to send us back to our native land. 
These ships sailed first to the place where we had been 
made prisoners, and the English destroyed the crosses which 
we had erected, but the punishment was not long delayed ; 
before we left one of them, convicted I know not of what 
crime, was hanged at the very same place. A Cross avenged 
the Crosses ! We found here also new dangers. The Eng- 
lish, as I said above, wanted to sail to the settlement of 
Sainte-Croix, altho' there was then nobody there ; but they 
had left there a supply of salt. I was the only one who 
knew the way, and the English knew that I had lived there 
formerly. They ask me to show them the way. I do all I 
can to invent pretexts and to escape from their demands. 
But I achieved nothing. Seeing clearly that- 1 would not 
conduct them there, the Captain broke out into great wrath, 
and the danger became more imminent for me, when they 
unexpectedly discovered the place without me. They plun- 
dered it and reduced everything to ashes. Besides, they suc- 
ceeded on this occasion in catching a Savage who led them 
to Port Royal. If this accident relieved me of a great dan- 
ger, it exposed me likewise to another, that was still greater. 
In fact, after they had plundered and burnt Port-Royal, 
which they found, I do not know why, abandoned by the 
French, one of the very men who had left this post brought 
a charge against me. He said I was a true and pure Span- 
iard and did not dare return to France, because of certain 
crimes which I had committed there. The Captain, already 
inimical, seized this new pretext to rage, and asked his com- 
panions what they thought of it ? Did it not seem just to 
them, that I should be cast on shore and there be aban- 
doned ? The opinion of the majority prevailed : They 
wanted me to be carried back to Virginia, and that there. 
in due form, and according to law, I should be restored to 
the gallows from which I had escaped. Thus I was saved 
for the time at least j we resumed at once our voyage to 



704 PERIOD m. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

Virginia; but two days later we were assailed by such a 
tempest that our ships were dispersed. We do not know 
what has become of the others. 

" After having battled with the storm for three weeks, the 
Captain [William Turner] of our ship, seeing how many 
things were wanting, especially water, and that there was 
no hope of our reaching Virginia soon, determined to take 
refuge at the Portuguese islands called the Azores. This 
decision once formed, I, who thought I had escaped the 
rope that was prepared for me, fell once more into still 
greater and very much greater peril, since now I had com- 
panions who shared it with me. In fact, the English as 
they came near these islands, began to reflect that they 
were lost, if we were discovered, we, priests and Jesuits; 
that we would be set free by the Cathohc Portuguese and 
that they, on the contrary, would be punished as pirates 
and persecutors of priests. This anxiety troubled us much. 
What were we going to do ? Would they throw us into 
the water ? Would it be enough to hide us ? In the midst 
of this anguish and these hesitations the Captain sent for 
me and explained the matter to me. I replied, that for my- 
self the greatest misfortime in my death was, that I should 
become the occasion of a crime for others. I promised him, 
that, if he wished to conceal us, I would further his wishes 
in all sincerity. 

" What thoughts did the Lord instill in his mind, that he 
should trust my words ? I really do not know, but what I 
do know, is that if he had foreseen the dangers which he 
had to face thereafter, he would not have listened to me. 

" He conceals us therefore in the depth of the hold. For 
three weeks we did not see daylight ; but in the harbor of 
the island of Fayal there arose so many difficulties and the 
ship was so often examined, that it is astonishing we should 
not have been discovered; the Lord permitted it for the 
greater Glory of our Society. The English themselves saw 
clearly, that if we had desired to show ourselves and to 
denounce them, we had frequent opportunities to do so. 



BIAED TO ACQUAVIVA. 705 

They subsequently, In England and even in the presence of 
their ministers, praised our loyalty in keeping our word, to 
the great surprise of the enemies of the Faith. 

" The EngUsh, after their escape from this danger, de- 
cided to sail for England rather than for Virginia, which 
was much farther off. They were in want of aU that was 
most necessary for such a voyage. 

" We steer therefore in the direction of England. The 
voyage was long and unpleasant. Fogs and darkness made 
us lose the right way, and we were driven to Wales, not far 
from Ireland. Our Captain had gone on shore in the little 
town of Pembroke, in order to procure provisions, when cer- 
tain appearances made him to be looked upon as a pirate 
and he was thrown into prison : in order to clear himself he 
protested that he was no pirate, and in support of his inno- 
cence, he appealed to the two Jesuits who were on board 
his ship, saying that if they were questioned, they would 
make known the truth. What goodness of Divine Provi- 
dence ! We were in the middle of winter and everything 
was wanting on board. If we had not received some assist- 
ance, we should have perished from cold and suffering. 
What happened? They immediately sent for the Jesuits 
and brought them into town, to the great astonishment of 
everybody. They questioned us as witnesses j we depose 
what we knew, that is to say, that the Captain was a King's 
officer and not a pirate, and that his conduct towards us was 
an act of obedience and not the result of his own wiU. 

" Our Captain was thus restored to hberty, and we with 
him. They kept us in town with great consideration, until 
an answer should come from London. We had long to 
wait. During this time we have had frequent controversies 
with the ministers, but more frequently stiU with simple 
protestants. Everybody was at liberty to call on us, altho' 
we were not allowed to leave the house. In everything else 
we were well treated, as I have said before. 

" At last we receive order to embark for London. It was 
a long voyage, and theve occurred several very provoking de- 



706 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

lays. Not to enumerate all these details, let it suffice to say 
that the King of England sent us to the town of Dover and 
made us cross from there to Calais, in France. The Gov- 
ernor of the town of Calais and the Mayor received us very 
kindly and kept us three days, to recover from our fatigues. 
We reached afterwards Amiens, where we now are. 

"We have thus been prisoners for nine and a half 
months, always on board ship, with the exception, as I said, 
of the days we spent at Pembroke. For three months we 
received daily only two ounces of bread and a small piece of 
salt-fish, and water which was almost always brackish. Hence 
we were surprised not to be taken sick, while the majority 
of the English were sick and some of them even succumbed. 
Surely, the Lord has kept us, thanks to the prayers of your 
Fatherhood and of those of our Society. May Heaven in 
His goodness turn all this to His greater glory, to the im- 
provement of my life, and to my salvation ! I hope for that, 
assisted by the prayers and the blessing of your Fatherhood, 
which I implore most humbly and on my knees, and with all 
the fervor of which I am capable. 

" May the Lord Jesus always protect Your Fatherhood 
and deign to grant you His Mercy, my Very Eeverend and 
very kind Father ! 

" Your Fatherhood's obedient son and unworthy servant. 

"PXERKE BlARD. 

"Amiens, May 26*" 1614." 

CCCXIV. BIAED TO LOUIS XIII. 

Documents CCCXIV. and CCCXV. were probably not 
written until 1615 ; but as CCCXII. to CCCXVL, inclusive, 
are illustrative of each other, I have determined to disregard 
the dates at which they were written, and to place them all 
together as being the most convenient arrangement. Biard's 
Tract, " Relation de la Nouvelle-France ; de ses Terres, Nat- 
urel du Pays, et de ses Habitans, item du Voyage des Peres 
Jesuites aux dictes contr^es, et de ce qu' ils y ont faict jus- 



BIAED TO LOUIS XIII. 707 

ques a leur prinse par les Anglois. Faicte par le P. Pierre 
Biard, grenoblois, de la C'^ Cy-dessus," was published at 
Lyons, France, in 1616, under the following privilege : 
" Michel Coyssard, Vice-Provincial o£ the society of Jesus in 
the Province of Lyons (under the Privilege granted by the 
most christian kings to the said society) authorizes Louis 
Muguet, to print and to sell the Relation, for the term of 
four years. Done at Lyons the 23'^'^ of January 1616 " 
[i. e. 13th January, English style]. This tract was reprinted, 
under the auspices of the Canadian government, at Quebec, 
in 1858, from a copy of the original edition, preserved in 
the Imperial Library, Paris, France. In 1871 Dr. O'Calla- 
ghan had printed at Albany, N. Y., twenty-five copies in fac- 
simile, from a copy owned by Rufus King, of Jamaica, L. I. 

Originals are very rare. I have never seen mention of 
the sale of a perfect copy ; but I suppose one would be worth 
f 250 or more. 

The tract contains thirty-seven chapters and an index of 
the most remarkable things, the whole being about 50,000 
words. Much of it does not come within the scope of my 
work. I will only give the part that does. The tract has 
been used by several American historians, who have pubUshed 
extracts therefrom ; but we have no English translation of 
the whole, as far as I know. 

Letter Dedicatory of Father Peter Biard of Grenoble of the 
S. of J. 

" To the Kingi [of France]. 

« SiBE, 

" If I present to your Majesty this relation of your New 
France, the description of the country, and a recital of the 
manners and strange customs of the savage life of the Can- 
adians, I am bound to do so by many kinds of duty. Your 
express order, added to that of your Most Honored Mother,^ 
then Regent of France, have carried me there, with a few 

1 Louis XIII. ^ Mary de Medici was regent from 

May 14, 1610, to October 2, 1614. 



708 PEKIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

companions, more effectively than the winds and the tides. 
Your Royal liberality has maintained me there for several 
years, and your powerful authority has rescued me from the 
hands of certain EngUsh pirates, who being enemies of our 
Faith (some seeds of which we cast upon these new Lands in 
the hope of reaping an abundant harvest, the sole motive of 
our going and of your command, Sire) caused us to leave 
the place to our great regret, who have kept us prisoners 
for several months in their vessel, and a hundred times pre- 
pared the rope and the gallows to deprive us of life, the 
respect for Your Majesty alone keeping them from carrying 
out their wicked designs, especially against my person, whom 
perhaps divine providence wished to preserve by your inter- 
position, to be commanded to sail once more for these same 
regions and to continue the civilisation of this savage race. 

" Having thus escaped from this danger, and still wet 
from having been shipwrecked in this port of your France, 
I present on my knees these few sheets as a token of most 
humble gratitude, for, if I hve, if I write, this is (next to 
God) due to your aid and favor. And having this signal 
obligation ever before my eyes, I shall unceasingly pray 
God, with all my brethren of the robe, that your Majesty, 
increasing in years and in piety, may one day see the Banner 
of the Cross, with your own Royal Lilies, wave over the most 
distant lands of the heathen, whilst the great King of Kings 
prepares for you in heaven a crown of everlasting honor and 
glory, which I desire for you, after having born your earthly 
crown long and happily, with the same heart and affection, 
with which I am, 

" Your Majesty's very humble and very obedient subject 
and servant 

"PlEEKB BlARD." 



BIARD'S RELATION. 709 

CCCXV. BIAED'S RELATION. 

Chapter XXV. — Our Capture by the English. 

<< Virginia is that Continent which the Ancients called 
Morosa, between Florida and New Prance under the 36. 37 
and 38 degrees N. L. This land had been first discovered 
and taken possession of by Jean Verazan, in the name of 
Francis I., as has been stated before ; but the English hav- 
ing afterwards explored it in 1593 and 1594/ have finally 
come to inhabit it. Their principal settlement, which they 
call Jemton, is in a direct hue about 250 leagues distant 
from St. Sauveur, where we were staying. See now, i£ there 
was any reason for quarelling with us. 

" Now these Virginians are in the habit of coming every 
year to the Pencoit islands, which lie 25 leagues from St. 
Sauveur, to provide themselves with food (fish) for their 
winters. Travelling thither ^ in the summer of the year of 
which we are speaking, 1613, according to their habit, it 
happened that while at sea they were overtaken by fogs 
and mists, which, as has been stated, often spread in sum- 
mer over these lands and seas. As they continued for sev- 
eral days, the current drove them insensibly much farther 
N. E. than they thought, for they were perhaps 20 leagues 
farther into New France than they thought in the neigh- 
borhood of our harbor, but did not recognise the place. 
Unfortunately some savages passed by there and went to 
meet them, thinking that they were Frenchmen in search of 
ourselves. The English understood nothing of their lan- 

^ These dates are not correct. ■well-armed man-of-war to do exactly 

* The English were in this habit of what he did do, — rescue the grant 

fishing on that coast, and in this way of the North Virginia Colony from 

they knew something of the move- the encroachment of the French. If 

ments of the French in those parts, this movement of the French had not 

There was necessity for secrecy and been stopped in the beginning, it is 

subterfuge in a matter of this kind ; interesting to think what might have 

but if we take a full view of the been the history of this country. Even 

whole case it seems evident that Ar- the least little act of the English in 

gall went properly commissioned and America at this time was very instru- 

properly equipped in every way in a mental in shaping its future destiny. 



710 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

guage, but from their gestures they gathered easily, that 
they were given to understand by signs, that there was a 
ship in the neighborhood, and that this ship was French, 
for they heard the word Normandia, by which they call ixs ; 
and they recognized the ceremonies, which the Savages per- 
formed in order to please them, as ceremonies of French 
politeness and courtesy. Hence the English, who were in 
want of victuals and of all things, ragged, half naked and 
in search of booty, inquired carefuUy how large our ship 
was, how many boats we had how many men, and meeting 
with ample and very satisfactory information, they uttered 
joyous cries, showing that that was what they were looking 
for, and that they should be conducted to us as they wished 
for nothing better ; and thus they did altho' it was not in 
the way in which the Savages understood it, for the latter 
took them to be certain good friends of ours, who were 
anxious about us and who from friendship desired to see us 
above all things ; thus one of them remained in their ship 
with them to conduct them to us ; and this he did the wind 
having become favorable. The English, as soon as they 
discovered us, began to prepare for battle, and now the 
poor fellow of a Savage found out that he had been de- 
ceived ; upon which he began to weep at his blunder and 
to curse those who had thus deceived him. Often since 
has he wept and asked to be pardoned for his adventure by 
us and by the other Savages, because the other Savages 
intended to avenge themselves on him for our misfortune 
thinking that he had been the malicious cause of it. 

" Now we, when we saw this vessel coming from afar off 
with full sails, did not know what to think of them, 
whether they were friends or enemies, French or foreigners, 
and for this reason the pilot went off in advance in a boat 
to reconnoitre, while the others took up arms. La Saus- 
saye remained on shore, with the greater part of the men-. 
Lieutenant La Motte, Ensign Ronfere and Sergeant Jou- 
bert, and all the more thoughtful went on board the ship. 
For it was there that the good men among us were to be 
employed. 




rHE PRINCESS POCAHONTAS 



BIARD'S RELATION. 711 

" The English vessel came on swifter than an arrow, be- 
ing favored by the wind, the Flag of England displayed, all 
dressed in red [the red cross of St. George] and three trum- 
pets and two drums making a great noise. Our pilot, who 
had gone out to discover who they were, did not return to 
his ship, because, as he said, the English had the wind on 
him, and hence, in order not to fall into their hands he 
went to make the circuit around an island ; thus it came 
jibout that on this occasion the ship was without one half 
of her crew, and had only ten men to defend herself ; more- 
over not one of them understood naval warfare unless it 
was Captain Flory, who certainly was not lacking in cour- 
age nor skill ; but he had neither time enough to prepare, 
nor men, so that he could not raise anchor to free himself, 
which is, of course, the first thing to be done before begin- 
ning a battle at sea. It would, besides, have been in vain 
to raise anchor, because all the sails were secured, for this 
being summer and as the vessel was lying in port, fearing 
nothing, they had been stretched in the form of an awning 
from bord to bord, so as to give shade on deck, and thus 
they could not easily be loosened in so short a time. But 
this mishap turned out very fortunate, for our people were 
well sheltered during the fight, so that the English being 
unable to take aim at them with their fire arms fewer men 
were killed and wounded. 

" As it is usual when vessels approach each other, to sum- 
mon them to say who they are, our people cried out sailor- 
fashion 0. ! But the English did not reply in the same 
manner, but far more furiously, with loud discharges of 
muskets and guns. They had 14 pieces of artillery and 60 
musketeers, trained to serve on board ship, who came and 
charged on deck, on the bowsprit and wherever it was neces- 
sary, quite as weU as soldiers do on land. 

" The first fire of the English was terrible ; the whole 
vessel was on fire and full of smoke. From outside came a 
cool reply ; the artillery was silent. Captain Flory cried in 
vain : Fire ! Fire the gun ! the gunner was not there. But 



712 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

Gilbert du Thet, who in his whole hfe had never felt fear 
nor shown himself a coward, when he heard the order and 
saw that nobody obeyed, took the match and caused us to 
speak as loud as the enemy ; the misfortune was, that he did 
not take aim, and if he had done so, perhaps something 
worse might have happened, than the mere noise. 

" The Englishman after this first discharge moved his 
ship aside and held an anchor ready to board us. Captain 
Flory very opportunely withdrew his vessel, which stopped 
the enemy and made him turn aside, for he was afraid that 
i£ he persued, he might be drawn upon shoals ; then seeing 
our ship in motion and being thus reassured, he began the 
attack once more with musketry fire as before. It was dur- 
ing this second discharge that Father du Thet received a 
shot that passed thro' his body, and fell backwards on the 
deck ; Captain Flory also was wounded in the foot and three 
other places, whereupon they made signs and cried out that 
they surrendered. Surely the parties were ill matched. At 
this cry the English jumped into their boat to reach the ship; 
our people, mislead by bad advice, also jumped into their 
boat to reach land, for they were afraid of the coming of 
the victors. These, however, were on board our ship before 
they had gotten away ; so they took to crying out to them, 
to return, and to enforce the order, they opened fire upon 
them ; two of our people were so frightened by this, that 
they threw themselves into the water, as I think, in order to 
swim to shore ; but they were drowned, either because they 
were already wounded, or, what is more likely, because they 
were hit and killed in the water. These were two very 
promising young companions, one from Dieppe, called Le 
Moine, the other called Neven, from the town of Beauvais. 
Their bodies were not recovered till nine days later ; means 
were found to draw them on land and to bury them 
decently. 

" Such was the capture of our vessel." 



BIAKD'S RELATION. 713 

"Chapter XXVI. — The plundering of our ship and 
our people, the anguish we endured. 

" The victorious EngKsh came on shore, where we had 
our tents and our houses, just begun, and sent out in all 
directions in search of our Captain, saying that they wanted 
to see our commissions ; that this land belonged to them, 
wherefor they had fallen upon us, when they found us 
here ; but that if we should be able to show that we had 
acted in good faith, and that we had come there under 
authority from ovu* sovereign, they would respect that, as 
they wished in no way to imperil the good understanding 
between our two kings. The misfortune was that La Saus- 
saye could not be found, whereupon the shrewd and cun- 
ning Englishman seized our trunks, broke them open indus- 
triously, and having found in them our commissions and 
Royal Patents, seized them ; then putting everything else 
back in its place, just as they had found it, they nicely 
locked the boxes again. When Captain La Saussaye 
appeared on the day following, the English Captain, who 
had learnt his lesson well, received him kindly and asked 
him the first questions with great urbanity, but then com- 
ing to the point, he demanded to see his commissions, so 
that there might be no doubt whatever, when they should 
really have before them the words and the authority of our 
Master, the King. La Saussaye replied that the papers 
were in his boxes. They brought these boxes in and 
before he opened them with his keys, they warned him to 
look well if anybody had touched them ; for, they them- 
selves went very simply to work. La Saussaye acknowl- 
edged that everything was in perfect order, but he could 
not find his letters ! Now the English Captain changed his 
looks and his voice and, becoming very stiff, he said : How 
is this ? You are an impostor ! You give us to understand 
that you are commissioned by your king and yet you can- 
not produce any evidence. You are, all of you, outlaws 
and pirates. You deserve death ! And thereupon he 
divided out the booty among his soldiers, consuming the 



714 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULy, 1614. 

whole afternoon in this business. . . . [Describes the 
plundering of the English.] 

" I have told you that Father Du Thet was pierced by a 
musket ball during the fight ; when the English boarded our 
ship, they put him, as well as the other wounded, in the 
hands of their surgeon. This surgeon was a Catholic and 
known as such ; he was a very kind hearted person and 
rendered us a thousand kind services. . . . [Personal mat- 
ters,^ — the brave death of Father Gilbert du Thet; — the 
Jesuits, their services, etc.] 

" Now he [Captain Argall] had a thorn in his side which 
gave him great trouble : this was that the pilot and the 
sailors had run away, and he could hear nothing of them. 
This pilot, called le Bailleur, from the town of Rouen, having 
gone off to reconnoitre as was stated above. ... I fancied 
that this was the reason why the English Captain deter- 
mined not to treat us worse, altho' he was strongly inclined 
to do so, as I afterwards concluded from our experience. 
He was, to be sure, a very clever and cunning captain, but 
still a gentleman, with truly noble courage; his men also 
were neither inhuman nor cruel in their treatment of any 
of us." . . . 

" Chaptbk XXVII. — The means discovered to return 
to France and how thirty of our people reached there after 
many difficulties. 

" The English Captain, called Samuel Argal and his lieu- 
tenant, called William Turnel, began to treat with our Cap- 
tain La Saussaye about our return, as they had promised. 
The English offered very unfair conditions, but to cut the 
matter short, the conclusion was that they left us the one 
sloop which remained of the two we had before, and told 
us to go wherever God might lead us. The English Cap- 
tain, a very cautious man, wanted a written acknowlgedment, 

1 I have omitted several passages of things, however, are spoken of in 
a personal character, and others of no CCCXII. and CCCXIII. 
special interest to us. Some of these 



BIARD'S RELATION. 715 

signed by Captain La Saussaye, in which he admitted that 
this decision had been come to by his own choice. . . . 
[Father Biard then explains that 30 persons could not sail 
in so small a vessel.] The English replied that this was 
not the impression of Captain La Saussaye, but that i£ we 
wished to lighten the sloop he would find means to do so, 
by taking back to Virginia those artisans who were wiUing, 
provided that they were not compelled to change their reli- 
gion and that they were to be sent back to France after a 
years service. Three accepted this offer. 

" The Sieur de la Motte had in like manner consented from 
the beginning to accompany the English Captain to Vir- 
ginia, who had fancied him much, because he found him 
sword in hand, and discovered in him several other good 
quahties — which was very profitable to our men. He was, 
moreover, allowed to take with him several other persons 
who were to enjoy the same favor as he did. Captain 
Plory finally decided to try his fortune in the same way, as 
hopes were held out to him that thus he might recover his 
vessel. Father Biard requested that four of them, viz ; 
two Jesuits and two others, might be taken to Pencoit Island 
and that there they might be recommended to the English 
fishermen who are usually there, so that in this way they 
might be enabled to return to France — a request which the 
English Captain most readily granted. In this way the 
sloop was entirely relieved and our own men were divided 
into three equal parties : fifteen remained with the pilot ; fif- 
teen stayed with the Enghsh, and fifteen went on board the 
sloop left to them. Of these fifteen Father Ennemond Masse 
was one. . . . [Biard then tells of the adventures, the com- 
ing together, etc., of the fifteen under La Saussaye and the 
pilot's party, and of their return to France, where they 
arrived probably late in September, 1613.] 

" Chapter XXVIII. — The voyage to Virginia and the 
return to New France. 

" God be blessed. Here were now two thirds of our com- 



716 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614, 

pany safely back in France, among their Friends and their 
Kindred, who Hsten to them as they tell their great adven- 
tures. Hence you would naturally wish to know what had 
become of the remaining third who had been left behind in 
the hands of the English. Certainly a much longer and 
more varied fate awaits them and they will not escape with- 
out serious losses. 

" The English had now three vessels ; viz, their own with 
which they had captured us, of a hundred and thirty tons, 
ours, which they had taken, of a hundred tons, and a bark 
of twelve tons, which they had likewise obtained from us 
and would not let us have again to enable us to return. 
They filled these three vessels with their own people, and 
distributed us among them. The Sieur de la Motte, Cap- 
tain Flory, and one half of the whole remainder, amounting 
in aU to eight persons, remained on board the Capitanesse, 
and the others, numbering seven, remained on board the 
captured vessel of which Lieutenant Turnel was made com- 
mander. 

" Now, as a beginning of our misfortunes, they did not 
take the Jesuits to the Pencoit Islands, as had been prom- 
ised, but carried them straight to Virginia, with the rest of 
the troop, comforting them with pleasant hopes, in as much 
as, said they, the Marshall of Virginia [Dale] who had full 
power and authority of jurisdiction, was a great friend of 
the French, having won all of his principal distinctions 
by the recommendation of the late Henry the Great, and 
having been his soldier and his pensioner. This they fre- 
quently preached to us. But our preachers did not take 
their text from the Gospels. For this fine Marshall, who 
as they said, was such a friend and patron of the French, 
when he heard an account of us, spoke of nothing but of 
ropes and gallows and of hanging every one of us. We 
were frightened terribly and some lost their peace expect- 
ing nothing less but that they would have to mount a lad- 
der ignominiously and dangle miserably by a rope. But 
Captain Argal showed himseK generous in our defence ; for 



BIARD'S RELATION. 717 

he resisted the aforesaid Marshall, insisting upon the pledge 
he had given, and when he found himself too weak to op- 
pose, he made known publicly our commissions and Royal 
Patents, which I mentioned to you before, and which he 
had surreptitiously obtained from La Saussaye's boxes. 
And this was the way we found out that he had employed 
such a ruse, for otherwise we should never have heard any- 
thing about it. The Marshall, seeing these Patents of His 
Most Christian Majesty, and the determination of the Cap- 
tain, did not dare go any farther ; and thus after some days 
spent in great apprehension, they informed us that their 
promises should be kept. 

" Now, how they would keep them, and what means they 
would find to send us back to France that was the great 
question. The General [Gates], the Marshall [Dale] and 
all the chief officers of Virginia assembled in Council. The 
result thereof and the conclusion to which they came, was 
to do worse than ever, since they thought they had it in 
their power ; for it was resolved that Captain Argal, should, 
with his three ships, go back to New Prance, piUage and 
raze to the ground all the fortifications and settlements of 
the French which he might find on the whole way up to 
Cape Breton, that is to say, as far as the 46^ degree N. L.,^ 
as they lay claim to the whole territory; that he should 
hang La Saussaye and all of his men whom he might find to 
have remained within these limits ; that he should likewise 
plunder all the vessels he might meet with, allowing, how- 
ever, such persons as should make no resistance, to retvu-n 
to France ; and that we, old prisoners, should be treated in 
the same way as these people, whose lives were thus to be 
spared. Such were their conclusions. But God was on 
High ; and as you will hear. He decreed it otherwise, with 
regard to several points. According to this decision, Argal 
resumed once more the voyage to New France ; but this 
time stronger than before, in as much as he had three ships, 

^ Cape Breton is in about 46° N. L. Biard stretches his points as a person 
They only laid claim as far as 45° N. L. making a special plea is prone to do. 



718 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JDLY, 1614. 

and greater expectations, because the booty he had obtained 
from us increased his cupidity and his hopes. But he took 
only one half of our people with him, I do not know why. 
On board his ship were Captain Flory and four others ; on 
board Lieutenant Turnels, which was our boat captured by 
them, were the two Jesuits and a boy. 

" The first stopping-place was St. Sauveur, for they ex- 
pected here to encounter La Saussaye, and a recently ar- 
rived ship. They were mistaken, in as much as La Saus- 
saye was in France, as has been said ; they burnt our works 
and cut down our Cross, but erected another as a sign that 
they had taken possession of the land, as rightful owners. 

" This cross had the name of the King of Great Britain 
carved on it. They also hanged here one of their men, 
charged with conspiracy, at the very place, at which eight 
days before they had cut down our first Cross. From St. 
Sauveur they sailed for St. Croix, a former settlement of the 
Sieur de Monts. . . . [Argall asked Biard to guide them, 
and he refused.] Nevertheless Argal searched high and 
low, and examined all of their places so carefully, that by 
comparing them with the maps which he had taken from 
us, he at last discovered the place himself ; he carried away 
from there a good supply of salt, which he found there, 
burnt the dwelling, and destroyed every token of French 
names and French claims, as he had been commanded 
to do. 

"Chapter XXIX. — The taking and burning of Port 
Royal.^ Two great dangers threatening Father Biard. 

" Captain Argal had destroyed St. Croix, but did not know 
how to reach and sail for Port Royal, according to the orders 
he had received, and this all the more as he feared he might 
be lost on such a dangerous coast without a pilot. . . . 
[Knowing it to be useless to ask Biard or any Frenchman, he 
looks for and finds an Indian Sagamo, and under his guid- 
ance he reached Port Royal. See CCCXVL] When the 

^ Now called Annapolis. 



BIARD'S EELATION. 719 

English landed they found not a soul in the fort, and shoes 
and clothing scattered all about. 

" Thus they rejoiced doubly at this capture first because 
they met, contrary to all expectation, with no resistance at 
all, and secondly because they secured a good deal of booty, 
which they had not expected. . . . [Personal matters relative 
to Father Biard. He mentions that it was the end of Octo- 
ber ^ when Argall was searching for Port Royal ; an Eng- 
lish Puritan, the master of the large ship, more malicious 
than the others all together against the Jesuits ; Frenchmen 
at Port Royal unfriendly to Biard, etc.] 

" Now the aforesaid Captain having carried off from Port 
Royal whatever seemed to him convenient down to the 
planks, latches, locks, and nails, set fire to it, a very pitiable 
thing, for thus, in an hour or two were reduced to ashes the 
work and expenditure of many years and of meritorious per- 
sons. Oh that it would please the Lord to let that same fire 
destroy in like manner all the sins that may have been com- 
mitted at this place,^ so that they might never arise again 
in any other place, nor ever provoke the just and fearful 
vengeance of our Lord ! 

" The English, as I have stated elsewhere, destroyed every- 
where the monuments and all other evidences of French 
supremacy ; nor did they forget to do so here, going so far 
as to use pick and chisel in a large, massive stone, on which 
were engraved the names of the Sieur de Monts with other 
Captains, and the lilies of France. 

" This being done, they raised anchor to leave the place, 
but they were kept by bad weather for three or four days, 
at the mouth of the harbour. 

" Whilst they were lying here at anchor, a Frenchman 
belonging to this port . . . [shows his unfriendliness to 
Biard by telling the English that he was a ' genuine Span- 
iard; ' and other personal matters]. 

1 Biard' s dates are, of course, New Port Royal had not always been pleas- 
Style, ant. SeeCCCXVI. 
^ His relations with the officers at 



720 PEEIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

" Chapter XXX. — Departure from Port Royal ; divers 
adventures of the ships, and how we were compelled to stop 
at the Azores. 

" On the ninth of November of this year 1613, the Eng- 
lish left Port Eoyal intending to return to their Virginia 
and there to enjoy their booty during the coming winter. . . . 

" On the second day after our departure on the eve of St. 
Martin, so terrible a storm arose, that it scattered our three 
vessels in such a way, that they never encountered each 
other afterwards, but sailed, every one in a different direc- 
tion. 

" The bark has never been seen since, and no report has 
ever reached us from her, so that nobody doubts but she 
has gone down, with the six Englishmen, who were on board. 

" The new Captainesse, which Argal commanded in spite 
of the tempest, safely reached Virginia in three weeks or 
thereabouts. The Marshall, of whom we have spoken before, 
heard with delight from Captain Argal all that had hap- 
pened. . . . 

" The two Jesuits and a French boy were in the captured 
vessel, which had been handed over to Captain Turnel. . . . 
[Biard describes the storm ; the ship driven by it for six- 
teen days ; then provisions get low ; they finally determine to 
give up trying to reach Virginia, and to sail directly to the 
Azores ; kill the horses taken at Port Royal ; horseflesh 
quite pleasing to the taste of the Jesuits ; Captain Turnel 
' spoke good French and several other common languages, 
besides Greek and Latin which he understood well, being a 
man of fine intellect, who had studied well ; ' the many good 
qualities of Father Biard, etc.] 

" Chapter XXXI. — How the vessel was visited at the 
Azores and the good faith of the Jesuits towards the Eng- 
lish. 

[This chapter is devoted to showing the faithfulness of 
the Jesuits, while the English were at the Azores. It gives 
the same story, but much more particularly than in CCCXII. 
and CCCXIII.] 




JOHN POULETT 
Vir'ii Baron Ponhti 



BIAKD'S RELATION. 721 

" Chapter XXXII. — Arrival in England and Libera- 
tion of the Jesuits. 

" The English were kept busy three whole weeks at this 
island, which we call Fayal, during which time the poor 
Jesuits never saw the sun. Now because the aforesaid Eng- 
lish were without money, they could not there reprovision 
themselves, and this determined them not to try the return 
to Virginia ; but to sail back to England, and this all the 
more as they now found themselves in this year 1614, which 
was the term of their service. 

" Now when we were thus trying to make for England, 
the tempest cast us out of La Manche (as it is called), that is 
out of the channel which is between England and France and 
compelled us to seek shelter in the harbour of Milfier [Mil- 
ford], in the Province of Wales. There once more our pro- 
visions gave out, which compelled our Captain to go to Pem- 
broke, the principal city of this district and Vice- Admiralty ; 
but at Pembroke he was arrested falling under the suspicion 
of piracy. This suspicion arose from the fact that he and 
his men were Enghshmen, and yet their vessel was built 
after French models, which made them think he had come 
from the port of Gryp, on the Larcin Islands beyond Cape 
Escumant. The Captain explained as well as he could by 
simply telling the truth, but they would not believe him, 
especially because he had no commission, nor could he have 
any since, being only a lieutenant, he followed his captain 
and had only by accident been separated from him, by the 
storm of which you have heard. 

" On this account he was finally compelled to produce in 
evidence of his uprightness the two Jesuits which he had 
on board his ship, men without reproach, as he said, and as 
they were. 

" Immediately by order of the Magistrate the aforesaid 
Jesuits were summoned on shore and examined in court with 
great respect. They stated the actual facts, and upon the 
strength of their deposition the Captain was acknowledged 
to be a gentleman and a man of honour, provided only that 



722 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

our difficulties concerning New France were to be submitted 
to the king. Nevertheless we had to remain a very long 
time at this place Pembroke, awaiting answers from Lon- 
don ; for it had become necessary to send there partly in 
order to obtain money, and partly to report the matter to 
the High Admiral and the Company of Merchants, who were 
in charge of Virginia. 

" And here it is that my admiration is stopped with my 
breath and with my steps, to exclaim with the Wise Man : 
That the dispensations of Divine Providence are truly made 
by compass, counted by Number, measured by weight and 
Balance down to the half of a grain. For this call of the 
Jesuits was, no doubt, a contrivance of this paternal Provi- 
dence, which everywhere assisted them ; and this all the more 
so as, if they had remained on board ship, being in entire des- 
titution in the midst of winter (for this was in February), and 
for four weeks uninterruptedly, it is probable they would 
have perished with cold and starvation ; but now, by means 
of this summons, they became known to the Judge, who 
being a very great and honorable personage, having under- 
stood how badly they were off on board the ship, gave them 
lodgings at the Mayor's house, and paid for them, saying 
that they might pay him back, when they had the means to 
do so, for otherwise, he said, it would be a great disgrace to 
us, i£ such honest and learned men should not meet com- 
mon courtesy among us. This good ' Seigneur ' is called 
Nicholas Adams, vice-Admiral of said Pembroke. 

" Now during this detention, all kinds of people came to 
call upon them and some from a distance, curious as they 
were to see Jesuits in their costume, such as they wore then 
and always have worn till their return to France. 

''Ministers, magistrates, gentlemen and others came to 
confer with them. Even a Lord of the Privy Council 
wanted to have the pleasure of seeing them meet four min- 
isters in pubhc disputation : I call them ministers so as to 
be understood by the French, for in England they call them 
Priests. At the head of the meeting was an Archdeacon, 



BIARD'S RELATION. 723 

because the English still retain much of the Catholic Church, 
as the order of the hierarchy of the Church, Archbishops 
Bishops, Priests, Archpriests, Archdeacons, Curates, Canons, 
&c., the Laying on of hands by Bishops in the consecration 
of priests, and the minor orders, as well as in the confirma- 
tion of children, the Holy Oil and ceremonies, the sign of 
the cross, its image and other images, the singing of psalms 
and the Litany, the prescribed holidays of male and female 
saints, Vigils, Fasts, Lent, the abstinence from meat on Fri- 
days and Saturdays, the sacerdotal costumes and consecrated 
vessels. And those who condemn all these things, as the 
Calvinists of Scotland and France do, and call them dam- 
nable superstitions and inventions of the Antichrist, are by 
the English called Puritans and detested like an abominable 
plague. 

" When at last a reply came from London it was found 
that the French Ambassador had been informed of the 
arrival of the vessel, and was now negotiating the surrender, 
especially of the Jesuits, as he had been commanded to do by 
His Most Christian Majesty. 

" This was another result of Divine Providence, that by 
means of our arrest and detention in the province of Wales, 
it should become known to everybody, for we had very clear 
indications, of which you will presently see some, that if the 
merchants in whose hands is the administration of Virginia, 
had had their way, not one foreigner who had ever been 
found within the said Virginia, would ever have been 
allowed to return to his own country. 

" To make a quick end to our relation, note that the 
Jesuits were carried by a long round-about way to the har- 
bour of Sandwich, and from thence, by order of the King, 
back again to Dover, and from Dover to Calais, where they 
thanked God for so many signal mercies of His, and for 
His special providence, having good ground for this, since 
they had been kept nine months and a half ^ in the hands 
of the EngHsh. 

1 The Jesuits were taken at St. Saviour about the middle of July, 1613; 



724 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614, 

" The Sieur d'Arquien, governor of this aforesaid Calais, 
and Monsieur la Boulaye, mayor, gave them a most hearty 
welcome and furnished them with the means required to 
enable them to return to their college at Amiens. 

" Chapter XXXIII. — Return of the Sieur de la Motte 
[April, 1614], of Captain Flory [July, 1614] and of some 
others, and the surrender of the vessel. 

" Soon after this liberation of the Jesuits, God also res- 
cued in His Mercy almost the whole remaining number of 
shipwrecked men in this way : — 

" The boy that was with the Jesuits, called Guillaume 
Crito, was taken to London, and from thence sent back to 
his father at Honfleur. 

" At the same time the Sieur de la Motte came also back 
to England on board a vessel from the Bermudas, which 
had stopped in Virginia. 

" Captain Argal contended most generously with Marshall 
Thomas Deel (of whose great bitterness of temper you have 
heard us speak) so as to secure permission for the aforesaid 
Sieur de la Motte to return likewise and obtained it at last. 

" Now the said Sieur de la Motte was very much aston- 
ished to find that suddenly from the time of his arrival 
in England, no one spoke to him any longer, no one came 
to see him, he was forsaken by everybody, and the worst 
was that he was taken sick on board the vessel. He at 
once suspected the danger which threatened him, and from 
whence it came, namely, from the Virginia Merchants, who 

in Virginia in August and Septem- James, to Dover and to Calais, where 
ber; again on New England coast in they probably arrived about the first 
October; sailed from Port Royal Oc- week in May (0. S.), 1614. 
tober 30 ; at Fayal three weeks until As I have said, it seems that Lieu- 
January, 1614; at Milford Haven in tenant William Turner and the Jesuits, 
February ; four weeks at Pembroke, Sir Thomas Gates and the Sieur de la 
awaiting answers from London until Motte from Virginia, and Captain La 
March (?). They were taken around to Saussaye from France, all reached the 
Sandwich about April ; and being re- neighborhood of London about April 
leased were sent thence (late in April 1614, probably, just before the debate 
or early in May), by order of King in Parliament of April 20, 1614. 



BIENCOURT'S COMPLAINT. 725 

would have liked to get rid of him, and did not know how. 
He tried, therefore, very cunningly, and in the end success- 
fully, to make his condition known to Monsieur de Bisseaux, 
the very worthy ambassador of his most Christian Majesty, 
who immediately sent two gentlemen to him, so that he was 
set free and well treated, as he fully deserved by his courage 
and his valor. 

"At this same time [April, 1614] also Madame de 
Guercheville sent La Saussaye to London, there to solicit 
the hberation of the vessel, and compensation for such in- 
iquitous robbery. The vessel has been restored, but noth- 
ing else has up to the present moment been received. 

" And now at the very moment when our ship, being once 
more set free, was winging its way towards France, its 
native land, here comes Captain Flory, [in July, 1614] its 
Master, as if by special appointment, to take charge of it 
and to assume command. Captain Argal, had once more 
freed it from the hands of the Marshall, coming back to 
England with him (Flory) and two other Frenchmen. Cer- 
tainly this said Argal has shown himself such that we de- 
sire him to have an opportunity of serving a better cause, 
and one in which his true nobility of heart may show itself, 
not in the ruin but in the support of honorable men. 

" Out of our whole number three died in Virginia, and 
four are there still, everything being done that can be done 
towards their Hberation also. May God in His mercy give 
them patience and let them derive from our affliction all 
the good that His providence and loving kindness may in- 
tend. Amen ! " 



CCCXVI. BIENCOURT'S COMPLAINT. 

July 8, (0. S.) 1614. An extract from the "History of 
New France" by Marc Lesearbot. Paris, 1618, 8vo, pp. 
686-690. 

..." Now, if in justice, the first plaintiff and informer 
is accepted to the prejudice of him, who comes recrim- 



726 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

Defence of inating, the Sieur de Poutrincourt will beyond 
the Jesuits, doubt havB the question decided in his favor. 
For the apology of Father Biart dates only from the year 
sixteen hundred and sixteen/ and the complaint of the 
aforesaid ' Sieur ' presented to the Judge of the Admiralty 
of ' Guyenne au siege de la Rochelle/ is dated the eight- 
eenth of July sixteen hundred and fourteen, of which these 
are the contents : — 

" ' Messire Jean de Biencourt, Knight Lord of Poutrin- 
court, Baron of Saint Just, lord of Port-Eoyal and the ad- 
jacent lands in New-France, reports to you that on the last 
day of the month of December last he left this city and 
sent out of this port and harbour a vessel of sixty-two tons, 
or there abouts, called ' La prime de la tremblade,' to sail and 
to go straightways in the direction of Port Royal, where it 
arrived on the seventeenth of last March, and being there, 
he found out by the report of Charles de Biencourt, his 
eldest son, viee-Admiral and Lieutenant-General in the lands, 
Countries and Seas of all New France, that the commander 
of some Englishmen being in Virginia, distant one hundred 
and twenty leagues, or thereabouts, from aforesaid harbour, 
sent by persuasion of Pierre Biart, a Jesuit, to said port one 
large vessel, of two to three hundred tons, another of one 
hundred tons or thereabouts, and one large bark, with a 
number of men, who on the day of the feast of AUsaints 
last, landed there, and guided by the said Biart, went to 
where the said Sieur de Poutrincourt made his habitation, 



1 CCCXVI., I believe, is only to Port Royal in October, 1613, as given 

be found in the 1618 edition of Les- in CCCXVI., is very different from 

carbot. GCCXIII., CCCXV., and his own account given in CCCXIII. 

CCCXVI. strongly Ulustrate the un- and CCCXV. 

certainty of data where there is any Of course there are other illustra- 
controversy, and the necessity of hav- tive materials for Argall's voyages in 
ing all the evidence before us when Champlain's and other works; but I 
we attempt to pass a just verdict; and am only attempting to give data writ- 
even then, when the controversy is de- ten before 1617 ; and only such as has 
cidedly partisan, we can scarcely ever a special bearing on the English in 
decide with any certainty. The ac- America, 
count of Father Biard's conduct at 



BIENCOURT'S COMPLAINT. 727 

and for the convenience of the latter, and of the French 
dwellers there, had built a small, square fort, which had 
been left without protection, the said Sieur de Biencourt 
having gone along the coast to visit his people, with the 
greater part of his men, in order to keep them in amity 
and good will ; besides that at this place there was no rea- 
son to fear anything, since there was no war against any 
one, and hence there was no probability that at that very 
time any foreign vessels should come to this said port and 
settlement: and as for all his other men, they were two 
leagues from there, cultivating the ground. And upon this 
encounter the said English plundered aU that there was in 
this said settlement, took all the ammunition that was there, 
and all the provisions, merchandise and other articles, de- 
molished and took to pieces the timber for building and for 
carpenter's work which they thought might be useful to 
them and carried them to their ships. This being done, 
they moreover set fire to the place. And not content with 
this (impelled and led by the said Biart) they destroyed, 
with a sledge-hammer, the King's Coat of Arms, engraved 
on a rock, together with the arms of the said Sieur de 
Poutrincourt, and those of the Sieur de Monts. Then, they 
went to a distant wood, a league off, from said settlement 
and took a number of swine, which had been driven there, 
to pasture and to eat the mast, and beyond that, to a 
meadow, where they kept the horses, mares and foals and 
took all. Then under the guidance of said Biard they, went 
to the place where the farm work was going on, to seize 
those who were there, whose sloop they took and not being 
able to take them (because they retired under a hill side) 
The said Biart left the EngKsh and went to this same hill, 
to induce those who were there to abandon the said de 
Biancourt, and to go with him and the aforesaid English, 
to that before mentioned place of Virginia. To which they 
not being willing to agree, he withdrew with the said Eng- 
lish, and embarked in one of the aforesaid vessels. But 
before they sailed, the said de Biencourt arrived there ; who. 



728 PERIOD III. NOVEMBER, 1609-JULY, 1614. 

seeing what had happened, took himself to a wood, and sent 
for the Captain of said English, pretending that he wished 
to treat with him, so as to be able to surround him, and to 
try by these means to gain some advantage for the evil he 
had done. But he conceived some mistrust and was not 
willing to come on shore. "When the said Sieur de Bien- 
court saw this, he showed himself, and then when the said 
Captain said that he wished to speak to him, he repKed to 
him, that, if he would come on shore, he would not repent 
of it. Thereupon, after they had mutually pledged then' 
word and promised not to act nor to speak treacherously, 
the said Captain came on shore, with one companion, and 
remained for nearly two hours with the said de Biencourt, 
to whom, the same Captain explained the artifices which the 
said Biart employed in order to induce the Commander of 
said Englishmen to go to that afore mentioned place. 
Where said de Biencourt remained with his men from the 
day and feast of All Saints to the twenty-seventh of March ^ 
(when the said Sieur de Poutrincourt, his father, went there) 
without any provisions, compelled to eat roots, herbs and the 
buds of trees. And when the ground was frozen and they 
could find neither herbs, nor roots, nor go through the for- 
ests, they were forced to go among the rocks in search of the 
herbs growing on them, by which means some and these 
among the most robust, not being able to support themselves, 
had died of starvation, and the others had been very sick, 
and would have likewise died, without the assistance they 
received upon the arrival of said Sieur de Poutrincourt, to 
whom all the above has been represented on several and vari- 
ous occasions by his said son and others, who were with him, 
in the presence of those of the crew of said vessel, called La 
Prime, which he had taken there from this town, i^wuch he 
arrived on the . . . day of this month [July, 1614]. And 
altho.' he and his said son, having formally deposed all the 
above — to whom credit is due — in consideration of their 

1 Sri^ 1613, to March |?, 1611. 



BIENCOURT'S COMPLAINT. 729 

rank, nevertheless desire to submit them to His Majesty, 
and to Monseigneur the Admiral, whose lieutenant the said 
de Biencourt is in those countries, so as to testify to the 
whole of it, as may be needed, in order that their truth- 
fulness may be the less doubted. And for this end the 
said Sieur de Poutrincourt would like to have the afore- 
said crew examined and questioned on these above-men- 
tioned facts and on the condition in which he found the 
place, where that said settlement, called Port-Eoyal, was, 
according to the deposition which he caused to have drawn 
up about this matter. In consideration of this &c. Let it 
be communicated to the King's Attorney General &c. 
July 18'^ 16M. 

"'Signed. P. Guillaudeau.'" 

[Mem. — I have found no very clear account of the voy- 
ages of the Harlies and Hobson to our New England coast ; 
but I believe there were two, one in 1611 by Captain 
Edward HarKe and Captain Nicholas Hobson, and another, 
which sailed in June, 1614, under Captain Henrie Harlie 
(or Hawley) and Captain Nicholas Hobson. The exact date 
of the return is not known to me.] 



PERIOD IV. 

FEOM THE RETURN OF ARGALL IN JULY, 1614, TO THE 
RETURN OF DALE IN JULY, 1616. 

From the beginning the existence of the colony had 
really depended on the managers of the enterprise in Eng- 
land; but during this period it became evident that the 
colony would finally be more than self-sustaining. Day 
was breaking. Spain saw that England would never give 
up her hold on America, and the destiny of this continent 
was firmly vested in the hands of the Anglo-Saxon. 

[Mem. — The Treasurer, Captain Argall, sailed from Vir- 
ginia about the 18th of June, 1614, and arrived in England 
in July following, bringing Ralph Hamor, the author of 
CCCXXVII., Rolfe's letter to Dale (CCCXXVIII.), Dale 
to Rev. D. M. (CCCXXIX.), Whitaker to Master G. 
(CCCXXX.), Molina's letter of April ig (CCCXXV.), Mo- 
lina's letter of June it CCCXXVI.) ; the depositions of the 
French in Virginia, and other documents now unknown ; 
also Captain Flory and two other Frenchmen.] 



CCCXVII. VIRGINIA COUNCIL TO PRIVY COUNCIL. 

Soon after Argall returned, to the letter of the Privy 
Council (CCXCVI.), the Council of Virginia sent the fol- 
lowing reply. 

The reply of the Virginia Council, 1614, in defense of 
Argall. [Cotton MSS. Otho E. 829.] From the " Boston 
Daily Advertiser " of August 31, 1870, and the " Proceed- 
ings of the Mass. Hist. Society," 1884. 

..." To the substance of the first complaint : That it 




SIR WALTER RALEGH 



VIRGINIA COUNCIL TO PRIVY COUNCIL. 731 

is true Captain Argall did take a French ship within the 
limits of our Colony, who went about to plant contrary to 
the extent and privilege of his Majesty's letters patent to 
us granted. That he did it by the command of the gov- 
ernor of our Colony by his commission to him given under 
the seal of the Colony, and by virtue of such authority as is 
to him derived from his Majesty's great seal of England. 

"That whereas it is said, it was 200 leagues from our 
plantation, intimating thereby that it was out of our limits, 
we say the coast lying next B. N. E. and W. S. W. many 
more hundred leagues will not deliver them without our 
borders, we having granted unto us from 34 to 45 degrees 
of north latitude ; and from E. to W. from one sea to an- 
other, with a certain clause that if any other nations should 
get land to the north of 45 degrees, and by any river or 
lake, or by land travel should come to the southwards, to 
plant behind our backs, that it should be lawful for our 
governor to resist, displant, and take by force any that 
should make such attempt. 

" And we do further avow that the said ship was taken 
between 43 and 44 degrees, which in express limitation is 
within his Majesty's grant and is annexed to his royal 
crown. And that this is proved by the several confessions 
of divers of the French examined by Sir Thomas Dale, and 
certified accordingly unto us by him. And that the said 
Captain ArgaU, besides his several commissions for his jus- 
tification to us showed, hath further produced unto [us] a 
testimonial or certificate under the seal of our Colony, that 
he hath in these his voyages no way exceeded the commis- 
sions to him given . . . that upon the cross-examination 
. . . certified the said ship and other . . . Letters Patents, 
and that therefore we suppose [he should] be wholly for 
the fact excusable. 

" Concerning the aggravation of circumstances. We [re- 
ply] Argall had not above 60. men in his ship. That the 
[French] first shot at him ; and that all the victuals, mu- 
nition, utensils for plantation, besides the ship and her 



732 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

app[urtenances], which was redelivered at the request of 
the French A[mbassador], was not to the value of £200. 
sterling, as we are [able to] prove by the several inventories 
dehvered by the F[rench to] the Marshall of Virginia, and 
together with their [examinations] unto us certified. 

" Secondly, to the imputation of inhumanity used by him 
[to his] prisoners, we say it is wholly false. That neither 
Monsieur Saussaye nor any other were detained as prison- 
ers, but that he went and returned from ship to shore at 
pleasure. That Captain Argall did propound to them three 
offers, — 

" 1. First, to give them a small pinnace, with sufficient 
victuals [to] carry them all into France. 

" 2. Secondly, to give them passage from thence to the 
bank, 120 leagues from Cape Brittayne, there to meet cer- 
tayne French shipping. 

" 3. Thirdly, to give Monsieur Saussy, their Captain, a 
shallop, and as [many] of his men as he would choose, with 
sufficient provision to their own wage, and to carry the resi- 
due [with him] into Virginia. [And] that condition was 
chosen by the Captain, and accordingly performed. 

" These offers are proved by the confession of Monsieur 
Saussay, his two Jesuits, the Master, and at least ten other 
of the Company, which are ready to be shown, with many 
attestations of great humanity and . . . courtesy showed to 
them. . . . 

" And that these our reasonable answers considered, the 
King of France is neither in his Homs' [Honours ?] nor 
title any way injured by the just defense of our own, and 
maintenance of those limits and extent of territory given 
unto us by his Majesty's Letters Patents many years before 
the French had any footing to the south of Canada. 

"Neither hath Madame de Guercheville any reason to 
expect reparation having entered without our leave, within 
our limits and dominion, by force to plant or trade, con- 
trary to the good correspondence and league of these two 
most royal Kings. And that if any particular be hereof 



REPLY OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL, 733 

doubted or repKed unto, we will be ready to give testimony 
and further answer thereunto." 



CCCXVIII. EEPLY OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL. 

After receiving CCCXVII., the Privy Council made the 
following reply to the French complaints. 

Published in the " Proceedings of the Mass. Hist. Soci- 
ety," 1884. My copy was made for me (in the original 
French) at the British Museum in 1883, and translated for 
me by Professor Scheie De Vers of the University of Vir- 
ginia. This translation is a Httle different from that pub- 
lished by the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

"Eeply to the complaints presented to the King by 
the Sieur de Bisseaux, resident Ambassador to the King. 
From the most Christian King. [See note to CCXCI.] 

" First as to the complaint concerning Newfoundland." 

The reply to this complaint reviews the history of New- 
foundland from the year 1496, when " Robert Thorne and 
Hugh EUot, merchants of the city of Bristow, sent to sea 
certain ships for discovery under the conduct of Sebastian 
Cabot," to the year 1614. 

" The reply to the third complaint concerning the whale 
fishery." See CCLXXXVIII. and CCXCVI. 

'' Reply to the fourth complaint concerning Virginia. 

"Captain Argol admits that he has taken the French 
ship in question, within the limits of our Colony on account 
of this, that contrary to the privileges granted the said 
Company by Letters Patent from the King, it attempted to 
intrude and establish itself there by force, and that what he 
has done in this matter, has been done by virtue of the 
commission, which had been granted to him under the seal 
of the said Company for that very purpose, which authority 
is derived from the special powers granted by His Majesty 
to said Colony under his Great Seal, and that nevertheless 
the said vessel has been returned at the request of the 



734 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

Ambassador. Notwithstanding which reply His Majesty 
wishing to show the Ambassador the wish he cherishes to 
give him all the contentment and satisfaction possible, has 
caused orders to be issued, that the said Captain Argol 
shall be produced to account for what he has done, at any 
time and whenever the Ambassador shall desire it. And 
that Turner, his lieutenant, shall in like manner be pro- 
duced as soon as he can be apprehended." . . . 

"The Keply to the sixth complaint was touching the 
arrest and seizure of vessels," and " the Reply to the eighth 
complaint was touching The Marchioness de Guerche- 
ville : — As to Madame the Marchioness of Guercheville, 
she has no reason to complain ; nor to hope for any repara- 
tion ; seeing that her ship entered by force the territory of 
the said Colony to settle there, and to trade without their 
permission, to the prejudice of our treaties and of the good 
understanding there is between our kings." . . . 

Indorsed : " D[elivere]d ye Fr[ench] Amb[assador by] 
Mons"" Edmo[ndes].^ 1614. Answer to the French Com- 
playntes." 

CCCXIX. LORKIN TO PUCKERING. 

Eev. Thomas Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering, Bart., 
July 21, 1614. 

..." From the Bermudas news is freshly arrived,^ that 
there have been there lately two Spanish ships, with a little 
frigate sounding the way before them. Upon the first dis- 
covery of them, the Governor of the island sent forth a 
small vessel towards them, to learn what they were, who, 
perceiving them to be Spaniards, presently returned and 
advertised the Governor thereof, who presently saluting 
them with a friendly shot of artillery, they rendered him 
his salute, and instantly retired." — From Birch's " Court 
and Times of James I." vol. i. p. 337. 

1 Sir Thomas Edmonds, ambassa^ "^ This news probably " arrived " on 
dor of the king of England, resident the vessel which brought Captain Dan- 
in France, embarked for France in iel Elfrith. 
the ship Answer, on the 25th July, 
1614. — 3d Rept. MS. Com. p. 292b. 



JAMES I. TO STATES GENERAL. 735 

[Mem. — " July 29'\ Court Minutes of the East India 
Company. Sale by the Candle of Calicoes, Silks, &c ; also 
of two boxes of ambergris, belonging to the Virginia Com- 
pany, at £3. 1^ and £3. 2^ an oz."] 

CCCXX. JAMES I. TO STATES GENERAL. 

From London " Documents relating to the Colonial His- 
tory of New York," Albany, 1853, vol. iii. p. 9. 

" High akd Mighty Lords, Oue good Friends and Al- 
lies ! 

" We cannot but acknowledge the favor, which through 
regard for us, you have done to Sir Thomas Dale, Mar- 
shall of Virginia, by permitting him to absent himself for 
some time from your service, to which he should have 
already returned, had not all of that Colony, where he has 
right worthily comported himself, perceiving the necessity 
of his remaining among them, to settle and give stability to 
that enterprize, supplicated Us to interpose again with you, 
and to request jou to permit his absence for two or three 
years more, in order that he may complete the work, so 
well begun ; which, by his recal, cannot but run great risk 
of miscarriage. This We have right willingly undertaken 
for so good an object, and doubt not but you will consent 
with like promptness, not only in this case, but in all that 
depends on you for the advancement of so laudable an 
undertaking ; the success of which, as in all probability it 
will be productive of advantage to our Realms, will, in like 
manner, not fail to communicate the Uke to your Provinces. 
" Therefore We remain Your very affectionate Friend. 

" Jambs R. 
" From our Court at Leicester, the 19*'' of Augt 1614." 

Addressed : " To the High and Mighty Lords, The 
States General of the United Netherland Provinces." 
Mem. : " Date 19 August (0. S.) ) ^q^^ „ 
Received 30 Septr (N. S.) i 



736 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULy, 1616. 

[Mem. — Captain John Smith sailed from our New En^ 
land coast on the 18th of July and arrived in England the 
latter end of August, 1614. 

Lorkin to Puckering, London, September 11, 1614. . . . 
" The present affords no news at all, more than that two or 
three days since, wee were put into an alarm by the discov- 
ery of a fleet upon our coasts, of three score sail, which at 
the first were feared to be Spaniards, destined for England ; 
but since prove either to be Easterlings, or, if Spaniards, 
destined for Embden. The council upon this bruit de- 
spatched commissioners into aU parts of England, to muster 
the train-soldiers, and to command them to be in a readi- 
ness, which whether it shall go forward or not I cannot 
af&rm, that other fear being cleared." — From Birch's 
" Court and Times of James I." vol. i. p. 347.] 

CCCXXI. LETTER TO SIR THOMAS DALE. 

September 20, 1614. « Letter to Sir Tho^ Dale, Mar- 
shall of the Colony in Virginia, To send home by the next 
ship Eliezer Hopkins." — Docquet, Domestic, James I. 

The whole of this letter has not been found. 



CCCXXII. EXTRACT FROM PRESENT STATE OF IRE- 
LAND. 

Extract from " A Discourse of the present estate of Ire- 
land," by George Lord Carew. Written in 1614. 

. . . "The Spanish king can never want pretences to 
blind the world for the defence of the breach of his league, 
which by the CathoUcs will be applauded ; and if no other 
shift were to be found to preserve his honour, the planta- 
tions in the Bermudas and in Virginia, or his obedience to 
the church (being incited to a war by the Pope) will be 
enforced as sufficient." — From " Carew Papers," Lambeth. 



GONDOMAR TO PHILIP III. 737 

CCCXXIII. RESOLUTION OF THE STATES GENERAL. 

From London " Documents relating to the Colonial His- 
tory of the State of New York," Alhany, 1853, vol. iii. 
p. 9. 

Resolution of the States General on CCCXX. 

" Tuesday the last of September, 1614. 

" Received and read a Letter from the King of Great 
Britain, dated at Leicester the 19*'' of August Old Style, in 
favor of Captain Sir Thomas Dale, Marshall of Virginia, to 
the effect that their High Mightinesses would please to give 
leave of Absence to the said Captain for two or three years 
more, in order that he may continue his residence in Vir- 
ginia meanwhile, to bring affairs there into thorough secur- 
ity, for which he has laid good foundation, and commence- 
ment. After dehberation, and on the aforesaid high 
recommendation by his Majesty and the aforesaid Ambas- 
sador, their High Mightinesses have agreed and consented 
that the said Captain may continue his residence in Vir- 
ginia, on the previous footing, until it shall be otherwise 
ordered by their High Mightinesses." 



CCCXXIV. GONDOMAR TO PHILIP IH. 

OENEBAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPABTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S591, FOLIO 116. 

Copy of a deciphered letter from Don Diego Sarmiento y 
Acuna to the King of Spain, dated London, October 17, 
1614. 

"Sire — 

" The ship in which they offered me that Don Diego de 
Molino should be brought in, has returned without hitn. 
Two Englishmen, who were in the same vessel and whom I 
had charged, without the one knowing of the other, to bring 
me a very detailed account of the state in which matters 
were over there — to see if it agreed with what I have been 



738 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

told by others — and likewise informing me of all that had 
occurred there, why Don Diego de Mohno did not come, or 
whether he had died. I had charged them moreover, that 
without making themselves known to Don Diego, or to the 
other sailor whom they took with them, and who is called 
Antonio Perez, they should find out how they were and should 
comfort and assist them, both for the purpose of bringing 
them over and in any other way that they might be able. 
They have returned and brought me letters from Don Diego, 
which one had sewed between the soles of his shoes, while 
the other had them in a coil of rope, as I herewith send it to 
Y. M. ; because they knew that they would be searched and 
carefully examined, and if they found that they carried let- 
ters from Don Diego, they would hang them, without saying 
a word, and besides would learn what Don Diego had written. 
Don Diego is well but they keep him with great precautions? 
not letting him speak to any one, altho' he is permitted to 
go out and fish on the shore with four or five men who are 
always with him on guard. Don Diego, however, had per- 
suaded them to escape with him, if there should turn up any 
boat or any way to do it, (by water) ; because some who 
have attempted to go by land towards ' la Florida,' so 'tis 
said, were killed by the Indians ; whilst on the other hand 
this is said to be a report manufactured by the English, in 
order to create a terror so as to prevent others from making 
the like attempt; and for those who have gone towards 'la 
Florida,' they lay the blame upon Don Diego de Molino. 

" I have taken here special pains to find out why they 
should have returned without bringing Don Diego, and I 
have found out, as a great secret, that notwithstanding the 
orders which were given, the EngUshman has been permitted 
to die in Spain, and resenting this, they keep Don Diego de 
Molino in Virginia ; that having requested (as they tell me) 
Y. M. in the name of the King here, to hand over the Eng- 
lishman to their Embassador, since he had come over first 
and was already in Madrid, and that the King here gave his 
word to send for Don Diego, and to hand him over here, to 



GONDOMAR TO PHILIP III. 739 

Y. M.'s Embassador ; and that, seeing Y. M. had not been 
willing to trust this king in this, and knowing likewise very 
well, that the persons were very different persons, Don Diego 
being a gentleman, as here everybody knows full well, bet- 
ter than I myself, the Council has resolved to let the thing 
have its way and interpose delays and postponements with- 
out doing anything. My knowing this so perfectly has been 
of importance in getting it mended ; and thus I have already 
in my possession a special order of the King in which he 
commands that without another word, he shall be sent in any 
\_a ?] vessel that may [will probably] sail from here within 8 
days to Virginia,^ and return within five or six months ; the 
Captain of which ship has assured me that he will bring him 
without fail. I, also, endeavour to have the sailor brought. 
But here they know that he is an Englishman, where he 
was born and raised : besides, a Member of the Council has 
told me that at the request of the Embassador of the King 
here, Y. M. ordered him years ago to be imprisoned for im- 
proper words which he had used against the King here. I 
therefore proceed cautiously 'till we shall see Don Diego de 
Molino restored to freedom, and after that it seems to me it 
will be very right to ask for, that other man's liberty as a 
favor or in whatever manner may seem best. 

" The condition in which Virginia affairs are just now, is 
the same as that I reported to Y. M. on the first ; those who 
are there, are so against their free will, which I have been 
certified by one of those who come from there. Don Diego 
de Molino also gives me to understand this, adding that they 
would be very much delighted if Y. M. would send there 
even the shadow of a Heet, to drive them out of that coun- 
try ; that if some attack was made upon those of the first 
fort, and then an offer were made to take them all back to 
England, all the others would surrender without firing a 
shot, upon the same condition ; and here this Colony is in 
such bad repute that not a human being can be found to go 

1 1 suppose this has reference to the probably sailed for Virginia about the 
John and Francis. If so, the vessel middle of October, 1615. 



740 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

there in any way whatever. So much so that a person who 
was present, has told me how in a Court of the Mayor — 
who is the ' Corregidor ' of London — when the case of 
two Moorish [black ?] thieves came up, the Mayor told them, 
impressing upon them their offences, that they ought to be 
hanged ; but that, taking pity upon them, he wished to par- 
don them, with this condition, that they should go and serve 
the King and the Queen in Virginia — and that they replied 
at once, decidedly and with one accord, that they would much 
rather die on the gaUows here, and quickly, than to die slowly 
so many deaths as was the case in Virginia. I am told, they 
will be hanged ; also, that most of those who sail in this 
ship of to-day, go with the express condition and agreement, 
that they must return in it again. 

" The Colony of Bermuda has a very different and cred- 
itable reputation ; and thus is assisted both in men and in 
money ; they speak very seriously of fortifying it, and send- 
ing Colonists there, as I have very much in detail reported 
to Y. M., whose Cathohc Person," etc. 

For a more correct view of affairs in Virginia at this time 
see Hamor's Narration (CCCXXVII.). 



CCCXXV. MOLINA TO GONDOMAE. 

OENEMAL ABCSIVES OF SIMANCA8. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S691, FOLIO 116 {INCLOSED IN FOLIO 115). 

Copy of a holographic letter from Don Diego de Molina to 
Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuna, dated in Virginia, April 
30, 1614. (Inclosed in a letter from said Don Diego 
Sarmiento to the King of Spain, of October 17, 1614.) 

" Your letter. Sir, and the favor which you did me in suc- 
couring me, caused me a satisfaction, which I cannot ex- 
press, since it alone was the means to relieve me of a disease 
which for seventeen months had afflicted me sadly. For all 
this fell upon me on account of the wrong which the Gov- 




HENRY RICH 
/vrv/ liarl of Ilollini.l 



MOLINA TO GONDOMAR. 741 

ernor ^ did me in not taking me with him to the kingdom 
where you are, faihng thus to comply with the order he had 
received, which I had so long wished for and solicited from 
you, and for which I thank you most sincerely. Because, so 
great a man, only to comply with this wish, without my ever 
having obliged him by any service of mine, has interested 
himself so warmly in doing me a favor. I trust however, I 
shall stiU be able one of these days to serve you. 

" When the Governor left here, he told me he had no 
orders to take me with him, as he should go in the first ves- 
sel — a decision which was not made known to me 'till he 
was about to embark, so that I might not find means to send 
a reply to you ; because they fancy that every word of mine 
contains some crafty device ; and thus, of whatever trifle I 
may speak, they call it tale bearing, and interpret it as de- 
ceit concealed under falsehood. I beg our Lord He may 
well rid me of them. The Chief Marshall has told me that 
I shall go with him ; but I rely but little on his good inten- 
tions, and therefore I have wished to write this letter, and 
leave it with a friend of mine who will hand it to you, as 
they mean to carry me to a new Colony which they have 
established this Summer fifteen leagues from here, up the 
river, and I shall not be able to write after that. 

" The sailor who came with me has been taken on board 
a man of war ^ that is here, where they treat him liberally 
and use much persuasion to make him confess that he is an 
Englishman. And if this does not succeed they have as- 
sured me they think of making him drunk and then to exam- 
ine him once more (fine Christian principles !). Captain 
Argol, who commands the ship of which I speak, went last 
year as high as the 44°, where he found a French ship, 
which had come there with some French people, to establish 
a new Colony. After some little fighting he overcame them 
and captured fifteen persons ; the others fled with their 
governor. After having burnt all their buildings he re- 

1 Sir Thomas Gates, who left Vir- ^ The Treasurer, 
ginia in March, 1614. 



742 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

turned to this river, with his ship and a captured pinnace, 
with much wheat, clothing, horses, and working tools. After 
this he made a second voyage reaching 45° and a half, 
and burnt another small fort twenty leagues from the other 
settlement. All this you will probably have heard already, 
because the ship and the pinnace which he took with him, 
on the second expedition, lost their way in a storm and it is 
understood, went to your city with a few prisoners. Fathers 
of the Jesuits. It may be that the Governor has taken over 
others also. Thus it seems to me, these men will have a new 
cause of complaint with the King of France. As those 
who commit the offence think they wiU never be within his 
reach, these poor people who suffer from no fault of their 
own have nothing to rely upon. Thus they commit here 
shameless actions as if the forces of Rome and Carthage 
united were here assembled. I say this with much solici- 
tude, for they have also the intention of going to ' la Florida ' 
and doing the same thing there ; but their plans are formed 
recklessly and without sufficient thought, and thus God will 
finally pay them according to their works. All this I write 
as I get the opportunity to write without having what I write 
pryed into. In like manner, to see, as they give me a new 
opportunity, without noticing what I may see. I have asked 
the Marshall to leave me here, because I have no desire to 
see his new colonies, nor his new fortifications and small 
forts, for if they keep me a prisoner without charge against 
me, but merely for having seen what they themselves have 
shown me, I should not wish their mistakes and ignorances 
to redound to my injury. 

" Of myself in special, I have nothing to say, thinking 
only of the favor which I am anxious you should do me, 
since I have left all my affairs in the hands of God, I no 
longer think of brothers, relatives, property, or honours, be- 
cause all is fleeting and passes away like the wind. I only 
wish to do the duty of a good Catholic and to be able to do 
it among Catholics. 

" May God enable me to see them thro' His mercy, and I 



MOLINA TO GONDOMAR. 743 

will serve you as I ought to do — whom may He preserve 
as I desire. 

" From Virginia. April 30. 1614.^ 

" Diego db Molino. 

" for Senor Don Sarmiento de Acuiia." 



CCCXXVI. MOLINA TO GONDOMAR. 

GENERAL ARCHIVES OF SIMANCAS. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S591, FOLIOS 112, US. 

Copy of a holographic paper which reads thus : " For Don 
Diego Sarmiento de Aeuna — Virginia — Don Diego de 
Molina. June 14'" 1614." 

" Until now I had hoped to go in this ship of Captain 
Argol ; but now they tell me, it sailed two days ago ^ and I 
am not going in it because the Marshall General had many 
times offered to take me. From this may be seen the want 
of truthfulness in these men ; and that they only mean to 
deceive us. I am amazed at what they have done and how 
little they have attended to the order of the council, unless 
it is, as they say, the wellknown proverb of the monkey 
and the cat &c.^ I assume it must be so, that all these are 
stratagems, for which reason I wish you not to trouble 
yourself any farther doing me favors, for, altho' I am badly 
treated and endure much suffering, I reflect that my sins 
have been great and that I have deserved it all. But as 
the father of a family, who, while grieving for his own sor- 
rows, suffers those of his children — and considering the 
intimacy in which I have lived these three years with these 
poor people, held captives by their masters, I look upon 
them as my brothers, whose sorrows I feel more than my 

1 This letter was written April 20, Molina, and Lymbry were there, 

1614 (O. S.), about fifteen days after though probably not at the wedding, 
the marriage of Rolfe and Pocahontas. '^ The ship really sailed about the 

The Jesuit fathers cannot be placed in 18th of June. 

the picture, as they had left James- ^ That is, the Spaniards were being 

.town ; but Captain Flory and possibly made dupes of, — cat's-paws, 
nine other Frenchmen, Don Diego de 



744 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULT, 1616. 

own, because living in their midst and seeing their suffer- 
ings, they look me in the face and ask : what is the King 
of Spain doing ? where is his mercy ? why does he not show 
it to so many unfortunate ones by releasing us from our 
chains or by cutting off all our heads — for would it be 
more tolerable for us, for every man to take up arms to 
defend and maintain our captivity ? Certainly not, but to 
receive with bright faces such a great benefit with all hinds 
of thanks and everlasting gratitude. Now what is there, 
Sir, that I can answer ? Except that in a most Catholic 
manner the King, our Lord, is bound to reply to this peti- 
tion with a marvellous effect of his Christian mind [?].^ 
There are here three settlements : this in which I have been 
three years, altho' now they have ordered us to a prison in 
a stockade a mile distant, with orders not to speak to me, 
because the Marshall, says, I persuade and have persuaded 
Edward 'Colaque' [Coles] that he should flee with five 
other persons to Florida, as he put him to work, and I 
believe he did go for the good it did him to escape from 
here, and he took the complaint of them all, written in his 
memory. He is a man who knew how to retain them. 
They have now spread a report that the Indians have killed 
them so as to terrify the people. The other settlement is 
20 leagues up the river, which they made 3 years ago. 
They have made still another three leagues higher up this 
Spring, where almost all the people are, who altogether, 
and in all parts amount to two hundred fifty persons, men, 
women and children. Three stockades which they have at 
the mouth of the river have been dismantled and thus there 
are in them only six or seven men. I take it for granted 
that the King, our Master, would do a work worthy of his 
greatness, if he were to take these people away from here, 

1 The Christian mind of Philip III. probably more evident to his Christian 

sustained a wonderful amount of very mind than was the truth of the special 

wonderful special pleading for the pleas of his servants and agents. He 

removing of the English in Virginia, was probably aware of some things 

The determination of the English to not yet known to us. 
hold their grants in America was 



MOLINA TO GONDOMAR. 745 

and I am convinced that the Lord brought me hither by 
such extraordinary and unheard of events in order to 
become the Moses of these unfortunate people — not, as 
they say, as a spy, because in Spain little or nothing was 
known of this country when I was made a prisoner here. 
Their own rulers have made it notorious in Spain by my 
imprisonment, and in France by means of the three Forts 
and settlements which Captain Argol has burnt in two 
years that he has been here with a man-of-war. They have 
nothing to complain of, but their own bad government, 
because if they wish to settle the country, they ought to do 
no harm to their neighbours. I, sir, cannot write much 
longer, because with great labor I have written this with 
a root from the fields. 

" I kiss your hands. Sir, for the favor you have done me, 
All came safe and was a great comfort to me. 

"From Virginia. June 14. 1614. 

" They have landed the sailor who is here, today, from 
the vessel on which he has been two months, and they will 
take him to another stockade, two miles from this. 

" May God preserve you, as I desire. 

" Don Diego db Molina. 

" To Senor Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuna." 

[Mem. — ' On October 1 [0. S.], 1614, the States Gen- 
eral granted a charter to certain Hollanders for the exclu- 
sive trade (until January 1, 1618) to that part of America 
between Virginia and New France, and now called New 
Netherland, between 40° and 45° north Latitude.' See 
" Holland Documents relating to the Colonial History of 
New York," Albany, 1856, vol. i. pp. 10-12, 53, 149. 
The Dutch claimed that they had been frequenting the 
region of the South (Delaware) and North (Hudson) rivers 
since the year 1598. 

The map of the sea-coasts of America between New 
France and Virginia (40° to 45° north latitude), now named 
New Netherland, which was annexed to the grant of Octo- 



746 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

ber i\, 1614, is incorrectly placed in the volume between 
pp. 12 and 13, and given a wrong date. 

The grants of March and October, 1614, of the Dutch to 
New Netherland, seem to have caused the English to enter 
again in a more determined manner upon advancing and 
securing their interest in New England, and we find an 
increasing number of English vessels going each year to 
those parts. 

CCCXXVII. HAMOE'S NARRATION. 

October 20, 1614, there was entered at Stationers' Hall 
for publication, " A booke called an Narracon of the pres- 
ente State of Virginia by Ralph Hammer." It was published 
soon after with the following title : " A True Discourse of 
The Present Estate of Virginia, and the successe of the 
affaires there till the 18. of June 1614. Together with a 
Relation of the Severall English Townes and Fortes, the 
assured hopes of that countrie and the peace concluded with 
the Indians. The christening of Powhatan's daughter and 
her marriage with an English-man. 

" Written by Raphe Hamor the yonger, late Secretarie in 
that Colony. 

" Alget, qui non ardet. 

" Printed at London by John Beale for William Welby 
dwelling at the signe of the Swanne in Pauls church-yard 
1615." [J. e., after September 29, 1614.] 

It is dedicated to Sir Thomas Smith. It was reprinted 
at Albany, New York, in 1860. 

Originals are preserved in the libraries of Mr. Charles 
Deane, Mr. Kalbfleisch, the Lenox, and the John Carter- 
Brown. An original in the Drake sale, March, 1883, 
fetched |345. Quaritch prices a copy at $500. 

John Rolfe, in CCCLVIII., mentions this tract as having 
been " faithfully written by a gent, of good merit, Mr. 
Ralph Hamor," thus indorsing the account of his marriage, 
and his letter (CCCXXVIIL). 



WHITAKER TO MASTER G. 747 

To this publication of Hamor's there was aiso added the 
following three letters : — 



CCCXXVIII. EOLFE TO DALE. 

" The Coppie of the Gentleman's [John Eolfe] letter to 
Sir Thomas Dale, that after maried Powhatan's daughter, 
containing the reasons moving him thereunto." 

This letter, it seems, was delivered to Dale in March, 
1614. It contains about 2,000 words, and has been re- 
printed several times. 



CCCXXIX. DALE TO D. M. 

Sir Thomas Dale's letter " To the R. and my most 
esteemed friend Mr. D. M. at his house at F. Ch. in Lon- 
don." Dated "From Jamestowne in Virginia the 18. of 
June 1614." It contains about 2,000 words, and was pos- 
sibly written to Master Doctor Jfbcket in Fenchxirch Street. 

CCCXXX. WHITAKEE TO MASTEE G. 

Rev. Alexander Whitaker's letter " To my verie deere 
and loving Cosen M. [aster] G.[ouge] Minister of the 
B.[lack] F[riars] in London." Dated " Virginia June 18* 
1614." It contains about 400 words. 

The narrative proper (CCCXXVII.) contains about 
14,000 words. All of these four numbers have been re- 
printed together in this country, so I will not give any of 
them in this collection. 

This tract relates to events in Virginia from May, 1611, 
to June, 1614, having several references, however, to earUer 
dates. The leading items of the tract (and letters) are the 
capture of Pocahontas, her marriage, and the negotiations 
with the Indians. The account of the estate of the colony 
in the summer of 1614 is important. 



748 PERIOD rV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

[Mem. — November 23, 1614. "Sir Wm. Wade, Sir 
Dudley Diggs, Sir Baptist Hicks, Richard Martin Esq., John 
Wolstenholme Esq., Rich'* Chamberlaine, Robte OfEeley, 
Robte Johnson, Jerome Heydon, George Scott, and George 
Barkeley of London, Merchants, by and with the full con- 
sent and agreement of William Lord Candishe, Sir John 
Harrington, Sir Walter Cope, Sir Thomas Smythe, Sir Robte 
Mansell, Sir Edwyn Sandys, knights and diverse other 
persons therein interested, resigned The Somers Islands to 
the Crown" [King James]. 

These individuals were influenced in thus resigning their 
plantation to the crown by fear of the Spaniards. A com- 
pany was afterwards incorporated and a royal charter was 
granted to them on June 29, 1615. See CCCXLIX.] 

CCCXXXI. HOWES' CHRONICLES. 

" The Annales or Generall Chronicle of England, begun 
first by Maister John Stow, and after him continued and 
augmented with matters forreyne and domestique, auncient 
and moderne, unto the ende of this present yeere 1614, 
by Edmond Howes, gentleman. Londini Impensis Thomae 
Adams 1615. 

" Imprinted in London at the Three Cranes in the Vin- 
tree, by Thomas Dawson, for Thomas Adams Anno. 1615. 

" Dedicated to Prince Charles." 

A perfect copy of these " Annales " is worth about $50, 
I suppose. There was another edition of this work pub- 
lished in 1631, but it does not contain a single word of ad- 
ditional matter relating to the colony in America. The 
latest reference to this colony is of November, 1614. The 
following extracts contain the references to the English en- 
terprises in America, 
[p. 941.] " Virginia, is a country in America lying be- 
tweene the degrees of thirtie f oure and forty five 
The originaii of the North Latitude. The bounds whereof on 
t£n ^o?°the the East side, are the Ocean, on the South lyeth 



HOWES' CHRONICLES. 749 

Florida, on the North Nova Francia and New English in 
Foundland, as for the West thereof the Hmits are "'^°^' 
unknowne/ of all this country, my occasion nor purpose is 
not to speake, but onely of some parte, whereof the English, 
viz, the Londoners and their Adherents, have made planta- 
tion : which said Country was first discovered in the yeere 
1584, as [p. 942] aforesayd, and Queen Elizabeth called it 
Virginia, and assigned the same unto Syr Walter Raleigh, 
as being the chiefe discoverer thereof. And in the yeere 
1587. there were sent thither above an hundred men, wo- 
men and children, and from that time untill the third yeere ^ 
of King James, all yeerely sending thither for plantation 
ceased : and then uppon more exact discoveries, there were 
yeerely supplies of men, women & children, sent thither with 
aU necessaries, under the conduct of Captaine Newport. 

" And about three yeeres after this time, Captaine Sam- 
uell Argall, discovered a direct passage through the ocean 
to Virginia, and not to goe by the West India, as they did 
formerly. Also in the moneth of May in the yeere last 
above sayd, there were sent thither 9. ships with five hun- 
dred men, women and children, with all necessarie provi- 
sion, under commaund of Syr Thomas Gates, Knight, a 
grave expert souldier, now appoynted Lieutenant Generall in 
Virginia, Sir George Somers, Knight, a man very industri- 
ous and forward, was nowe made admirall of Virginia, and 
Captaine Newport an excellent Navigator was made Vice- 
Admirall : with these at this time went other expert captaines 
and very resolute gentlemen, these arrived at Virginia in the 
yeere 1609, and likewise at the end of the yeere 1609 ® there 
was sent another supplie of 3. ships, with 150 men, being 
for the most part Artificers, under commaund of the Lord 
De la Ware, who by free election of the Treasurer and Coun- 
sell of Virginia & with the fuU consent of the generalty of 

1 Howes quotes several times from others for many things regarding 
Smith's tract (CCXLV.), which for America. 
«ogent reasons was already the only ^ igog. 

available authority to him and to ^ Lord De la Warr in April, 1610. 

The end of the year was March 24. 



750 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

that Company was constituted and authorized, during his 
naturall life, to be Lord Governor & Captayne Generall of 
all the English CoUonies planted or to bee planted in Vir- 
ginia, according to the tenor of his Maiesties letters patents 
granted that yeere 1609, unto that Company, Captaine Ar- 
gall conducted the L. de la Ware by sea. The L. De la 
Ware being arrived in Virginia, ordered all things in the 
best manner he could, and with his forces marched up into 
divers parts of ye country, with full purpose to make farther 
discoveries ; build new townes & forts, and to bring the Sal- 
vages unto his obedience : and sent Captaine Argall to the 
Bermodes, & to discover ye north parts of Virginia. The 
L. De la Ware used his best dihgence & Industrie & there- 
withall tooke such extraordinary paines that he fell into ex- 
treame sickness, which prevented all his designes, and forced 
him to goe thence & seeke a bath in ye West Indiaes ; but 
being at Sea, his sickness so encreased, that he was con- 
strayned to bare up for the Isles of Assoris, where he recov- 
ered some part of his strength, & so from thence he with 
Captaine Argall came for England : the next yeere ^ follow- 
ing Sir George Somers went from Virginia to ye Bermodes, 
to fetch porke, where he dyed of a surfeit in eating of a pig. 
Captaine Newport seeing the necessary yeerely supplies for 
this plantation, not to proceed as was requisite for so honor- 
able an action, he left ye service, being chosen one of ye 
6. Masters of ye Navy royall, & being imployed by the 
Company of the East India Marchants : he transported Sir 
Robert Sherley into Persia. 

"And this yeere 1614, Sir Th: Gates came from Vir- 
ginia into England, using his best meanes for more supplies 
to continue their plantation, having left behind him not full 
400 men of all that were sent thither, over whom Sir Th. 
Dale Knight, a valiant souldier & discreet Governour had the 
full charge and rule. 

1 This is an error. It shows how take. Argall and Somers, we now 

close the afBairs of the company were know, were sent to the Bermudas from 

kept, and how little was really known Virginia at the same time in June, 

to the public, that a chronicler of 1610. 
events should have made such a mis- 




ROBERT RICH 
Second Enrl of Warvjick 



HOWES' CHRONICLES. 751 

"In this Plantation there were builded divers townes & 
forts, the first was called Jamestowne, huilded by Captaine 
Smith, the 2. other Townes were called Henricus & Charles, 
which the L. De la Ware builded. At this time their sev- 
erall discoveries up into the land were no further then to ye 
fals, a place so called by reason of the f ale of waters : of 
which Captaine Smith, sometime president there, made a 
map, and wrote a booke of every particular place, & of all 
that happened there.^ 

" And amongst other of worthy memory in this plantation, 
you shall understand that Captaine GosnoU, a brave souldier 
and very ingenious, spent much money & adventured his 
person & drew in many others, at the beginning of this plan- 
tation. Captaine Argall being an ingenious active, foward, 
young gentleman, amongst other his discoveries & bringing 
of victual, from the enemy to the Collony, which at ye time 
was Hke to have perished for want of food, he tooke a French 
ship a pinace which had brought forces to plant within 
the English limits : he razed their Forts & supplanted them, 
for their comming was to have supplanted the English Col- 
lonie. He also the last yeere tooke the daughter of the 
great Powhatan prisoner, who being well en- 
treated, became a Christian ; and then marryed hatan isis it 
Ma. Jo. Rolfe an EngHsh gentleman in James- pCTorTnd™ 
towne, by meanes whereof Powhatan discharged eommandeth 
& sent home all English prisoners in most kind 
manner, besides the generall peace which ensued upon it. 
Through the singular Industrie & policy of Sir Tho. Dale 
being marshall of Virginia & principal commander there. 
And in July this yeere 1614. Captaine Argall brought let- 
ters from Sir Tho. Dale & others certifying the Treasurer & 
whole Company of Virginia, of the present estate of their 
CoUony & that the English were nowe become ^ ^ 

ii'o'i • o ^ 1 1 lormer 

laborious & industrious & were plenteously stored time the Eng- 

1 That is CCXLV. The disasters evidence for a time, especially during 
which befell the colony and the uncer- 1612-15, "In which time of three 
tain state of affairs there for some years disaster," he is favorably men- 
years evidently strengthened Smith's tioned several times. 



752 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULT, 1616. 

lishwere ^ith foode of their owne, & well furnished 
sioatMuii with good houses in sundry places for their habi- 
rathOT^perish tation & most juditiouslj manifested unto the 
then prosper Company the just cause of good hope and great 
by labour.! profit to ensue in short time by this plantation, 
if they would speedily & competently supply the Collony, 
whereupon there was sent the first week of Nov. this yeere 
1614. a ship with 34 men & 11. women, with apparell & 
other necessaries for the rest of the Collony there resident. 

" And thus much at this time & in this place, touching 
this plantation shall sufiice, by reason Maister Hackluit, 
Captaine Smith, and others, have written sundry ample dis- 
courses thereof." 

On page 942 Howes writes of Newfoundland. 

On page 943 of Guiana and of the Northwest Passage. 

On pages 943-945 of " The first plantation of the Eng' 
lish in the Barmodes otherwise called the Somer Islands. 

"In the yeare 1609 the Adventurers and companie of 
Virginia sent from London, a fleete of eight shippes with 
people to supplie and make strong the CoUonie in Virginia, 
Sir Thomas Gates, being generall in a shippe of 300 tun, in 
this ship was also Sir George Somers, who was Admirall, 
and Captaine New-porte vice-Admirall, & with them about 
160. persons, this ship was Admirall and kept Companie 
with the rest of the Fleet to the height of 30. degrees & 
being then assembled to consult touching divers matters, 
they were surprised with a most extreme violent storme which 
[p. 944] scattered the whole fleete, yet all the rest of the 
fleet bent their course for Virginia, where by God's speciall 
favoure they arived safely, but this great shippe, though 
new, and farre stronger then any of the rest, fell into a 
great leake, so as Mariners, and passengers were forced for 

1 I do not believe that men who had Council of Virginia was obliged to 

the courage to cross the Atlantic in the give out in order to smooth over or 

barks of those days were made of such conceal the real difficulties and dan- 

etuff. This charge, and very many gers by which they were environed, 

others like it, are directly traceable to the publicity of which might have been 

the " varnishing reports," which the fatal to the enterprise. 



HOWES' CHRONICLES. 753 

three dayes space, to doe their utmost to save themselves, 
from sudden sinking : but notwithstanding their incessant 
pumping and casting out of water by Bucketts and all other 
meanes, yet the water covered all the goods, within the hold, 
and all men were utterly tired and spent in strength and 
overcome with laboure and hopelesse of any succoure, most 
of them were gone to sleepe, yeelding themselves to the mercy 
of the Sea, being all very desierous to die upon any shoare, 
wheresoever. Sir George Sommers sitting at the Stearne, 
seeing the shippe desperat of reliefe looking every minute 
when the shippe woulde sinke, hee espyed land, which ac- 
cording to his and Captayne Newports oppinion, they judged 
it should be that dreadfuU coast of the Bermodes, which 
Islande were of all Nations, said and supposed to be in- 
chanted and inhabited with witches, and devills, which grew 
by reason of accustomed monstrous Thunderstorme and 
tempest, neere unto those Islands also for that the whole 
coast is so wunderous daungerous of Rockes, that few can 
approach them, but with unspeakeable hazard of shippe 
wrack, S'' George Somers, Sir Thomas Gates, Captayne 
Newport, and the rest, suddainely agreed of two evills to 
chuse the least, and so in a kinde of desperat res- ^^ ^^^^ jgj_ 
olution, directed the shippe maynely for these ^"f^*H®g^ 
Islands, which by Gods divine providence, at a and flow fuU 
hie water ran right betweene two strong Rockes, 
where it stuck fast without breaking, which gave leasure 
and good oportunitie, for them to hoyce out their boate, and 
to land all their people as well saylers, as souldiers, and 
others in good safety, and beeing come a shoare, they were 
soone refreshed and cheered, the soyle and aire being most 
sweet and delicate. The salt water did great spoyle to most 
of the shippes lading and victuall, yet some meale was well 
recovered with many perticular thinges for theire common 
use & they all humbly thanked God for his great mercy, in 
so preserving them from destruction. 

" Then presently they sought farther into the Island for 
foode, which being never yet inhabited by any people, was 



754 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

overgrowne with woods, and the woods replenished with 
wilde swine, which swine as it is very probable sworn thither, 
out of some shippe wracke, they found also great multitude 
of fowle of sundry kindes, being then in a manner very 
tame, they found some fruite, as mulberies, peares, and Pal- 
mytoes, with stately Ceader Trees, & in the Sea, and in the 
Roekes, great plenty of most pleasant and holsome fish. 

" Here of necessity they were constrayned to stay, almost 
ten moneths, in which space by the speciall Mercy, and 
divine providence of almighty God, to make good the dis- 
covery of these Islands unto them, that they by diligence 
and Industry, saved so much of the timber, tacling, and 
other things out of their great shippe which lay wrackt, and 
stuck fast betweene two Rockes, as there withall, and with 
such supply of stufEe as they found in those Islandes, they 
builded there two vessels, the lesser ^ whereof so soone as it 
was finished, it was manned and sent to goe to the CoUony 
in Virginia, to signifie unto them how all thinges had hap- 
pened with their commaunders, and their Company, and 
that they would shortly set sayle for Virginia, but what be- 
came of this shippe & men was never yet knowne, and when 
the bigger vessel was finished, and victualed with swines 
flesh, and with what else that place would afford them, these 
Commaunders, with all their Company imbarked them- 
selves, and by Gods great mercy, arived safely at Virginia, 
when all Enghshmen deemed them to be utterly cast away. 

" When these three worthy commaunders, had setled the 
CoUony, then Sir George Somers returned againe to the 
Bermodies, where he dyed of a surfeit, viz, eating Porke : 
his ship returned, having left three men there to keepe pos- 
session of those Islands. 

" These Islands are within the limits of Virginia, and the 
Company finding land enough to plant uppon the maine in 
Virginia, soulde these Islands of the Bermodyes unto 120 

1 An error. This reference is to the shipwreck. Both of the vessels built 
long boat which was sent " as a Barke on the island went to VirgLaia in May, 
of Aviso for Virginia," soon after the 1610. 



HOWES' CHRONICLES. 755 

persons * of the same Companie, who since that time they 
obtayned a Charter,^ and so they now hold those Islands 
from his Maiestie. And in AprU 1612. the sayd newe 
Company sent thither a ship with 60. persons, who arryved 
and remained there very safely. 

" And when the said new Company was truly informed 
of the wholesomnesse of the Ayre and pleasantnesse of the 
soyle, and the aptnesse thereof, of itseKe in all respects to 
maintaine a CoUony, the ground being so fertile that it will 
yeeld two harvests in one yeere : great plentie of woods and 
loftie Cedars : wellstored with fowle and great plenty of 
good fish ; and that besides the f ertilitie of the soyle, which 
they had tryed, would beare with great encrease, all kind 
of English grayne, fruites, trees, beaches, and vines besides 
the great store of Ambergreece, and some pearle, which is 
found there : they sent yeerely supplies thither of men and 
some women, with all things necessarie for so worthy a 
plantation, so as at this time there are sixe hundred persons 
well fortified, with plentie of great ordinance, being nowe 
verie well able to resist a proud daring adversarie, by reason 
there are but two Inlets, and they both so narrow, as but 
one ship can come in at once into the harbour, and the Isl- 
ands are invironed with Rockes unaccessable, and within 
there is a most excellent harbour, for a Navie of great Ships. 

"The great Island is divided into eight Cantons, or 
Tribes, bearing the name of eight of the chiefe The Bermo- 
Planters, viz. The Earle of Northampton's Tribe, aboursoo 
The Earle of Pembrookes Tribe, The Lord Paget, PoojJ^ ^^^^ 
The Lord Candish [p. 944 (? 945)], Lord Harring- Virginia. 
ton, Syr Thomas Smith, Syr Robert Mansell and Syr Edwin 

1 See under November 25, 1612. it confused with the Virginia charter 

2 Their charter passed the seals June of March, 1612. Howes probably did 
29, 1615. It was probably understood his best ; but he certainly makes sev- 
that a charter would be granted at the eral errors. Reliable evidence was 
time of the surrender to the crown on evidently not obtainable at that time, 
November 23, 1614. But Howes' ac- nor afterwards ; but by collating to- 
count is confusing ; he seems to place gether all the evidence now obtaina- 
•ihe granting of this charter before ble, I believe correct ideas may be 
April, 1612, and I suppose has gotten arrived a,t. 



756 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614rJULY, 1616. 

Sands Tribe. Some of the lesser Isles are one mile and 
some 2. and 3. miles of ground, in which if they digge, 
they find good fresh water. The Company hath by this 
time spent twentie thousand pounds in this plantation and 
purchase. 

" The Company named these Islands by the name of the 
Somer Islands : they He in 32. degrees of the North Lati- 
tude: 

" Richard Moore was sent thither as Deputie Governor 
there for the Company [?]. Syr Thomas Smith, Knight was 
then [?] Governor, and Master William Caning the deputie 
governor of this Company." 

On page 945, Howes says : " Amongst the manifoulde 
Tokens and Signes of the infinite Blessings of Almightie 
God bestowed uppon this kingdome, by the wondrous and 
mercifuU establishing of peace within ourselves, and the 
full benefitte of Concord with all Christian nations, and 
others, of all which graces let no man dare to presume he 
can speake too much, whereof in truth there can never be 
enough said." Among the fruits of the peace he mentions, 
" The universall increase of commerce, and trafique through- 
out the kingdome, great building or royall ships by private 
merchants, the repeopling of citties, Townes & Villages, 
besides the undiscernable and sudden encrease of fayre and 
costly buildings, as well within the citty of London, as in 
the suburbs thereof: ... as also the Plantation of Eng- 
hsh in Ireland, Virginia, and Newfound Lande, and in the 
Bermodes, the discovery of the North West passage," etc. 

Howes published, about May, 1618, " The Abridgement 
of the English Chronicle, First collected by M. John Stow, 
and after him augmented with very many memorable An- 
tiquities, and continued with matters forreine and domesti- 
call, unto the beginning of the yeare, 1618. . . . Imprinted 
at London for the Company of Stationers, 1618." I have 
given the references to the Virginia enterprises in this work 
under the various dates referred to. See extracts from 
Howes' Chronicles, abridged. 



COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE FRENCH. 757 

CCCXXXII. EDMONDES TO WINWOOD. 

Sir Thomas Edmondes to Secretary Sir Ealph Winwood. 
Paris, France, December 12, 1614:. 

[ Account of his conference with Mons. de Villeroy and 
audience of the King and Queen of France, in reference 
to sundry complaints of the French against His Majesty's 
subjects.] 

. . . "Whereunto she [the Queen] made me no other 
answeere then that the complaints were great which she 
received of the spoyles which were committed upon the 
ffrench by his Majesties subjects, as she was forced to make 
an extraordinarie instance for the redresse of the same." — 
English State Paper Office. 

CCCXXXIII. EXTRACT FROM STATIONERS' RECORDS. 

" A further sum of £4:5. was subscribed to the Virginia 
enterprise, from the trading stock of The Stationers in 
1614 [exact date not given] ; but no return appears to 
have been received." 

Extract from a letter from the clerk of the company. 

CCCXXXIV. EDMONDES TO WINWOOD. 

Sir Thomas Edmondes to Secretary Sir Ralph Winwood. 
Paris, France, December 30, 1614. 

" I send your Honour herewith a Copie of the Memoriall 
which I have exhibited to Monsieur de Villeroy, of as many 
both generall and particular Complaintes, as I could call to 
remembrance." 

CCCXXXV. COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE FRENCH. 

[Inclosure.] "Memorial of Complaints concerning the 
subjects of the King of Great Britain, which his Majesties 
Ambassador presents to their Majesties [of France] and the 



758 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

Lords of the Council, in order that it may please them to 
give orders to have said complaints redressed and prevented 
in future." 

This is a document in French, of twenty-one pages, some 
of the complaints dating back twenty-five years. They 
include the following, namely : — 

" In the year 1606 Sir Ferdinando Gorge (sic) Governor 
of the city of Plimuth (sic) and some others having equipped 
and put to sea a vessel of the said town called The Richard, 
under the command of one called Captain Chalonour to 
trade and obtain a footing on the coast of Virginia, this 
vessel, sailing on the high seas, was met with and taken 
with all the merchandise and provisions that were on boord, 
amounting to the value of 14.000 or 15.000 francs, by 
another vessel, belonging to two merchants from St Malo, 
called Louis and Servant Graves, being commanded by one 
called Alphonse Camache, who took the foresaid vessel as a 
prize, to Bordeaux, where as soon as the men of the crew 
of the former saw themselves at liberty, one of them, called 
Tucker, proceeded against the said Camache before the 
Parliament of that place, so as to obtain justice against him. 
But after having continued his lawsuit there for the space 
of two years, he was non-suited by sentence of the 20"" Feb- 
ruary 1609, because he had not been able to furnish secur- 
ity of such an amount and within such a time as was asked 
of him, notwithstanding that he offered shortly after suffi- 
cient security." — EngHsh State Paper Office. 

CCCXXXVI. EXTRACT FROM ALEXANDER'S DOOMSDAY. 

Extract from Sir William Alexander's poem called 
" Doomsday," probably written in 1614 : — 

" In this last age, Time doth new worlds display, 
That Christ a church, o'er all the Earth may have. 
His righteousness shall barbarous realms away, 
If their first love, more civil lands will leave, 
America to Europe may succeed, 
God may of stones raise up to Abram, seed." 



LETTER FROM LEWIS HUGHES. 759 



CCCXXXVII. EXTRACT FROM COOKE'S TUQUOQUE. 

Extract from " Greenes Tuquoque, or The Cittie Gal- 
lant. As it hath beene divers times acted by the Queenes 
Maiesties Servants. Written by John Cooke, gent, [the 
actor] Printed at London . . . 1614." 

One of the characters says : " I dare not walk abroad to 
see my friends, for fear the sergeants should take acquaint- 
ance of me ; my refuge is Ireland or Virginia." 

[Mem. — The Margaret and other vessels returned from 
the Bermudas in the summer, fall, and winter of 1614 ; 
bringing back Master George Berkeley, Captain Daniel 
ELBrith, and others.] 



CCCXXXVIII. GONDOMAR TO PHILIP IH. 

GENERAL ABCHIVES OF SIMANOAS. DEPAUTMENT OF STATE, 
VOLUME S593, FOLIO «. 

Copy of an extract from a deciphered letter of Don Diego 
Sarmiento de Acuna to the King of Spain, dated Lon- 
don, February 10, 1615. 

" Sire. 
..." We expect Don Diego de Molino with the first 
ship coming from Virginia. That Colony continues daily 
losing more of its credit, and I am told that even the 
energy with which the Colony of Bermuda began is no 
longer as great, because they do not find there the advan- 
tages which they expected." . . . 

CCCXXXIX. LETTER FROM LEWIS HUGHES. 

" A Letter sent into England from the Summer Islands 
written by M' Lewis Hughes, Preacher of God's Word 
there, 1615. Printed at London by J. B. for William 
Welby, and are to be sold at his shop at the signe of the 



760 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614rJULY, 1616. 

Swanne in Paules Church Yard 1615." The letter is dated 
December 21, 1614, and extracts from it are given in Le- 
froy's " Memorials of the Bermudas," vol. ii. pp. 577-580. 

[Mem. — Captain Argall in the Treasurer sailed for Vir- 
ginia about February, 1615.] 



CCCXL. MINUTE OF THE PEIVY COUNCIL. 

On February 19, 1616, the Privy Council made the follow- 
ing minute : — 

" Whereas it pleased their Lordships some moneths past ^ 
at the humble suite of the Colony of Virginia to gyve order 
for the writing of certaine letters unto the several cittyes and 
Townes of the Kingdome inviting and persuading the In- 
habitants thereof to adventure in a certeyne Lotterye, such 
somes of moneye as they should think fitting according to 
the rules enclosed in the sayd Letters, thereby the better to 
enable ye sayd Companye to proceede in that Plantation of 
Virginia : — 

" And forasmuch as upon further consideration it was com- 
manded by the Boarde, that staye should be made of the 
sayd Letters, until further order might be given on that 
behalfe. It was this day (upon the humble suite of Sir 
Thomas Smith, with the rest of the Company of Virginia) 
thought fitting, and so accordingly ordered, that the sayd 
letters should forthwith be deHvered unto Sir Thomas Smith, 
to the end they might be sent, and dispersed according to 
their several directions." — From NeiU's " Virginia Ve- 
tusta," p. 199. 

CCCXLI. PRIVY COUNCIL TO CANTERBURY. 

FROM OBEEN'S AND SAINSBUBY'S CALENDARS OF STATE 

PAPERS. 

White HaU, February 22, 1615. 

" The Privy Council to the Mayor and Aldermen of Can- 
terbury." 

1 See CCCI. 



ADccIaration forthe ccminetimeof drawingthe great ftanding Lottery. 




It is apparent to tliu World, by liow many former 
Publications we manifested oui intents to liave 
drawne out the Great standing Lotteric long before 
this day : Which not falling out as ourselves desired 
and others expected, whose moneyes are already ad- 
ventured therein, We thought good therefore for 
avoiding all unjust and sinister constructions to re- 
solve the doubts of al indifferent minded in three 
special points for their better satisfaction. The first 
is, for as much as the adventures came in so slackly 
with such poore and barren receits of moneys at the 
Lottery house for this twelve moneth past, that with- 
out too much prejudice to ourselves and the adven- 
turers in lessening the blankes & prizes, We found 
no meanes nor ability to proceed in any competent 
proportion, but of necessity are driven to the Hon- 
ourable Lords by petition, Who out of their Noble 
care and disposition to turtner that puDlike planta- 
tion of Virginia, have recommended their letters to 
the Counties, cities and good Townes in England. 
Which we liope by sending in their Voluntarie ad- 
venturers, will sufficiently make that supply of heipe, 
which otherwise we should not in any reasonable 
time have effected. 

The second poynt for satisfaction to all honest 
and wel affected minds, is, that notwithstanding this 
our meanes of IjOttery, answered not our hopes, yet 
liave we not failed in that Christian care of the Col- 
ony in Virginia, to wliom wee have lately made two 
sundry supplies of men and provisions. Wliere wee 
doubt not but tliey are all in health and in so good 
a way with corne and cattell to subsist of themselves, 
that were they now but a while supplied with more 
hands and materials, we should the sooner resolve 
upon a division of the Countiey by lot, and so lessen 
the Generall charge, by leaving eacli several tribe or 
family to husband and manure his owne. 

The third and last is our constant resolution, that 
seeing our credits are now so farre engaged to the 
Honourable Lords & to the Whole State for the 
drawing and accomplishment of this great standing 
Lotterie, Which we intend shall be our last of all 
standing Lotteries for this Plantation, that our time 
fixed and determined for accomplishing thereof, shall 
be, if God permit, without longer delay, the 26. of 
June next, being in Trinity tearme, desiring all such 
as have undertaken with bookes to solicite their 
friends, and all such as intend the prosjjerity of that 
worthie Plantation, that they will not withhold their 
monies till the last weeke or moneth be expired, lest 
vre be unwillingly forced to proportion a lesse value 
and number of our blankes and prizes which hereafter 
follow. 

And whosoever under one name or posie shall ad- 
venture twelve pounds ten shillings or upward, if he 



Welcomes. 

To him that first shall bee } 

drawne out with a Blanke \ '°°- '''°''"'^^- 

To the second 50, crownes. 

To the third 25. crownes. 

To him that every day dur- "] 

ing the drawing of this 

Lottery shall bee first 

drawne out with a Blanke 



ID. crownes. 



Prizes. 



4.500. crownes. 

2.000. crownes. 

1. 000. crownes 

500. crownes. 

300. crownes. 

200. crownes. 

100. crownes. 

50. crownes. 

20. crownes. 

- 10. crownes. 

8. crownes. 

6. crownes. 

4. crownes. 

3. crownes. 

2. crownes. 



25. crownes. 



400. crownes. 



1. Great Prize of . . . 

2. (ireat Prizes, each of 
4. Great Prizes, each of 
6. Great Prizes, each of 
10. Prizes, each of . . 
20. Piizes, each of . . 
100. Prizes, each of . . 
200. Prizes, each of . . . 
400. Prizes, each of . . . 
1. 000. Priz8S, each of . . 
1 .000. Prizes, each of . . 
1. 000. Prizes, each of . . 
4.000. Prizes, each of . . 
1. 000. Prizes, each of . . 
1. 000. Prizes, each of . . 

Rewards. 

To him that shall bee last { 

drawne out with a Jilanke ( 
To him that putteth in the ) 

greatest number of Lots ! 

under one name or Posie . ) 
To him that putteth in the | erownes. 

second greatest number . ) ■^ 
To him that putteth in the / ^^_ ^j.„^„^^_ 

third greatest number . . ) 
To him that putteth in the } ^^ crownes. 

fourth greatest number . . ) 

— If divers bee of equall number then these 
Rewards are to be divided proportionably. — 

Addition of new Rewards. 

The Blanke that shall bee ) 
drawne out next before the > 25. crownes. 
Greatest Prize, shal have . ; 

The Blanke that shall bee ) 
drawne out next after the > 25. crownes. 
said Great Prize, shall have ) 

The Blankes that shall be' 
drawne out immediately be- 
fore the 2. next Greatest 
Prizes, shall have each of 
them 

The severall Blankes next af- 
ter them shall have also ^ 20. crownes 
each of them ) 

The severall Blankes next be- 
fore the foure Great Prizes, > 15. crownes. 
shall have each of them . ; 

The severall Blankes next af 

ter them shall have also ^ 1 5. crownes, 
each of them . . 

The severall Blankes next be- 
fore the six Great Prizes, 
shall have each of them . . 

The severall Blankes next af- 
ter them shall have also 
each of them 



■ 20, crownes. 






10. crownes. 



lo.crovmes. 



please to leave & remit Iris Prizes and Rewards, bee 
they more or lesse, the Lottery being drawne out, he 
shall have a bill of Adventure to Virginia, for the 
like sum he adventured, & shall be free of that Com- 
pany, & have his part in all Lands, & all other profits 
hereafter arising thence according to his adventure of 
twelve pounds ten shillings or upwards. 

Whosoever is behinde with the payment of any 
sum of money, promised heretofore to be adventured 
to Virginia, if hee adventure in this Lotterie the 
double of that sum & make payment thereof in ready 
money to Sir Thomas Smith Knight, Treasurer for 
Virginia, he shall be discharged of the foresaid summe 
so promised to have been adventured to Virginia, 
and of all actions and damages therefrom arising, and 
have also the benefit of all Prizes and Rewards what- 
soever in this Lottery, due by reason of the like sum 
which he shall bring in, and yet notwithstanding, if 
after the Lottery drawne, he list to remit all his said 
Prizes and Rewards, he shall have a bill of Adventure 
to Virginia for the said entire summe according to 
the last preceding Article. 

And if upon too much delay of the adventurers to 
furnish this Lottery, We be driven to draw the same 
before it be full, then we purpose to shorten both 
blanks and Prizes in an equall proportion, according 
to that wherein wee shall come short, bee it more or 
lesse, that neither the Adventurers may bee defrauded 
nor ourselves, as in the foimer, any way wronged. 

The Prizes, Welcomes & Rewards shall be paid in 
ready Money, I'late, or other goods reasonably rated. 
If any dislike of the said I'late or other Goods, he 
shall have ready money for the same, abating oneiy a 
tenth part; except in small Prizes of tenne Crownes 
or under, wherein nothing shall be abated them. 

The money for Adventures is to be paid to Sir 
Thomas Smith Knight Treasurer for Virginia at his 
house in Philpot lane ; or to such officers as shall be 
appointed to attend for that purpose al the Lottery 
house : or to such other as shall elsewhere, for the 
ease of the Countrey, be authorized under the Scale 
of the Company, for receipt thereof. 

The Prizes, Welcomes & Rewards being drawne, 
they shall be paid by the Treasurer for Virginia, with- 
out delay, whensoever they shall be demanded. 

And for the better expedition to make our sum 
compleat, as wel to hasten the drawing of our Lot- 
tery, as chiefly to inable us the sooner to make good 
supplies to the Colonic in Virginia: Whosoever un- 
der one name or posie shall bring in ready money 
thi-ee pounds, either to the Lottery house, or to any 
Collector, the same party receiving their money, for 
every three pounds so received shall render them 
presently a silver spoone of 6. shillings, 8. pence price, 
or 6. shillings 8. pence in money. 



Impriuted at London, by Felix Kyngston, for William Welby, the 22. of Februarie. 1615. 



A DECLARATION FOE THE LOTTERY. 761 

Abstract : ' Send a True declaration of the state of the 
Enghsh Colony in Virginia,' together with a project by help 
of a lottery, to bring that work to the success desired. 

' Commend that worthy and Christian enterprise to their 
care, and require that they wiU employ their best endeavors 
to persuade persons of ability to adventure in the lottery. 
Inclose from the Treasurer and Council of Virginia, books 
requisite for registering the sums adventured, which it is 
requested may be returned with the money collected.' 

CCCXLII. A DECLARATION FOR THE LOTTERY. 

I am convinced that this was first entered for publication 
March 9, 1614 (see under that date), and was soon after 
distributed among the London companies. It was probably 
again printed February 22, 1615 (with the needed changes 
in date, etc., I suppose), for distribution among the various 
cities, towns, etc. 

" A Declaration for the certaine time of drawing the 
great standing Lottery. — [With an engraved heading of 
Eiatintomino and Matahan, the Council Seal and symbols 
of the lottery.] 

" Once, in one State, as of one Stem, 
Meere Strangers from Jerusalem, 
As Wee, were Yee ; till Others Pittie 
Sought, and brought You to That Cittie. 

" Deere Britaines, now, be You as kinde ; 
Bring Light, and Sight, to Us yet blinde : 
Lead Us, by Doctrine and Behaviour, 
Into one Sion, to one Saviour. 

" It is apparent to the World, by how many former Pub- 
lications we manifested our intents to have drawne out the 
Great standing Lotterie long before this day : Which not 
falling out as ourselves desired and others expected, whose 
moneyes are already adventured therein, We thought good 
therefore for avoiding all unjust and sinister constructions 
1 CCCXLII. see also CCCI. 



762 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULy, 1616. 

to resolve the doubts of al indifferent minded in three 
speciall points for their better satisfaction. The first is, for 
as much as the adventures came in so slackly with such 
poore and barren receits of moneys at the Lottery house for 
this twelve moneth past, that without too much prejudice to 
ourselves and the adventurers in lessening the blankes & 
prizes, We found no meanes nor abihty to proceed in any 
competent proportion, but of necessity are driven to the 
Honourable Lords by petition. Who out of their Noble care 
and disposition to further that publike plantation of Vir- 
ginia, have recommended their letters to the Counties, cities 
and good Townes in England. Which we hope by sending 
in their Voluntarie adventurers, will sufficiently make that 
supply of helpe, which otherwise we should not in any rea- 
sonable time have effected. 

" The second poynt for satisfaction to all honest and wel 
affected minds, is, that notwithstanding this our meanes of 
Lottery, answered not our hopes, yet have we not failed in 
that Christian care of the Colony in Virginia, to whom wee 
have lately made two sundry supplies of men and provi- 
sions. Where wee doubt not but they are all in health and 
in so good a way with corne and cattell to subsist of them- 
selves, that were they now but a while supplied with more 
hands and materials, we should the sooner resolve upon a 
division of the country by lot, and so lessen the Generall 
charge, by leaving each several tribe or family to husband 
and manure his owne. 

" The third and last is our constant resolution, that see- 
ing our credits are now so farre engaged to the Honour- 
able Lords & to the whole State for the drawing and accom- 
plishment of this great standing Lotterie, Which we intend 
shall be oiu- last of all standing Lotteries for this Planta- 
tion, that our time fixed and determined for accomplishing 
thereof, shall be, if God permit, without longer delay, the 
26. of June next, being in Trinity tearme, desiring all such 
as have undertaken with bookes to solicite their friends, and 
all such as intend the prosperity of that worthie Plantation, 



A DECLARATION FOR THE LOTTERY. 763 

that they will not withhold their monies till the last weeke 
or moneth be expired, lest we be unwillingly forced to pro- 
portion a lesse value and number of our blankes and prizes 
which hereafter follow. 

" And whosoever under one name or posie shall adventure 
twelve pounds ten shillings or upward, if he please to leave 
& remit his Prizes and Rewards, bee they more or lesse, 
the Lottery being drawne out, he shall have a bill of Adven- 
ture to Virginia, for the like sum he adventured, & shall 
be free of that Company, & have his part in all Lands, & 
all other profits hereafter arising thence according to his 
adventure of twelve pounds ten shillings or upwards. 

" Whosoever is behinde with the payment of any sum of 
money promised heretofore to be adventured to Virginia, 
if hee adventure in this Lotterie the double of that sum & 
make payment thereof in ready money to Sir Thomas Smith, 
Knight, Treasurer, for Virginia, he shall be discharged of 
the foresaid summe so promised to have been adventured 
to Virginia, and of all actions and damages therefrom aris- 
ing, and have also the benefit of all Prizes and Rewards 
whatsoever in this Lottery, due by reason of the like sum 
which he shall bring in, and yet notwithstandinge, if after 
the Lottery drawne, he list to remit all his said Prizes and 
Rewards, he shall have a bill of Adventure to Virginia, for 
the said entire summe according to the last preceding Ar- 
ticle. 

" And if upon too much delay of the adventurers to fur- 
nish this Lottery, We be driven to draw the same before it 
be full, then we purpose to shorten both blanks and Prizes 
in an equall proportion, according to that wherein we shall 
come short, bee it more or lesse, that neither the Adventur- 
ers may be defrauded nor ourselves as in the former, any- 
way wronged. 

" The Prizes, Welcomes & Rewards shall be paid in ready 
money, Plate, or other goods reasonably rated. If any dis- 
like of the said Plate or other Goods, he shall have ready 
money for the same, abating onely a tenth part ; except in 



764 



PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 



small Prizes of tenne Crownes or under, wherein nothing 
shall be abated them. 

" The money for Adventures is to be paid to Sir Thomas 
Smith, Knight, Treasurer for Virginia at his house in Phil- 
pot lane ; or to such officers as shall be appointed to at- 
tend for that purpose at the Lottery house : or to such other 
as shall elsewhere, for the ease of the countrey, be author- 
ized under the seale of the company, for receipt thereof. 

" The Prizes, Welcomes & Rewards being drawne they 
shall be paid by The Treasurer for Virginia, without delay, 
whensoever they shall be demanded. 

" And for the better expedition to make our sum compleat, 
as wel to hasten the drawing of our Lottery, as chiefly to 
inable us the sooner to make good supplies to the Colonic 
in Virginia : Whosoever under one name or posie shall 
bring in ready money three pounds, either to the Lottery 
house, or to any Collector, the same party receiving their 
money, for every three pounds so received, shall render them 
presently a silver spoone of 6. shillings, 8 pence price, or 6. 
shillings 8. pence in money. 



Welcomes. 

To him that first shall bee drawne out with a Blanke 100. crownes. 

To the second 

To the third 

To him that every day during the drawing of this Lot- > 
tery shall be first drawne out with a Blanke ) 



Peizes. 



1. Great Prize of 

2. Great Prizes, each of 
4. Great Prizes, each of 
6. Great Prizes, each of 

10. Prizes, each of . 
20. Prizes, each of 
100. Prizes, each of . 
200. Prizes, each of 
400. Prizes, each of . 
1,000. Prizes, each of 
1,000. Prizes, each of . 



50. 


crownes. 


25. 


crownes. 


10. 


crownes. 


4.500. 


crownes. 


2.000. 


crownes. 


1.000. 


crownes. 


500. 


crownes. 


300. 


crownes. 


200. 


crownes. 


100. 


crownes. 


50. 


crownes. 


20. 


crownes. 


10. 


crownes. 


8. 


crownes. 



A DECLAEATION FOR THE LOTTERY. 



765 



1,000. Prizes, each of 
4,000. Prizes, each of 
1,000. Prizes, each of 
1,000. Prizes, each of 



6. crownes. 
4. crownes. 
3. crownes. 
2. crownes. 



Eewards. 

To him that shall bee last drawne out with a Blanke 
To him that putteth in the greatest number of Lots un 

der one name or Posie 
To him that putteth in the second greatest number 
To him that putteth in the third greatest number 
To him that putteth in the fourth greatest number 

If divers bee of equall number, then these Rewards are to be divided 
proportionably. 



25. crownes. 

400. crownes. 

300. crownes. 
200. crownes. 
100. crownes. 



Addition of jstew Eewaeds. 
The Blanke that shall bee drawne out next before the ") 

greatest Prize, shal have ) 

The Blanke that shall bee drawne out next after the > 

said great Prize, shall have ) 

The Blankes that shall be drawne out immediately be- ") 

fore the 2. next greatest Prizes, shaU have each of them ) 
The severall Blankes next after them shall have also "> 

each of them j 

The severall Blankes next before the foure Great Prizes, ) 

shall have each of them J 

The severall Blankes next after them shall have also ) 

each of them j 

The severall Blankes next before the six great Prizes, > 

shall have each of them ) 

The severall Blankes next after them shall also have 1 

each of them j 



25. crownes. 
25. crownes. 
20. crownes. 
20. crownes. 
15. crownes. 
15. crownes. 
10. crownes. 
10. crownes. 



" Imprinted at London by Felix Kyngston, for William 
Welby, the 22. of Februarie, 1615." 

Smith extracts from CCCXLII. in his " Generall History," 
pp. 117-119. This lottery was drawn November 17, 1615, 
and was really the Second Great Lottery ; the First Great 
Virginian Lottery, as we have seen, was drawn in June and 
July, 1612. 

CCCXLII. is No. 151, Broadside of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London ; I know of no other original. It has 



766 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

been wrongly catalogued under 1616. (See my remarks on 
CXIV.) The year is not Old Style ; it would have borne 
the date 1615, if printed in London between September 29, 
1614, and September 29, 1615. 



CCCXLIII. EXTRACT FROM THE TRADE'S INCREASE. 

Some time prior to February 22, 1615, there issued from 
the press a tract called " The Trades Increase. Printed by 
Nicholas Okes, and are to be sold by Walter Burre." The 
preface is signed with the initials I. R. It was written 
against the East India Company. It contains the following 
references to Virginia, viz. : — 

On page 26. " I cannot finde any other worthy place 
of forren anchorage. For the Bermudas, We know not yet 
what they will doe ; and for Virginia we know not well 
what to do with it : The present profit of those two Col- 
onies not employing any store of shipping. The great ex- 
pence that the nobility and gentry have been at in planting 
Virginia is no way recompensed by the poor returns from 
thence." 

On page 53. " The Virginia Company pretend almost 
all that Maine twixt it and New-found-land to bee their 
Fee-Simple, whereby many honest and able mindes, dis- 
posed to adventure, are hindred and stopped from repairing 
to those places, that they either know or would discover, 
even for fishing." 

February 22, 1615. Extract from the Court Minutes of 
the East India Company. 

" Report of M' Leate and M"- Bell that Mr. Attorney 
and another lawyer find some points in the book, called the 
Trades Increase, very near to treason and all the rest very 
dangerous. The opinion of M"" Solicitor desired ; Sir Dud- 
ley Diggs of opinion that a book should be set forth in 
defence of the East India trade." 



EXTRACT FROM BRITAIN'S BUSS. 767 



CCCXLIV. EXTRACT FROM THE DEFENSE OF TRADE. 

Soon after this, there appeared '' The Defence of Trade. 
In a Letter to Sir Thomas Smith, Knight, Governour of the 
East India Companie &c. From one of that Societie. 
Vexat censura Columbas. London, Printed by William 
Stansby for John Barnes, and are to be sold at his shop 
over against Saint Sepulchres Church without Newgate. 
1615." (Signed at the end of pamphlet, Dudley Digges. 
In the tract he speaks of Sir Thomas Smythe as his kins- 
man.) The tract is a defense of the merchant companies. 
On page 30, Diggs, replying to the reflection on Virginia, 
says : — 

" This ready Companie (of Muscovie) to doe him service, 
and to good their Countrie, May perhaps finde meanes, to 
save home-store, by trying a conclusion in Virginia, which 
this worthy author thinkes, men know not what to doe 
withall." 

[Mem. — In March, 1615, Byleth and Baffin sailed on 
their voyage for Discoverie of Seas, Lands and Hands to 
the North- Westwards, etc. 

The Welcome sailed for the Bermudas probably about 
the same time.] 



CCCXLV. EXTRACT FROM BRITAIN'S BUSS. 

Extract from " Britain's Buss, or A computation as well 
of the charge of a Buss or Herring Fishing ship ; as also 
of the Gain and Profit thereby. By E. S. London. 
Printed by William Jaggard for Nicholas Bourne, and are 
to be sold at his shop at the south entry of the Royal Ex- 
change. 1615." . . . 

" Timber and Plank. And for all the great and pitiful 
waste of our English woods ; yet will England afEord tim- 
ber and plank enough for many Busses : but, to spare Eng- 



768 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

land awhile, Ireland will yield us Busses enough, besides 
many other good ships, if need be ; and Scotland will help 
us with masts. But if we would spare so near home, we 
may help ourselves out of Virginia and Sommer Isl- 
ands." . . . 

As this tract mentions the " Trade's Increase," as " now 
newly come abroad," I suppose it was written early in 
1615, soon after the " Trade's Increase. 



CCCXLVI. CAREW TO ROE. 

See " The Letters of Carew to Roe," printed for the 
Camden Society of England in 1860, pp. 6, 7, and also pp. 
53, 54. 

April, 1615. " The Frenche, who were planted in an 
Hand in the mouthe of the river Maraynor, are displanted 
by the Portugals. There whole number were 400 French- 
men, but 100 of them unserviceable by reason of sickness. 
None were spared, but aU of them, allmost to a man, put to 
the sword, and the women and children found no mercye. 
The Portugal commander thatt tryumphes with this victorie 
is the governor of Brasil, who surprised them thatt were 
over negligent ; his forces consisted of 800 Portugals and 
800 Indians. The French fort, which was well fortified, is 
rased to the ground. I pray God thatt Virginia may not 
drinke of the same cuppe ! " 



CCCXLVII. EXTRACT FROM RECORDS OF DOVER. 

From "Liber Vocatus A." Commencing 19th Elizabeth, 
September 15, 1577. Containing the Common Assembly 
Minutes of this Borough of Dover. 

" 8*^ May 1615. A Letter read from the Lords of the 
Council to adventure in the Lottery for the Lottery for the 
Plantation of Virginia. £5. adventured out of the Towns 
Yr. [Treasury ?] by 20 Lots to be made in the name of the 



EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF WYCOMBE. 769 

town of Dover. M"^ Mayor to send the same according to 
direction. If any profit be had to be the corporations." 

" 11'^ July 1615. The <£5. adventure paid in London 
by 20 Lotts and a receipt of the same and N" of the Lots 
produced." 



CCCXLVIIL EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF 
WYCOMBE. 

¥ROM FIFTH KEPT. SOYAL HIST. COM. PAGE 359. 

From Records of the Borough of High Wycombe. Folio 
146b. 

Under date May 27, 1615, a list is given " of the names 
of the adventurers for Virginia," i. e. of persons who ven- 
tured sums of money in the Lottery made on the new set- 
tlement there; the largest venture being that of Robert 
Kempe, gent., who subscribes 40 shillings ; the smallest 
sums subscribed being 5 shillings. The common clerk 
probably made the entry, and does not appear to have very 
favorably regarded the speculation, as he ends the list with 
" Possibilia spes comitatur." After which is entered, 
" Memorandum that it is agreed amongst the said Adven- 
turers that Roberte Gray, seargeant, and Edward Randall, 
Parishe Clarke, shall have eyther of them, the benefitt of a 
lott of 5.S., for there paines in collecting of the abovesaid 
somys of money, as well and fully as though they had 
adventured there lottes." Many children's names having 
been entered, each for a lot, the following is added : " It is 
agreed the parents of the said children shall have and take 
Sommes due to the children, and discharge the towne." 

[Mbm. — Four ships were sent out by the Londoners to 
the New England coast in January, 1615. Returning, one 
loaded with dry fish sailed for Spain, and was taken by the 
Turks. One went to Virginia to relieve that colony, " and 
two came for England with the greene fish, treine oyle and 
furres, within sixe moneths." Captain John Smith sailed 



770 PEKIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULy, 1616. 

from Plymouth in March with two ships, on his so-called 
" second voyage to New England ; " he soon returned with 
the large ship, but Master Dermer made the voyage safely 
in the small bark. Smith again sailed (on his so-called 
" third voyage ") June 24, following ; but fell into the 
hands of " Pyrats." 



CCCXLIX. THE SOMERS ISLANDS CHAETER. 

COLONIAL ENTRY BOOK, VOLUME XVU. PAGES 1-46. 

On the 29"^ June, 1615, King James granted to Henry 
Earl of Southampton, Lucy Countess of Bedford, WiUiam 
Earl of Pembroke, William Lord Paget, WiUiam Lord Cav- 
endish, Sir Ralph Winwood, Sir Robert Rich, Sir Thomas 
Smith, Sir Robert Maunsell, Sir Edwyn Sandys, Sir Dudley 
Diggs, Sir John Watts, Sir Anthony Archer, Sir Samuel 
Sandys, Sir John Merrick, Sir Richard Smith, Sir Thomas 
Howgan, Sir Lyonel Cranfeild, Sir John Heyward, Sir 
Richard Grubham, Sir Lawrence Hyde, Knights. John 
Walter, Richard Martin, John Wroth, John Walstenholme, 
Richard Chamberlaine, Nicholas Hyde, William Garraway, 
George Thorpe, Jerom Heydon Esquires. George Cham- 
berlane, Wm Caninge, Merchants. Anthony Hinton Doc- 
tor in Physic, Richard Tomhns Esquire, John Hayward 
clerk, William Payne Esquire, Morris Abbot merchant, 
Charles Anthony Goldsmith, Anthony Abdey, William 
Aderley, Arthur Bromfeild, George Barkley merchants, 
John Banks mercer, Christopher Baron, Edward Bishop, 
Jo. Britton, Nicholas Benson, Thomas Church, Thomas 
Covel, Abram Cartwright, Allen Cotton, Christopher Clith- 
ere, Richard Caswell, Abram Chamberloin, Edw. Ditch- 
feild Salter, Abram Dawes, Jo : Dike, John Delbridge, 
George Etheridge, Nicholas Exton, Richard Edwards, 
Nicholas Ferrer merchant, John Feme, Giles Francis, 
WiUiam Felgate, Edward Fawcet, Jo. Fletcher, WiUiam 
Greenwell merchant-tayler, Robert Gore merchant-tayler. 




SIR THOMAS ROE 



THE SOMERS ISLAND CHARTER. 771 

Jo : Gearing Ealph Hamer merchant-tayler, George Hol- 
man, Leonard Harwood, John Hodges, Robert Johnson 
grocer, Thomas Jadwin, Thomas Johnson, Phil. Jacobson. 
Ralph King, Jo. Kirrell, Thomas Lever, Edward Lukin, 
Richard Maplesden, Richard Morer, Thomas Noringcot, 
William Nichols, Robert Offley mercht, William Palmer, 
Richard Paulson, Heildebrand Pruson, William Quick, 
Richard Rogers, Elias Roberts merchant-taylor, George 
Robins, George Scot, Edmund Scot, George Swinhoe, 
Abram Speckard, Cleophas Smith, Robert Smith, Mat. 
Sheppard, George Smith grocer, John Barnard, Henry 
Timberlake, WiUiam Welby Stationer, Thomas Wale, Rich- 
ard Webb haberdasher, Thomas Welles, Thomas Wheat- 
ley, John West grocer, Jo. Weld, John Wooddall, William 
Webster, Gideon Delaun, John Osborne, Warren Smith 
and Robert Philips, a charter of incorporation, by the name 
of the Governor and Company of the City of London for 
the plantation of the Somers Islands, with sole government 
and power to make laws, conformable to the Laws of Eng- 
land, etc. 

[Mem. — Richard Hawkins sailed on his voyage for New 
England in October, 1615. 

Court Minutes of the East India Company, September 
12, 1615, mentions the " Benefit of the Trade to the East 
Indies to the King — and His Majesty's gracious inclination 
and favour towards the Company," etc. " The Royal cus- 
toms for the two last ships returned was about £14.000. 
while in the Queen's time Mr. Customer Smythe farmed all 
of the Royal customs at £12,000." November 3, 1615. 
'•' The East India Company desires the discovery of things 
yet unknown or uncertain for the future good of Pos- 
teritye."] 



772 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614rJULY, 1616. 



CCCL. TOBACCO MEMORANDA. 

Among the manuscripts of the Right Honorable the 
Earl De la Warr at Knowle Park, County Kent, are the 
following, relating to tobacco : — 

" March 2^"^ 1613-4. W. Shipman to Sir John Feme : 
He says there was spent yearly in this kingdom £200.000 
or more on tobacco. He offers £5.000 a year as a present 
to a nobleman of the court for an exclusive patent." 

" Sept. 30. 1615. Certificate of the quantity of Tobacco 
in Portsmouth in The, Flying Horse of Flushing, from 
Virginia, 30*'' Sept. 1615 ; From W. Budd, one great roll 
containing 105 lbs of Midding Tobacco." There is also 
another certificate of February 10, 1616, which gives the 
number of pounds as 104, showing the loss of weight 
with time, which those who deal in tobacco have long been 
familiar with. 

There was also published this year : " An advice how to 
plant Tobacco in England : and How to bring it to colour 
and perfection ; to whom it may be profitable, and to whom 
harmfuU. The vertues of the Hearbe in generall, as well 
in the outward application as taken in Fume. With the 
danger of the Spanish Tobacco. Written by C. T. Lon- 
don, Printed by Nicholas Okes, and are to be sold by Wal- 
ter Burre. 1615." 

There had been many tracts issued in England, on the 
tobacco question {pro and con.) ; in one of them we are 
told that it was 

" Better to be chokt with English hemp, 
Then poisoned with Indian Tabacco." 

Several historians of Virginia, who seem to me to be ever 
prone to go even out of their way to give King James a 
rap, have insinuated that " A Counterblast to Tobacco," by 
that king, was written against Virginia tobacco ; but this 
tract was published in 1604, even before any colony was 
planted in Virginia. 



CAEEW TO ROE. 773 

[Mem. — " November 17''' 1615, began the drawing of 
the second great Lottery for Virginia, at the West end of 
Saint Paules church," — Howes' Abridgement.] 



CCCLI. EAST INDIA COMPANY TO THE LORD MAYOR. 

From Remembrancia, City of London (1579-1664), An- 
alytical Index, pp. 290, 291. 

" A Letter from the Governor and Assistants of the East 
India Company to the Lord Mayor of London, stating that 
the Court of Aldermen had been pleased, in the 27. Eliza- 
beth, to bestow upon Captain John Martyn the next office or 
place that might fall void ; since which the office of Judge 
of the sheriffs' Court, becoming void by the surrender of Mr. 
Morgan, had been given, during Captain Martyn's absence 
in Virginia, to Sir Edward Mosely, Knight, who held the 
next reversion. They prayed the Court to restore him 
[Martyn] to his ancient right according to his grant. [The 
names of the Governor and eight Assistants are appended.] 

« 11*" December, 1615." 



CCCLII. CAREW TO ROE. 

LETTERS FROM CABEW TO BOE. CAMBEN SOCIETY, 1S60, 

PAGE 27. 

" There is nothinge this last sommer performed either by 
the Norwest or Northeast for the discoverye of the passage 
to the East Indies ; I pray God that this next yere may have 
better suecesse. The plantation att Virginia and Bermuda 
sleepes, frome whence I can send your Lordship no relation. 
I thanke you for your letter from the Cape of Good Hope, 
and as you may, I pray you to lett me understand of your 
proceedinges in that eastern world. . . . 

"Savoy, 24 Januarye 1615 " [0. S.]. 

[Mem. — Captain Daniel Tucker's commission as gov- 



774 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

ernor of the Bermudas is dated February 15, 1616. See 
the " Memorials of the Bermudas," by Lefroy. 

March 6. " A Bill of Adventure of £12 10' granted to 
M' Simon Codrington, being one share of land in Virginia." 
— From the Records of the Virginia Company. This is the 
first entry of the kind which I have found. In 1617, and 
after, these shares began to acquire a value, and were fre- 
quently bought and sold. 

March 19. " Sir Walter Raleghe is enlardged out of 
the Tower, and is to go his journey to Guiana; but re- 
maynes unpardoned untill his retourne ; he left his man- 
sion in the Tower the 19*^ day of this monethe " [March, 
1616]. — Carew to Roe.] 

CCCLIII. A BRIEF DECLARATION. 

In 1885, while hunting for the tract, " State of the Col- 
ony and affaires in Virginia. London, 1616," which is 
mentioned in the Ternaux Compans Catalogue, I received 
the following note from a friend in England, which explains 
itself : — 

British Mttseum, July 17, 1885. 

. . . *'With regard to the entry in the Ternaux Com- 
pans Catalogue, I have found in the Grenville Collection a 
small tract of 8 pages ; but the said tract is without title- 
page. There is a date of ' April 1616,' written upon page 1, 
and the Museum authorities have queried the date [1616?]. 

" I believe this to be the work mentioned in the Ternaux 
Catalogue. Yours obediently, 

"R.English." 

As it refers to " Nova Britannia " [LXVIII.] as having 
been written " about seaven yeares before," and then speaks 
of June 25 as in the future, I suppose it was written be- 
tween February and June, 1616, probably in " April 1616." 
Possibly the writer of this date got it from the title-page, 
now lost. The original in the Museum is the only one that 
I know of. It is a valuable official document. 



A BRIEF DECLARATION. 775 

" By His Maiesties Counseil for Virginia. 

" A Brief e Declaration of the present state of things in 
Virginia, and of a Division to be now made, of some part of 
those Lands in our actuall possession, as well to all such as 
have adventured their moneyes, as also to those that are 
Planters there. 

" When first it pleased God to move his Maiesties minde, 
at the humble suit of sundry his loving subjects, to yeeld 
unto them his gracious Priviledge for the Virginia Planta- 
tion, it was a thing seeming strange and doubtfuU in the 
eye of the World, that such and so few Vnder-takers should 
enterprise a charge of that waight, as rather beseemed a 
whole State and Commonwealth to take in hand. But such 
was the successe of their sundry attempts, in the happy dis- 
coverey of so goodly a Land, the Description of which, for 
the excellencie of the climate and f ertilitie thereof, had soone 
obtayned to lay such an assured ground of future hope, in 
the sence and understanding of all men rightly weighing it, 
that not long after, their new Letters Patents, with more 
ample priviledges granted by his Maiestie, were almost filled 
with many hundred Names, both Honourable, and others of 
all sorts, that gave their hands and consent to further and 
uphold that honourable action. 

" Vpon which encouragement of so many worthy Patrons, 
the Companie very deepely engaged themselves, in sending 
Men and Ships, Cattle, and all kinde of provisions, with 
Governours and Captaines for peace and war, insomuch as 
no earthly meanes seemed then wanting for the speedy re- 
ducing of that barbarous Nation, and savage people, to a 
quiet Christian Common-wealth. 

" But such was the will of Almighty God, as the world 
well knoweth, that this great hope and preparation, by 
many disasters on Sea and Land, too long to be here recited, 
was in a manner cleane defeated, and there onely remained 
a poore remnant of those Men and Women, Cattle and pro- 
visions, that escaped the danger and which are now remayn- 
ing there to rayse and build up that intended Colonie. 



776 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULT, 1616. 

" Which when those Gentlemen th' adventurers here saw, 
and that the expectance of so great a preparation brought 
nothing home but adverse successe and bad reports, they 
for the most part withdrew themselves, in despaire of the 
enterprize, and so gave it over, not enduring to repayre the 
ruines, nor to supply what themselves had underwritten, to 
discharge the deepe engagement, whereinto the Company 
was drawne by their encouragement. 

" By whose Vnconstancie and irresolution, the hope of 
that Plantation, together with the lives of our people there, 
had then utterly perished, had not God's secret purpose 
beene more strongly fixed to uphold the same, by stirring 
up the mindes and undaunted spirits of a very small rem- 
nant of constant Adventurers, that with Sir Thomas Smith 
(their Treasurer and Governor from the beginning) in all 
that time of three yeares disaster, were never discouraged, 
nor withdrew themselves from weekly Courts and meetings, 
yeelding their purses, credit and Counseil, from time to time, 
to make new supplies, even beyond their proportion, to up- 
hold the Plantation. 

" Insomuch as by the favourable assistance of God, who 
in his owne wisdome doth oftentimes effect the greatest ends 
by weakest means, it is now come to passe, that our English 
Colonic there, subsisteth in a very good and prosperous con- 
dition : They sow and reape their Corne in sufficient propor- 
tion, without want or impeachment ; their Kine multiply al- 
ready to some hundreds, their Swine to many thousands, 
their Goates and Poultry in great numbers, every man hath 
house and ground to his owne use, and now being able to 
maintaine themselves with food, they are also prepared and 
ready, once having the meanes, to set upon the Minerals, 
whereof there are many sorts ; as also to plant and how such 
severall Kindes of Seeds and Fruits, as may best befit the 
Soyle and Climate, to make the Land profitable to them- 
selves and th' Adventurers. 

" This being a true Eolation of the present state and hope 
of things in Virginia, wee thought good in this short man- 



A BRIEF DECLARATION. 777 

ner to mention it by the way, as well to give those worthy 
Governors in Virginia their deserved praise, for the unspeak- 
able paines and hazzard which they have endured there, in 
framing the people and Plantation to so happy a forme, as 
also to withdraw the despayring thoughts of such old re- 
tyred Adventurers, that make no other reckoning, but what- 
soever hath beene spent upon the name of Virginia to be 
lost and cast away ; the special purpose of this our Publica- 
tion, being to another end, which for the further satisfying 
of all reasonable minded, wee will now in few words deliver. 

" It was published to the world, about seaven years since,^ 
and the time is now expired, wherein wee promised to cause 
a Divident to be made of the Lands in Virginia, as well to 
every mans person that went himselfe to the Plantation, as 
to every particular man that had adventured his money. 

" And in as much as we are now by the Natives liking 
and consent, in actuall possession of a great part of the 
Country, the other part not as yet freed from encumber of 
woods and trees, nor thoroughly survayed,^ whereby to 
make a Divident of the whole : yet of that part which is 
now fit for Plantation, we intend, God willing to beginne a 
present Division by Lot to every man that hath already 
adventured his money or person, for every single share of 
twelve pounds tenne shillings, fifty Acres of Land, till fur- 
ther opportunitie will afford to divide the rest, which we 
doubt not will bring at least two hundred Acres to every 
single share. 

" This Division is intended to be done by a new Gov- 
ernor with Commissioners and surveyors to be sent from 
hence to ioyne with others that are there already,^ to give 
every man his Lot in due proportion, according to such 
indifferent ^ Directions as shall be given them in charge. 

1 This evidently refers to LXVIII., ^ That is, impartial. 

" Nova Britannia," February 18, 1609. Charles Campbell, in his History of 

^ The council evidently had surveys Virginia (edition 1860, p. 116), refer- 

of the rivers and adjacent lands. ring to Chalmers' Introduction, vol. i. 

It was afterwards determined to p. 10, says : " The year of 1615 is 

send Captain Argall as the new gov- remarkable in Virginia history for the 

ernor. first establishment of a fixed property 



778 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

" And for as much as this course of sending a Governor 
with Commissioners and a Survayor, with Men, Ships, and 
sundry provisions, for fortifications and other occasions ; 
as all men may conceive, cannot bee effected without great 
charge and expence to the Company ; it is therefore thought 
requisite, and determined, that so many Adventurers as will 
partake of this first Divident, shall present their Names, 
with their number of shares, into a Booke remayning at 
Sir Thomas Smith's for that purpose, before the 25. of 
June next. 

" And they shall also promise under their handes, to con- 
tribute to the said charge, the summe of twelve pounds ten 
shillings to be paid within one Moneth after subscription, 
whether his shares be more or lesse, except any man shall 
be pleased to adventure more, and for which twelve pound 
ten shillings (or more if hee will) he shall also have a further 
Divident of land in proportion, as for all other his monies 
formerly adventured. But for such as are not able to lay 
downe present monie, if they shall desire favour, it is agreed 
for them, that the Treasurer may receive the one half e of their 
said adventure in present money, after their underwriting, 
to furnish out the ships, and the other halfe at six moneths 
after that. 

"And that no man may hereafter excuse himself e by 
ignorance, nor taxe the Company for concealing their pur- 
pose, we declare to all men, that this present Division is to 
be onely in the Lands lying along the Kings River on both 
sides, and all about the new Townes erected ; in which so 
many as shall give in their names as aforesaid, may have 
their parts, and those that will not, may at their pleasure 
forbeare till hereafter, to take their Lot upOn the same 
tearmes in places more remote. 

" The Names of all such as will partake of this Divident, 
shall be given in writing to the Commissioners before they 

in the soil, fifty acres of land being reform was brought about mainly by 
granted by the company to every free- the influence of Sir Thomas Dale, one 
man in absolute right. This salutary of the best of the early governors." 



A BRIEF DECLARATION. 779 

goe hence, at whose returne they shall bring with them a 
perfect Map and Description of the said lands and ground 
divided, that every man may see and know in what condi- 
tion and where his land lyeth, that accordingly he may dis- 
pose thereof at his pleasure, eyther by going himselfe in 
person to possesse it, or by sending families to manure it 
for yearely rent, or for halfe the cleare profits as many 
others doe. 

" And furthermore, every man's portion allotted to him, 
shall be confirmed as state of inheritance to him and his 
heyers for ever, with bounds and limits under the Compa- 
nies Seale, to be holden of his Maiestie, as of his Manour of 
East Greenwich, in Socage Tenure, and not in Capite, 
according to his Maiesties gracious Letters Patents already 
granted to the Virginia Company in that behalfe. 

" And notwithstanding, as we hope, the chiefe brunt and 
doubt of that Plantation is now overpast, whereof to their 
great charge and hazzard the old Adventurers have endured 
the most difficult part, and might therefore iustly appropri- 
ate this present Divident to themselves, yet at the motion 
and desire of many Gentlemen and others intending to be 
new-adventurers, it is resolved and granted by the Com- 
pany, that all new-Adventurers, subscribing and performing 
the conditions before mentioned, for twelve pounds tenne 
shillings, or more, shall, partake in proportion as freely in 
this present Divident, and in any other priviledge and free- 
dome in Virginia, as if with the Old Adventurers they had 
been partakers from the beginning. 



[Mem, — March 26, 1616. Robert Bileth, master, and 
WiUiam Baffin, pilot, sailed on Baffin's fifth voyage for 
the discovery of a passage to the Northwest. Eight ships 
sailed to the New England coast in the first half of 1616. 
Richard Vines was probably in command of one of these 
vessels. I beheve that ships were sent to this coast from 
England each year during 1607-16, either by the Lon- 



780 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

don Company of Virginia, Sir Francis Popham, Sir Ferdi- 
nand© Gorges, the merchants of London or Bristol, or by 
other Englishmen ; but the masters of these ships were gen- 
erally not " given to writing," and the records of their 
voyages are chiefly wanting. 



CCCLIV. SMITH'S MAP OP NEW ENGLAND. 

This map of New England, " observed and described by 
Captayne John Smith," drawn by Robert Gierke, engraved 
by Simon Pass and printed by George Low, was first issued, 
I believe, with CCCLV. It was reviewed in its different 
conditions by Mr. James Lenox and Mr. Charles Deane in 
" Curiosities of American Literature," in " Norton's Literary 
Gazette," March 15 and May 1, 1854. 

I doubt if it was drawn from Smith's surveys (although 
he says so). It does not retain any of the original names 
given by the English, French, or Dutch discoverers, and I 
beUeve that these old landmarks of Gosnold, Weymouth, 
and others were suppressed by him, as their presence would 
have invalidated his claim that the map was engraved from 
an original survey made by himself in 1614, and that pre- 
vious maps of the coast were of no value. I think it will 
be readily seen that CLVIII. is equally as valuable as 
CCCLIV., if not more so, for this region. 

The maps with Smith's works, for cogent reasons, were 
the only maps of the colonies engraved in England, thus 
becoming public property, and the only authority in the 
premises accessible to the public. The more valuable orig- 
inal maps, retaining the names given by the original dis- 
coverers, remained in manuscript in the hands of the lawful 
guardians, and have never been accessible to the public. 
Only three of these have been found, and they are now 
given to the public for the first time. XL VI., LVIL, and 
CLVIII. will give an idea of the capacity of the surveyors, 
and LVIII. will serve as an illustration of the capacity of 
the draughtsmen employed by the managers of the Amer- 
ican enterprises. 



^;(:ar=r: 



ir-.-r- |.„ I— i-=F 







SMITH'S DESCRIPTION OF NEW ENGLAND. 781 



CCCLV. SMITH'S DESCRIPTION OF NEW ENGLAND. 

" A Description of New England : Or the Observations, 
and discoveries, of Captain John Smith (Admirall of that 
Country) in the North of America, in the year of our Lord 
1614 : with the successe of sixe ships that went the next 
yeare 1615 ; and the accidents befell him among the French 
men of warre : With the proof e of the present benefit this 
Countrey affords, whither this present yeare, 1616, eight 
voluntary ships are gone to make farther tryaU, At Lon- 
don Printed by Humf rey Lownes, for Eobert Clerke ; and 
are to be sould at his house called the Lodge, in Chancery 
lane, over against Lincolnes Line, 1616." 

This tract was entered at Stationers' Hall for pubhcation 
June 3, 1616, by Robert Clerke under the hands of Master 
Sanford and Master Lownes Warden. At the end of the 
tract is printed : " At London printed the 18. of June, in 
the yeere of our Lord 1616." 

An original of this tract is worth, in perfect condition, 
about 1 300. It was reprinted by the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society in 1837 ; by Peter Force, at Washington, in 
1838, and it was again reprinted at Boston in 1865. The 
tract is dedicated " to the High Hopeful Charles, Prince of 
Great Britaine," and there is a flavor of fun in the dressing 
somewhat similar to that which obtained with Coryat's crud- 
ities, brought out in 1611 under the patronage of Prince 
Henry, with panegyric poetry and high-flying dedications. 
Smith gravely tells Prince Charles, "In my discovery of 
Virginia, I presumed to call two nameless Headlands after 
my Soveraignes heires, Cape Henry and Cape Charles," 
when, in fact. Smith was a prisoner at that time. He tells 
the Adventurers for New England, as to his being taken 
prisoner at sea in 1615, " that foure men of Warre, pro- 
vided as they were had been sufficient to have taken Samp- 
son, Hercules and Alexander the Great, no other way 
furnisht then I was." But this peer of " Sampson, Hercules 



782 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

and Alexander the Great " overlooks the fact that his ship 
escaped, while he alone was taken. After this incident 
he seems to have been dubbed " Admiral " by the North 
Virginia Company ; but they trusted him with no more 
ships. 

The dedications offer his services to many people to do 
many things. The poetry lauds him to the skies, and yet 
it all results in nothing ; no one employs him to do any of 
these things, and I think that his patrons were catering to 
his vanity, as was the case with the Coryat book. 

[Mem. — Sir Thomas Dale sailed from Virginia on the 
Treasurer, and reached Plymouth on the last day of May, 
1616. He reached London some time in June. What doc- 
uments, letters, etc., were brought I do not know ; but he 
brought a very interesting party of people, including our 
old friend Molina, Pocahontas, Rolfe, and others ; he started 
with Lymbry, also, but had executed him on the way. 
Dale's time in Virginia is a wonderfully interesting period 
of our history. 

There had been sent to Virginia from England about 
1,650 persons. Dale left 205 officers and laborers, 81 
farmers, and 65 women and children, " which in all amount- 
eth to three hundred and fifty-one persons — a small num- 
ber to advance so great a worke," says Rolfe. Probably 
about three hundred had returned to England at different 
times, and about 1,000 had died on the voyage or in Vir- 
ginia. When Dale left. Captain Smaley was in command at 
Heni'ico, and Mr. William Wickham was minister there. 
Captain Yeardley at Bermuda Nether Hundred, and Mr. 
Alexander Whitaker, minister; Captain Madison at West 
and Sherley Hundred; Lieutenant Sharpe at Jamestown, 
and Mr. Richard Buck, minister ; Captain George Webb at 
Kequoughtan, and Mr. William Mease (or Mays), minister 
there ; and Lieutenant Cradock at Dale's Gift. 

Dale sent the following letter from Plymouth, soon after 
he arrived there.] 



DALE TO WINWOOD. 783 

CCCLVIi. DALE TO WINWOOD. 
FBOM STATS PAPER OFFICE, LONDON, ENGLAND. 

Sir Thomas Dale to Sir Ealfe Wynwood. 

"Ryght honourable — having bin much bound unto 
you for many favours as yet not deserved by me because 
the occatyone hath not bin presented, wherby I myght tes- 
tyfye my thankfuUnes unto your honour, I shoud accont 
myself happye to embrase som subject to demonstrat my 
fayghtfuU love & servyse unto you. 

" May it please your honor to understand that I am by 
the myghtye power of the AUmyghty God, saufly retourned 
from the hardest taske that ever I undertooke & by the 
blessinge of God have with pour means left the CoUonye in 
great prosperytye & pease contrarye to manye mens Exspec- 
tatyon. This ship hath brought horn exceedinge good to- 
baco, sasafrix pych, potashes Sturgyon & cavyarye & other 
such lyk commodytyes as yet that countrye yeldes. I shall 
with the greatest speed the Wynd wyll suffer me present 
myself unto you and gyve you full satysfactyon of thos 
parts, how benyfycyall this admyralble (sic) countrye wyU 
be for oure State I know you are not Ignorant of, both for 
the emtyinge of our full bodye & the mayntenance of our 
shipinge (all thinges nessysarye ther unto, beinge ther to be 
had) & that countrye being Inhabyted by his Majestyes 
subjects wyll put such a byt Into our ainchent enymyes ' 
mouth as wyll curbe his hautynes of monarchic. I shall 
gyve your honor great encouragements that this Vergynia 
affords (at my aryvall) to spure us forwards to Inhabyt 
there If his Majestye wishes to posses one of the goodlyest 
& rychest kingdoms of the world, & Indeed so fytt for no 
state as ours. If yt shall please you honerable fathers of our 
State to thinke seryouslye one yt & his Majestye thorowly 
to undertake yt — The which I becheth the lord to grant of 
his Infynyt mersye & so I humblye commend my dutye & 

1 The Spaniard. 



784 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

servyse unto your honour, from plemoth this 3. of June 
1616. 

" Youre honners to commaund. 

"Thomas Dale." 

Indorsed: "To the right Ho^^^ S' Ralfe Wynwood K' 
Principall Secretary to his Ma**". 

"Plymouth, 3° Junij 1616, from S' Tho: Dale." 



CCCLVI^. CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH TO QUEEN ANNE. 

The following letter was first published, I believe, in 
Smith's " General History " (pp. 121, 122), without date ; 
but with these prefatory lines : — 

" And before she [Pocahontas] arrived at London, Cap- 
taine Smith to deserve her former courtesies, made her qual- 
ities knowne to the Queene's most excellent Majestie and her 
Court, and writ a little booke to this efPect to the Queene : 
An abstract whereof foUoweth." 

It appears from the above that the " little booke " was 
sent to the Queen early in June, 1616 ; but the sending of 
it has been doubted. It stands on Smith's assertion very 
much as LXIV. does ; neither were published by Purchas, 
and neither by Smith until 1624. Both are untrustworthy ; 
but they are fair samples of Smith's " General History." 

" To the most high and vertuous Princess, Queene Anne of 

Great Brittaine. 
" Most admired Queene, 

" The love I beare my God, my King and Countrie, hath 
so oft emboldened mee in the worst of extreme dangers, 
that now honestie doth constraine mee presume thus farre 
beyond myself, to present your Maiestie this short discourse : 
if ingratitude be a deadly poyson to aU honest vertues, I 
must bee guiltie of that crime if I should omit any meanes 
to bee thankfuU. 



CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH TO QUEEN ANNE. 



785 



" So it is, That some ten yeares * agoe being in Virginia, 
and taken prisoner by the power of Powhatan ^ a relation to 
their chief e King, I received from this great Salv- Amerof 
age exceeding great courtesie, especially from Pocahontas. 
his Sonne Nantaquaus, the most manliest, comeliest, boldest 
spirit, I ever saw in a Salvage, and his sister Pocahontas, the 
Kings most deare and well-beloved daughter, being but a 
childe of twelve or thirteene yeeres ^ of age, whose compas- 
sionate pitifuU heart, of my desperate estate, gave me much 
cause to respect her : I being the first christian this proud 
King and his grim attendants ever saw : and thus inthralled 
in their barbarous power, I cannot say I felt the least occa- 
sion of want that was in the power of those my mortall foes 
to prevent, notwithstanding al their threats. After some 
sis weeks* fatting amongst those Salvage Courtiers, at the 
minute of my execution, she hazarded the beating out of 
her owne braines ^ to save mine ; and not onely that, but so 



^ As Smith was taken prisoner in 
Deeemher, 1607, we would infer from 
this sentence that this letter was writ- 
ten about December, 1617, or nearly 
a year after the death of Pocahontas. 
I can readily understand why Smith's 
vanity made him "apropriate many 
deserts to himself which he never per- 
formed," and why his envy made him 
" stufE his relacyons with so many fal- 
seties and malycyous detractyons " of 
others ; but why he is nearly always 
inaccurate in his dates and periods of 
time has puzzled me greatly. Correct 
dates are essential to history. 

2 He was taken by Opeohancanough, 
chief of the Pamaunkeys. 

^ The time here referred to is De- 
cember, 1607. Smith has told us in 
LIV. that she was ten years old in 
May, 1608. 

^ This sentence is not trustworthy ; 
it begins with an untruth. He was 
certainly not a prisoner over three 
weeks in all. 

5 This incident has been fully dis- 



cussed. It is one of the afterthoughts 
of Smith's General History. Smith was 
a negative hero. He praises himself 
and abuses his peers, which heroes are 
not wont to do. He does not save wo- 
men as heroes usually do ; but women 
save him, in every quarter of the 
globe, save Africa — Turk, Tartar, and 
Indian. Why did he slight the negro ? 
He was as much a character of his 
time as Thomas Coryat and Artherus 
Severus Nonesuch O'Toole, and evi- 
dently afforded as much amusement to 
the poets and wits of the day. His 
women incidents are thus taken ofE by 
Richard Brathwait : — 

*' Two greatest Shires of England did thee beare, 
Renowned Yorkshire, Gaunt-stild Lancashire ; 
But what 's all this ? even Earth, Sea, Heaven 

above, 
Tragabigzanda, Callamata's love, 
Deare Pocahontas, Madam Shanoi's too, 
Who did what love with modesty could doe : 
Record thy worth, thy birth, which as I live. 
Even in thy reading such choice solace give, 
As I could wish (such wishes would doe well) 
Many such Smith's in this our Israel." 

Brathwait was quite a famous poet. 



786 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

prevailed with her father, that I was safely conducted to 
Jamestowne : where I found about eight and thirtie miser- 
able poore and sicke creatures, to keepe possession of all 
those large territories of Virginia ; ^ such was the weaknesse 
of this poore commonwealth, as had the Salvages not fed us, 
we directly had starved. And this reliefe, most gracious 
Queene, was commonly brought us by this Lady Pocahontas. 
" Notwithstanding all these passages, when inconstant 
Fortune turned our peace to warre, this tender Virgin would 
still not spare to dare to visit us, and by her our jarres have 
beene oft appeased, and our wants still supplyed ; were it 
the policie of her father thus to imploy her, or the ordinance 
of God thus to make her his instrument, or her extraordi- 
narie aifection to our Nation, I know not : but of this I am 
sure ; when her father with the utmost of his policie and 
power, sought to surprize mee, having but eighteene ^ with 
mee, the darke night could not affright her from comming 
through the irkesome woods, and with watered eies gave me 
intelligence,^ with her best advice to escape his f urie ; which 
had hee knowne, hee had surely slaine her. 

He wrote Drunken Bamaby's Four story he asserts that on his return he, 

Journeys to the North of England," in "with the hazard of his life, with 

which occur the often quoted lines : — sakre falcon and musket shot " pre- 

i^rt, -o ^ _Trv * rti vented the abandonment of the coun- 

" To Banbury came I, O profane One I 

Where I saw a puritane one try ; that he " layd those by the heeles 

Hanging ol his cat on Monday who brought charges against him ; that 

For killing of a mouse on Sunday." j^^ ^^^ ^^^^ thirty-eight men tO keep 

* It is true there were only from that great country ; that once in every 

thirty-eight to forty-five Englishmen four or five days Pocahontas saved 

at Jamestown on the morning of Jan- « their lives by bringing in provisions, 

uary 2, 1601, when Smith returned ; and that finally Newport arrived. The 

but RatclifBe, and not Smith, was in condemned prisoner of a single day 

authority at the time. The account of presents himself to us as the Lord and 

this time in the General History is Master of a week or more, 

very misleading. Smith evidently ^ There were thirty-eight English 

feels the great weakness of his case, and four Dutchmen present. This 

and sees the necessity of strengthen- Pocahontas incident is another after- 

ing his position. He reached James- thought of the General History. It is 

town in the morning, was arrested, not in the account of this voyage in 

tried and convicted, and his execution CCXLV. 

was only prevented by the arrival ' Another Pocahontas afterthought, 

of Newport, with provisions, on the Her name does not occur in the nar- 

evening of the same day. Yet in his rative of this event in CCXLV. 



CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH TO QUEEN ANNE. 787 

"James towne with her wild traine she as freely fre- 
quented, as her fathers habitation ; and during the time of 
two or three yeeres, she next under God, was still the instru- 
ment to preserve this Colonie from death, famine and utter 
confusion ; which if in those times, had once beene dissolved, 
Virginia might have line as it was at our first arrivall to 
this day.* 

"Since then, this businesse having beene turned and 
varied by many accidents from that I left it at : it is most 
certaine, after a long and troublesome warre after my de- 
parture, betwixt her father and our Colonie ; all which time 
shee was not heard of. 

" About two yeeres after ^ shee herself e was taken pris- 
oner, being so detained neere two yeeres longer, the Colo- 
nie by that meanes was relieved, peace concluded ; and at 
last rejecting her barbarous condition, was maried to an 
English gentleman, with whom at this present she is in 
England ; the first Christian * ever of that Nation, the first 
Virginian ever spake English, or had a childe* in mariage 
by an Englishman ; a matter surely, if my meaning bee truly 
considered and well understood, worthy a Princes under- 
standing. 

" Thus, most gracious Lady, I have related to your Mai- 
estie, what at your best leasure our approved Histories will 
account you at large,^ and done in the time of your Maies- 
ties life ; and however this might bee presented you from a 

1 The success of the movement for in April, 1614, one year after her cap- 
establishing English colonies in Amer- ture. 

ica never depended on John Smith or * This may not have been very wel- 

Pocahontas ; but it seems evident that come news to Queen Anne ; in fact 

the managers of the enterprise valued the letter does not seem very appro- 

the services of Pocahontas much more priate to her, as her sympathies are 

highly than they did those of Smith ; said to have been with the Roman 

and Smith himself was probably fully Catholics at this time, 

aware of this fact. * It has been asserted, on what au- 

^ Smith was sent from Virginia as thority, I know not, that the child was 

a prisoner early in October, 1609. born in England. It was evidently 

Pocahontas was taken in April, 1613 ; born before this letter was written, 

was converted, and afterwards married * The account at large referred to is 

in CCCXXVII. 



788 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

more worthy pen, it cannot from a more honest heart, as yet 
I never begged anything of the state, or any : * and it is my 
want of abihtie and her exceeding desert ; your birth, meanes 
and authoritie ; hir birth, vertue, want and simplicitie, doth 
make mee thus bold, humbly to beseech your Maiestie to 
take this knowledge of her, though it be from one so un- 
worthy to be the reporter, as myselfe, her husbands estate 
not being able to make her fit to attend your Maiestie.^ The 
most and least I can doe, is to tell you this, because none so 
oft hath tried it as myselfe, and the rather being of so great 
a spirit, however her stature : if she should not be well re- 
ceived, seeing this Kingdome may rightly have a Kingdome 
by her meanes; her present love to us and christianitie 
might turne to such scorne and furie, as to divert all this 
good to the worst of evill : where finding so great a Queene 
should doe her some honour more than she can imagine, for 
being so kinde to your servants and subjects, would so rav- 
ish her with content, as endeare her dearest bloud to effect 
that, your Majestie and all the Kings honest subjects most 
earnestly desire. 

" And so I humbly kisse your gracious hands." 

1 Wingfleld says he was an un- tas were concerned, and the writer 

licensed beggar in Ireland before he seems to be well aware of this fact, 

went to Virginia, and evidently during for although it is written ostensibly in 

the last fifteen or twenty years of his her interest, it does not lose sight of 

life, "he worked his self-asserted ser- the interest of Smith for a moment, 

vices in America for all that they were Charles Dudley Warner well says, 

worth," and not without some success. " Fortunate is the hero who links his 

''■ Her husband, John Rolfe, was of name romantically with that of a 

a good family ; she was brought over woman." And this was Smith's forte ; 

by, and was an object of great inter- according to his account, " he was res- 

est to, people of far greater influence cued and protected and felt reliefe 

than Smith. The letter was superflu- from that sex in his greatest dangers " 

ous so far as the interests of Pocahon- in nearly every quarter of the globe. 



CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON, JUNE 22, 1616. 789 

CCCLVII. CAREW TO ROE, JUNE, 1616. 
FBOM CABEW TO MOE, CAMDEN SOC. PUB. 1860, PAGE S6. 

" Sir Thomas Dale retourned f rome Virginia : he hathe 
brought divers men and women of that countrye to be edu- 
cated here, and one Rolfe, who maried a daughter of 
Pohetan (the barbarous prince) called Pocahuntus, hathe 
brought his wife withe him into England. The worst of 
that plantation is past, for our men are well victualled by 
there owne Industrie, but yett no proffit is retourned. In 
the Bermudas little good is to be expected ; they make some 
tobacco, but j^ other industrie, I heare nothinge. Since 
our plantation there the ratts are so multiplied, whereof 
that island was free, as that they destroyed whatsoever is 
planted." 

CCCLVIII. CHAMBERLAIN TO CARLETON, JUNE 22, 1616. 
FBOM ENGLISH STATE PAPEB OFFICE. 

" Sir Frauncis Bacon has been sworn of the Counsaile 
and was in election by every man's account to be presently 
Lord Keeper ; but that rumor is since reasonablie cooled, 
and yt is saide he must tarrie the time till he may be Lord 
Chauncellor, for (as a Lady told the King) yt is to be 
doubted he will never be a goode keeper. . . . 

" Sir Thomas Dale is arrived from Virginia and brought 
with him some ten or twelve old and younge of that Coun- 
trie, among whom the most remarquable person is Poca- 
huntas (daughter to Powatan a Kinge or cacique of that 
Countrie) married to one Rolfe an Englishman : I heare not 
of any other riches or matter of worth, but only some quan- 
titie of Sassafras, tobacco, pitch and clapboord, things of 
no great value unles there were more plentie and neerer 
hand. All I can learne of yt is that the countrie is goode 
to live in yf yt were stored with people and might in time 
become commodious, but there is no present profit to be 



790 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

expected : but you may understand more by himself [Sir 
Thomas Dale] when he comes into those parts, which he 
pretends to do within a moneth or little more." . . . 



CCCLIX. ROLFE'S RELATION TO JAMES I. 
KIMBOLTON MANUSCRIPTS, NO. SOS. 

" A true relation of the State of Virginia at the time 
when Sir Thomas Dale left it in May, 1616." It is in the 
form of a letter from John EoU to Sir Robert Eich. This 
is the same document which Rolf also sent " to the King's 
most Sacred Majestie." " It was carefully transcribed from 
the Royall MSS.," and was published in the "Southern 
Literary Messenger " for June, 1839 (vol. v. p. 401), from 
which it was copied into Maxwell's " Virginia Historical 
Register " for July, 1848, vol. i. No. iii. pp. 101-113. It is 
catalogued at the British Museum as " Royal MS. 18. A. 
XI. John Rolf's Relation." 

It gives a brief review of the colony from the beginning, 
but is mainly devoted to giving the state of the colony in 
the spring of 1616. 

[Mem. — Soon after the return of Dale in the summer 
of 1616, the company sent out " the first Maga2an " in a 
small ship called the Susan.] 

CCCLX. ABBOT'S GEOGRAPHY. 

George Abbot, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, 
while master of University College, Oxford, wrote for his 
pupils, " A Briefe Description of the whole world," gen- 
erally known as " Abbot's Geography." The first edition 
was published in 1599 ; the following is extracted from the 
fifth edition, 1620 (I have no other), but the matter was 
evidently written in 1616 or before, probably for the fourth 
edition, which issued, I believe in 1617. The second edition 
is dated 1600, and the third, 1608. The J. Carter-Brown 




MARGARET RU S S !T LL- C LI FFOR C 
Coi/!ift"is oj- CiDiihcrhnid 



ABBOT'S GEOGRAPHY. 791 

Library has a copy of the third edition. The book con- 
tains 172 unnumbered pages of nearly 350 words each. 
Numerous editions have been printed, and it is not a high- 
priced book. 

It has never been reprinted in this country so far as I 
know. It is interesting, as showing what was taught in 
the schools of those days about the New World. 

" A Briefe Description of the whole world. Wherein is 
particularly described all the Monarchies, Empires and 
Kingdomes of the same, with their Academies. Newly 
augmented and enlarged; with their severall Titles and 
scituations thereunto adjoyning. 

" At London, Printed for John Harriot, and are to be 
sold at his shop in Saint Dunston's Church Yard in Fleet- 
street. 1620." [Title page.] 

From the chapter " Of America, or the new World." 

... a Among other strange opinions, which they con- 
ceived of the Spaniards, this was one, that they were the 
sons of some God, and not borne of mortall seed, but sent 
downe from Heaven unto them ; and this conceit was the 
stronger in them, because at the first, in such conflicts as 
they had with them, they could kill few or none of them ; 
the reason whereof was, partly the Armour of the Spaniards, 
and partly the want of Iron and Steele upon the Arrowes 
which the Americans did shoote : but they were not very 
long of that opinion, that they were immortal, but reformed 
their errour, both by seeing the dead corses of some of the 
Christians, and by trying an experiment upon some of them 
also : for they tooke of them, and put their heads under 
the water, and held them till they were choaked ; by which 
they knew them to be of the same nature as other men. 

"Among other points which did shew the great igno- 
rance and unlettered stupiditie of these Indians, this was 
one, that they could not conceive the force of writing of 
Letters; in so much that when one Spaniard would send 
unto another, being distant in place, in India, with any pro- 



792 PERIOD IV. JULY, 1614^ULY, 1616. 

vision, and would write a Letter by him, what the fellow 
had received from him : The poore Indian wovdd marvaile 
how it should be possible that he to whom he came should 
be able to know all things, which either himselfe brought, 
or the sender directed : And thereupon divers of them did 
thinke, that there was some kinde of Spirit in the Paper, 
and marvellously stood in f eare of such a thing as a Letter 
was. 

"This country yeeldeth great aboundance of strange 
Hearbes, the like whereof are not to be found in other 
parts of the world : as also some very rare Beasts." . . . 

From the chapter " Of the parts of America towards the 
North." 

..." The French had built in Florida upon the river of 
Mayo, where they were visited by our Sir John Hawkins, a 
fort, which they called fort Carolin, and had reasonably 
assured themselves for their defence against the natives: 
but some malicious spirits amongst them fled to the Span- 
iards, with whom they returned againe into Florida to the 
murther and overthrow of their owne countrimen. . . . 

" After this departure of the Spaniards out of Florida, 
brought thither by Ferdinando de Soto, who died in the 
Country ; after the defeat of the French, and their revenge 
againe taken on the Spaniards, the King of Spaine sent 
thither some small forces to take possession of the Country, 
and set downe there ; for no other end as it is thought, but 
to keepe out other nations from entring there; the one 
halfe whereof set downe on the River of Saint Augustine, 
and the other halfe a dozen leagues from thence to the 
Northward, at a place by them called Saint Helena. 

" In the yeare 1586, as Sir Francis Drake came coasting 
along from Carthagena, a citie in the maine land, to which 
he put over, and tooke it after he departed from Sancto 
Domingo, when the mortality that was amongst our English 
had made them to give over their enterprise, to goe with 
Nombre de Dios, and so overland to Pannania, there to 
have stricken the stroake for the treasure ; as he was on 



ABBOT'S GEOGRAPHY. 793 

the coost of Florida, in the height of 30. our men de- 
scribed on the shore a place built like a Beacon, which was 
made for men to discover to Seaward : so comming to the 
shore, they marched along the Eivers side, till they came to 
a fort buUt all of whole trees, which the Spaniards called 
the Fort of Saint John, where the King entertained half e his 
forces that he then had in that Country, which were an 
hundred and fiftie souldiers : the like number being at 
Saint Helena, all of them under the Government of Petro 
Melendez, Nephew to the Admirall Melendez, that a fifteene 
or sixteene yeares before had beene to-bring with our Eng- 
lish in the bay of Mexico ; ^ this fort our English tooke, and 
not farre from thence the Towne also of Saint Augustine 
upon the same river, where resolving to undertake also the 
enterprise of Saint Helena ; when they came to the havens 
mouth where they should enter, they durst not for the dan- 
gerous shols : wherefore they forsooke the place, coasting 
along to Virginia, where they tooke in Mr. Ralphe Lane 
and his Company, and so came into England, as you shall 
heare when we speake of Virginia. 

"In these Northerne parts of America, but especially 
within the maine Continent, some have written (but how 
truely I cannot tell) that there is a Sea, which hath no 
entercourse at all with the Ocean : so that if there be any 
third place beside the Mare Caspium, and the Mare Mor- 
tuum in Palestina, which retaineth in itselfe great saltnesse 
and yet mingleth not with the other seas, it is in these 
Countries. . . . 

" The Englishmen also, desirous by Navigation to adde 
something unto their owne Country, as before time they 
had travailed toward the farthest North-part of America ; 
so lately finding that part which lieth betweene Florida and 
Nova Francia was not inhabited by any Christians, and was 

1 Was Admiral Pedro Menendez de Vera Cruz near the end of September, 

AviWs in command of the Spanish 1568 ? The reference must be to this 

fleet which made the attack on Cap- event 
tain John Hawkins in the Bay of 



794 PEKIOD IV. JULY, 1614-JULY, 1616. 

a Land fruitful! and fit to plant in : they sent thither two 
severail times, two severaU Companies, as Colonies, to inhabit 
that part, which in remembrance of the Virginity of their 
Queene, they called Virginia. But this voyage being 
enterprised upon by private men, and being not throughly 
followed by the State, the possession of this Virginia, for 
that time was discontinued, and the Country left to the old 
inhabitants. 

" There were some English people, who after they had 
understood the calmnes of the Climate, and goodnes of the 
Soyle, did upon the instigation of some Gentlemen of Eng- 
land, voluntarily offer themselves, even with their wives and 
children, to goe into those parts to inhabite ; but when the 
most of them came there (upon some occasions) they 
returned home againe the first time, which caused that the 
second yeare, there was a great company transported thither, 
who were provided of many necessaries, and continued there 
over a whole winter, under the guiding of M. Lane : but 
not finding any sustenance in the Country (which could 
well brooke with their nature, and being too meanely pro- 
vided of Corne and victuals from England) they had like to 
have perished with famine; and therefore thought them- 
selves happy when Sir Francis Drake, comming that way 
from the Westerne Indies, would take them into his ships, 
and bring them home into their native Country. Yet 
some there were of those English, which being left behinde, 
ranged up & down the Country (and hovering about the 
Sea Coast) made meanes at last (after their enduring much 
misery) by some Christian ships to be brought back againe 
into England. 

" While they were there inhabiting there were some chil- 
dren borne, and baptized in those parts, and they might 
well have endured the Country, if they might have had 
such strength as to keepe off the inhabitants from troubhng 
them in tilling the ground, and reaping such corne as they 
would have sowed. 

"Againe in the dales of our now raigning soveraigne. 



ABBOT'S GEOGRAPHY. 795 

in the yeare of our Lord 1606. the English planted them- 
selves in Virginia, under the degrees 37. 38. 39. where they 
doe to this day continue, and have built three Townes and 
forts, as namely James-towne and Henrico ; fort Henricke, 
and fort Charles, with others, which they hold and inhabite ; 
sure retreats for them against the force of the natives, and 
reasonable secured places against any power that may come 
against them by Sea. 

" In the same height, but a good distance from the coast 
of Virginia, lyeth the Hand called by the Spaniards, La 
Bermuda, but by our English the Summer Hands, which of 
late is inhabited also by our Countrimen. 

" North-ward from them on the Sea Coast, lieth Norum- 
bega, which is the South part of that which the Frenchmen 
did, without disturbance of any Christian, for a time pos- 
sesse. For the French-men did discover a large part of 
America, toward the circle Articke, and did build there 
some Townes, & named it of their own country Nova Fran- 
cia." . . . 

Abbot then refers to the voyages of Frobisher to the 
Northwest, to Newfoundland fish, Sir Francis Drake in Nova 
Albion, etc. The two chapters on America, from which I 
have made the foregoing extracts, contain a total of 9,000 
words. 

[Mem. — There are some remarks on " Foreign Planta- 
tions and Colonies " in Bacon's Advice to Viscount ViUiers, 
which was probably first written in the summer of 1616, but 
I do not think it necessary to give them herein, as they have 
been frequently printed, and as Bacon's ideas in the prem- 
ises will be found given at greater length in CCCLXIIL] 



ILLUSTRATIVE DOCUMENTS. 

The following documents (CCCLXI. to CCCLXV.) were 
written after the special period of which we treat ; but they 
are given for several special reasons. 



CCCLXI. HIS MAJESTY'S COUNCIL FOR THE VIRGINIA 

COMPANY. 

FMOM DUEE OF MANCHESTER BECOS.DS. EIMBOLTON MANV- 
SCBIPTS, NO. S88. 

A part of this document really belongs to this period, and 
a part to a little later time ; but it seems best to give the 
whole of it, rather than an extract ; especiaUjr as the men 
were members of the company before 1617. 

The names from the Earl of Bath to George Thorpe 
were probably added to the council during 1613-16 ; from 
Tufton to Greenewell, during 1617-18 ; and the remainder 
were probably appointed under the Warwick-Sandys agree- 
ment in the spring of 1619. 

" The names of such as have bin chosen to be of his Ma- 
jesties CounceU for Virginia since the date of the third 
Pattent — 

William [Bourchier] Earle of Bathe. 

Sir Robert Phillips, Knight. 

Sir John Davers, Knight. 

Sir Lionell Cranfield Knight. 

Sir Anthoine Aucher. 

John Wroth Esquier. 

Richard Chamberlaine, merchant. 

Robert Johnson, merchant. 

George Thorpe. 

Sir Nicholas Tufton, Knight. 



BKOADSIDE BY THE VIRGINIA COUNCIL. 797 

James [Hay] Lord Viscount Doncaster. 

Sir Henry Rainsford. 

Sir Francis Egioke. 

Captaine George Yardely. 

Mr. Morris Abbot, merchant. 

Mr. Robert Offley, merchant. 

Sir Edward Harwood. 

Mr. William Greenewell merchant. 

Robert [Rich] Earle of Warwicke. 

Sir Thomas Cheeke. 

Sir Nathaniel Rich. 

John Farrar, merchant. 

Captaine Nathaniel Butler. 

Robert Heath, Esquier, Recorder of the Citie of London. 

Thomas Gibbe Esquier." 

CCCLXII. BROADSIDE BY THE VIRGINIA COUNCIL. 

This is one of the documents preserved by Mr. John 
Smith of Nibley. Mr. Charles H. Kalbfleisch of New York 
has an original, and I know of no other. 

Its exact date is uncertain ; but it was written some time 
in the winter of 1616-17 probably, after the period we 
are specially treating ; but as it has never been printed in 
this country, and as it is really illustrative of Dale's govern- 
ment, I have concluded to give it. 

" By his Majesties CounceU for Virginia. 

" Whereas upon the returne of Sir Thomas Dale Knight, 
(Marshall of Virginia) the Treasurer, Councell and Com- 
pany of the same, have beene throughly informed and as- 
sured of the good estat of that Colony, and how by the 
blessing of God and good government, there is great plentie 
and increase of Corne, Cattell, Goates, Swine, and such other 
provisions, necessary for the life and sustenance of man ; 
And that there wants nothing for the setling of that Chris- 
tian Plantation, but more hands to gather and returne those 



798 ILLUSTRATIVE DOCUMENTS. 

commodities which may bring profit to the Adventurers, and 
encouragement to others : And whereas thereupon the Com- 
pany hath given a commission to Captaine Samuel Argol 
to be the present Governour of that Colonie, who hath 
undertaken to transport and carry thither a certain number 
of men, upon his owne charge, and the charge of other his 
friends ^ that joyne with him in that Voyage ; in which 
divers men of good qualitie have resolved to adventure, and 
to goe thither themselves in person, and to carry with them 
their wives, their children and their families, whereby in 
short time (by the favour and assistance of Almighty God) 
that good worke may be brought to good perfection, by the 
division and setting out of lands to every particular person, 
the setling of trade, and returne of Commodities to the con- 
tentment and satisfaction of aU Well affected Subjects, 
which eyther love the advancement of Religion, or the hon- 
our and welfare of this kingdome : Wee his Majesties 
Treasurer, Councell and Company for the same Plantation, 
have thought good to declare and make knowne to all men 
by these presents, that wee have resolved to give free leave 
and license to any who are now remaining in Virginia, at 
his will and pleasure to returne home into England, which 
liberty wee doe likewise grant and confirme unto all those 
which hereafter from time to time shall goe thither in per- 
son, without any other restraint, then to aske leave of the 
Governour (for the time being) to depart. And therefore 
if any man be disposed to send any supply to his friends 
there, or to send for any of his friends from thence, he may 
hereby take notice, that he hath full power and meanes to 
doe eyther of them at his good descretion. 
God save the King." 



"( 



1 Among these was his brother, John liam Lovelace and of Captain Raphe 
Argall, Esq. See sketches of Sir Wil- Hamor. 



BACON'S ESSAY OF PLANTATIONS. 799 

CCCLXIII. BACON'S ESSAY OF PLANTATIONS. 

This essay bears internal evidence of having been revised 
for publication between 1620 and 1624 ; but I believe it to 
have been first written at an earHer date. 

I give it as an illustrative document, and because I think 
it will be interesting to compare Lord Bacon's essay with 
the Broadsides of His Majesty's Council for the Virginia 
Company, of which Lord Bacon was a member. 

" Of Plantations. 

" Plantations are amongst ancient, primitive, and heroical 
works. When the World was young it begat more chil- 
dren ; but now it is old, it begets fewer, for I may justly 
account new plantations to be the children of former king- 
doms. I like a plantation in a pure soil ; that is, where 
people are not displanted, to the end to plant in others ; for 
else it is rather an extirpation than a plantation. Planting 
of countries is like planting of Woods ; for you must make 
account to lose almost twenty years' profit, and expect 
your recompense in the end : for the principal thing that 
hath been the destruction of most plantations, has been the 
base and hasty drawing of profit in the first years. It is 
true, speedy profit is not to be neglected, as far as may stand 
with the good of the plantation, but no farther. It is a 
shameful and unblessed thing to take the scran of people 
and wicked and condemned men, to be the people with 
whom you plant ; and not only so, but it spoileth the plan- 
tation ; for they will ever live like rogues, and not fall to 
work, but be lazy, and do mischief, and spend victuals, and 
be quickly weary, and then certify over to their country to 
the discredit of the plantation. The people wherewith you 
plant ought to be gardeners, ploughmen, laborers, smiths, 
carpenters, joiners, fishermen, fowlers, with some few apoth- 
ecaries, surgeons, cooks and bakers. In a country of plan- 
tation first look about what kind of victual the country 
yields of itself to hand : as chesnuts, walnuts, pine-apples, 



800 ILLUSTRATIVE DOCUMENTS. 

olives, dates, plums cherries, wild honey, and the like ; and 
make use of them. Then consider what victual, or esculent 
things there are, which grow speedily, and within the year : 
as parsnips, carrots, turnips, onions, radish, artichokes of 
Jerusalem, maize and the like : for wheat, barley, and oats, 
they ask to much labor ; but with peas and beans you may 
begin, both because they ask less labor, and because they 
serve for meat as well as for bread ; and of rice likewise 
Cometh a great increase, and it is a kind of meat. Above 
aU there ought to be brought store of biscuit, oatmeal, flour, 
meal, and the Kke, in the beginning, till bread may be had. 
For beasts or birds, take chiefly such as are least subject to 
diseases and multiply fastest ; as swine, goats, cocks, hens, 
turkeys, geese, house-dogs, and the like. The victual in 
plantation ought to be expended almost as in a besieged 
town ; that is with certain allowance ; and let the main part 
of the ground employed to gardens or com, be to a com- 
mon stock ; and to be laid in, and stored up, and then de- 
livered out in proportion; besides some spots of ground 
that any particular person will manure for his own pri- 
vate use. Consider, likewise, what commodities the soil 
where the plantation is doth naturally yield, that they may 
some way help to defray the charge of the plantation ; so it 
be not, as was said, to the untimely prejudice of the main 
business as it hath fared with tobacco in Virginia. Wood 
commonly aboundeth but too much ; and therefore timber 
is fit to be one. If there be iron ore, and streams where- 
upon to set the mills, iron is a brave commodity where wood 
aboundeth. Making of bay-salt, if the chmate be proper for 
it, would be put in experience : growing silk, likewise, if any 
be, is a likely commodity : pitch and tar, where store of firs 
and pines are, will not fail; so drugs and sweet woods, 
where they are, cannot but yield great profit : soap-ashes, 
likewise, and other things that may be thought of ; but moil 
not too much under ground, for the hope of mines is very 
uncertain, and useth to make the planters lazy in other 
things. 




EDWARD SACKVILLE 
Foiirlh Earl oj J1ors,-t 



BACON'S ESSAY OF PLANTATIONS. 801 

" For government, let it be in the hands of one, assisted 
with some counsel ; and let them have commission to exercise 
martial laws, with some limitation ; and above all, let men 
make that profit of being in the wilderness, as they have 
God always and his service before their eyes : let not the 
government of the plantation depend upon too many coun- 
seUers and undertakers in the country that planteth, but 
upon a temperate number : and let those be rather noble- 
men and gentlemen, than merchants ; for they look ever to 
the present gain. 

" Let there be freedoms from custom, till the plantation be 
of strength : and not only freedom from custom, but free- 
dom to carry their commodities where they make their best 
of them except there be some special cause of caution. Cram 
not in people, by sending too fast company after company ; 
but rather hearken how they waste, and send suppHes propor- 
tionably ; but so as the number may Hve well in the planta- 
tion, and not by surcharge be in penury. It hath been a 
great endangering to the health of some plantations, that 
they have built along the sea and rivers, in marish and un- 
wholesome grounds : therefore though you begin there, to 
avoid carriage and other like discommodities, yet built still 
rather upwards from the streams, than along. It concerneth 
likewise the health of the plantation, that they have good 
store of salt with them, that they may use it in their victuals 
when it shall be necessary. If you plant where savages are, 
do not only entertain them with trifles and gingles, but use 
them justly and graciously, with sufficient guard neverthe- 
less ; and do not win their favor by helping them to invade 
their enemies, but for their defense it is not amiss ; and 
send oft of them over to the country that plants, that they 
may see a better condition than their own, and commend it 
when they return. 

" When the plantation grows to strength, then it is time 
to plant with women as well as with men ; that the planta- 
tion may spread into generations, and not be ever pieced 
from without. 



802 ILLUSTRATIVE DOCUMENTS. 

" It is the sinfullest thing in the world to forsake or desti- 
tute a plantation once in forwardness ; for, besides the dis- 
honor, it is the guiltiness of blood of many commiserable 
persons." 



CCCLXIV. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT IN VIRGINIA 

COMPANY. 

KIMBOLTON MANUSCRIPTS, NO. 371. 

Indorsed : " The names of such as are of the Comons 
house free of the Virginia Company, by M"" Farrar." 

In the Duke of Manchester Records, Kimbolton MSS., 
the following is placed under the questioned or uncertain 
date, "[May 1623?]." The members all belong to the 
Parliament (February 12, 1624 -March 27, 1625), and the 
list was probably compiled in April, 1624, when " the Vir- 
ginia question " was before the House. The list contains 
forty-nine names. All of them are not in the second and 
third charters; but they were all either members of the 
Company before 1616, or were the heirs of members. 
(About 150 persons joined the company between March, 
1612, and July, 1616, who are not named in the foregoing 
documents.) I can identify seventy-five members of the 
Parliament of 1624-25, as being members, also, of the 
Virginia Company ; but probably there were others. 

This list will give an approximate idea as to the position 
held by the M. P.'s in the disputes of 1623-24 in the Vir- 
ginia Company. 

" The names of divers Knights, Cittizens and Burgesses of 
the Lower house of Commons that are Adventurers and free 
of the Virginia Company and yet have not had nor f ollowde 
the buissiness for Sundry yeares. 

Sir William Fleetwood. Sir Jlion Stradlyng. 

Sir Thomas Denton. Sir Baptist Hicks. 

Sir Charles Barkly. Sir Arthur Ingram. 

M' James Bag. M' [Richard] Levesoa. 

Sir Jhon Walter. M' Thomas Bonde. 



ADDITIONAL MEMBERS. 



803 



Sir George Moore. 
Sir Jhon Cutts. 
Sir Edmond Bowyer. 
Sir Henry Fane. 
M' Delbridge. 
Sir Thomas Jermin. 
Sir James Perrott. 
M' John Drake. 
M' [Richard] Dyott. 
Sir Oliver CromweU. 
M' [Richard] Knightly. 
Sir Robert Cotton. 
M' [John] Selden. 
Sir George Calvert. 
Sir Edward Conway. 
Sir Edward Cecill. 
Sir Robert Heath. 
M' Jhon Arnndell. 
Sir Nicholas Tufton. 
Sir George Goring. 

" With divers others which wee cannot uppon a sudden 
sett downe." 



M' Robert Bateman. 
M' Martyn Bonde. 
Sir Thomas Midleton. 
Sir Robert Mansf eild. 
Sir Dudley Digges. 
Sir Humf ry May. 
Sir Jhon Rateliffe. 
M' George Garrett. 
Sir Henadge Fynch. 
M' Edward Spencer. 
Sir Phillip Cary. 
[James] Lord Wriothsly. 
M' Jhon Moore. 
M' Morrice Abbott. 
Sir Jhon Scudamor. 
Sir Arthur Mannering. 
Sir Jhon Saint Jhon. 
M' [Thomas] Sherwell. 
Sir Thomas Grantharm. 



CCCLXV. LIST OP ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF THE 
VIRGINIA COMPANIES. 

I am anxious to give as complete a Hst as possible of 
the leading men who were interested in the American en- 
terprise during 1606-16, and to those mentioned in the 
foregoing documents I am enabled to add from various 
sources of a later date the following : — 

Thomas Bond, Esq. 

Henry Briggs. 

Richard Briggs. 

Capt. John Brough. 

Matthew Brownrig. 

Minion Burrell. 

Sir Richard Bulkeley. 

Abraham Carpenter. 

Sir Henry Cary, Captaine. 

Sir Philip Cary. 

Robert Chamberlaine. 

Dr. Laurence Chatterton or Chaderton. 

Wm. Chester. 

Simon Codrington. 

Edmond Colby. 



John Argall, Esq. 

Richard Ashcroft. 

Ambrose Austen. 

Thomas Baker. 

Richard Ball. 

John Bland. 

Capt. George Bargrave or Bargar. 

Capt. John Bargrave. 

Charles Becke. 

Charles Berkeley. 

Richard Berkeley, Esq. 

Wm. Bing. 

Richard Blackmore. 

Edward Blunt. 

Richard Blunt. 



804 



ILLUSTRATIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Thomas Colthurst. 

Sir Robert Cotton. 

Robert Creswell. 

Wm. Crowe. 

George Chudley or Chudleigh. 

Abraham Cnllimore Colmer or CuDi- 

ner. 
James CuUimore. 

Rowley (Ralegh ?) Dausey or Dawsey. 
Clement Daubney or Dabney. 
Richard Dichfleld. 
Sara Draper. 
Wm. Essington. 
John Exton. 
John Farrar or Ferrer. 
John Fenner. 

Sir Heneadge Finch or Fynch. 
David Floyd or Lloyd. 
Thomas Francis. 
Nicholas Fuller. 
Richard Gardiner. 
Sir Edward Giles. 
Edward, Lord Gorges. 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges. 
Ralph Gore. 
Sir George Goring. 
Dr. Theodore Goulston, or Gulston. 
Thomas Hackshawe. 
John Haiward. 
George Hanger. 
Robert Harley. 
Sir Percival Hart. 
George Harrison. 
John Harrison, gent. 
Peter Heightley. 
Edward Herbert, Esq. 
Gregory Herst. 
William Hicks. 
William Holland. 
William Houlden. 
Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundell. 
George Isham. 
Gabriel Jacques. 
James Jewell. 
Walter Jobson. 
William Jobson. 
Edward Johnson. 
Samuel Jordan. 
Henry Kent. 
John Landman. 



Wm. Laurence. 

Francis Lodge. 

Peter Lodge. 

Thomas Maddox. 

Sir Henry Mannering or Manwaring. 

Christopher Martin. 

George Mason. 

Francis Middleton. 

Sir Henry Mildmay. 

Capt. Henry Moles or Meoles. 

Philip Molex or Mutes. 

Nicholas Moone. 

Thomas Norton. 

Francis Oliver. 

John Payne. 

Abraham Peirsey or Percy. 

Allen Percy. 

Thomas Philips. 

Henry Philpot. 

Sir Francis Popham. 

Robert Pory. 

Nicholas Purefoy. 

Nicholas Rainton. 

Humfrey Reynell. 

Richard Robins. 

Henry Rolfe. 

Edward Rotheram. 

Stephen Sad. 

Sir John Scudamore. 

Walter Shelley. 

Nicholas Sherwell. 

Thomas Sherwell. 

Jonathan Smith. 

Sir Wm. Smith of London. 

Edward Spencer. 

Thomas Stacy. 

Thomas Stokes. 

George Stone. 

Sir Martin Stuteville. 

William Tracy. 

John Tradesoant. 

Peter Van Lore. 

Capt. Alphonsus Van Medkerke. 

Edward Waters. 

William Ward. 

John West, Esq. 

Nathaniel West, Esq. 

Capt. William West. 

Garret Weston. 

Capt. Richard Whitboume. 



CONCLUSION. 805 

John White, Esq. Sir Richard Worsley. 

David Wiffin. Samuel Wrote, Esq. 

Wm. Willet. Sir Thomas Wroth. 

Wm. Williamson. John Zouch, Esq. 

Dr. Thomas Winston. Sir Edward Zouch, Kn't Marshall. 

I have not attempted to give the names of those who were 
employed in the service on wages, unless they were employed 
in positions of responsibihty. Many were sent as sailors, 
soldiers, servants, and some as planters, whose names are not 
given. I have a great many of these names, and I know 
something of interest regarding some of them ; hut the great 
mass of the names not given in this work are of those of 
whom we have now no means of ascertaining anything, — 
the great unknown. 

Virginia was now regarded as a settled plantation ; Eng- 
land had placed a check on " Phillipps ambitious grow- 
inge ; " she had put " a byt into her ainchent enymyes 
mouth;" she had secured a firm hold on the strategical 
position afforded by James River, " which in the time of a 
warre with Spaine would be a commoditie to our Realme, 
and a great annoyance to our enemies ; " Englishmen were 
already looking for a good place in which to plant another 
colony on this continent; the destiny of North America 
was in the hands of the Anglo-Saxon. So let it be. 



BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES 



PEESONS CONNECTED WITH THE FOUNDING 
OF VIEGINIA. 



Biography throws so much light on History, that I doubt if 
any history can be clearly understood without a fair knowledge of 
the biography of the makers of that history. When we know 
something of the lives, characters, social position, and public sur- 
roundings of those engaged in an enterprise, we are then pre- 
pared to form a more correct idea of the character of the enter- 
prise itself. Therefore I have made special effort to compile brief 
biographies of those who were especially interested in the move- 
ment for planting English colonies in America, and to illustrate 
the biography with a portrait ; since " it is impossible for me to 
conceive a work which ought to be more interesting to the present 
age than that which exhibits before our eyes our fathers as they 
lived, accompanied with such memorials of their lives and charac- 
ters as enable us to compare their persons and countenances with 
their sentiments and actions." ^ 

While I have been unable to give sketches and portraits of 
many, I believe that I have identified a sufficient number to illu- 
strate the character of the whole body. 

The leading agents in the grand movement, which resulted in 
our present existence, were among the most prominent actors in 
one of the most interesting and remarkable transition periods 
in British history — the time of the translation of the Bible ; the 
time of Shakespeare, Lord Bacon, Cecil, Kalegh, Ben Jonson, and 
their contemporaries. It was at this time that the contest between 
the people, through their representatives, and the Crown began ; 
and it is interesting to note what a large number of members of 
the House of Commons were interested in the American enter- 
prises. The founders of Virginia were the architects of Great 
Britain's greatness in colonies and commerce. Their records of 
1 Sir Walter Scott to the Publisher of Lodge's Portraits. 



808 BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES. 

their actions, necessarily kept private at that time, are now nearly- 
all missing ; but, even if all were lost, knowing so many of those 
engaged therein as we now do, we would be prepared to form 
a tolerably correct opinion of the movement. 

I have not found a list of the members of the North Virginia 
Company ; but, after the failure to establish their colony in 1608, 
the Southern Company made an appeal to them to join that com- 
pany and aid in taking hold of the remarkable strategic position 
afforded by James Eiver, in the milder climate of Southern Vir- 
ginia, and many of those named — especially those from the west 
and southwest parts of England — were certainly members of the 
Northern company. And after the colony in South Virginia was 
established many of the members of that company turned their 
attention to the northward. Of the forty-three first members of 
His Majesty's Council for New England, at least thirty had been 
instrumental in founding the colony on James River. 

The special object of the biographies is to give information not 
found in the history, and therefore it frequently happens that the 
part taken by the subjects in the founding of Virginia — the most 
interesting part to us — is not mentioned at all in this portion of 
my work. These most interesting items will generally be found 
in the foregoing history, and the General Index will enable the 
reader to refer to them easily. 

The biographies have been compiled from above five hundred 
volumes, and from a great number of manuscripts. In dealing 
with so many sources of information, of so varied a character, 
mistakes have been made sometimes no doubt ; yet I have been as 
careful as possible. I have given nothing that is not based on 
what I believe to be trustworthy authority. I have tested every 
statement, and every date, that could be tested. I have not fol- 
lowed my authorities blindly. Of some, I have given about aU 
that I know. Of others, volumes could be written. 

Many of those named in the biographies, and entered in the 
index, are the originators of families, who are to-day largely rep- 
resented in the United States, and our patriotic citizens should 
take as much pride in being " of Founders' Kin" as is taken by 
Englishmen in tracing from the Boll of Battle Abbey. 



DURATION OF PARLIAMENTS. 



The sittings of Parliament are sometimes given in my authorities under old 
style, and sometimes under new style dates, and are thus confusing. I have 
tried to give uniformly the new style year ; but the following table will enable 
the reader to make the necessary correction, whenever I may have neglected 
doing so. 

Elizabeth. 
1st. 
2d. 
3d. 
4th. 
5th. 
6th. 
7th. 
8th. 
9th. 
10th. 



23 January, 1559, to 8 May, 1559 . . . 

11 January, 1563, to 2 January, 1567 . . 
2 April, 1671, to 29 May, 1571 . . . 
8 May, 1572, to 19 April, 1583 . . . 

23 November, 1584, to 14 September, 1585 
15 October, 1586, to 23 March, 1587 . . 

12 NoTcmber, 1588, to 29 March, 1589 . 
19 February, 1593, to 10 April, 1593 . . 

24 October, 1597, to 9 February, 1598 . 
27 October, 1601, to 19 December, 1601 . 



New Style. 


Old Style. 


[1559] 


1558-9. 


[1563-7] 


1562-6. 


[1571] 


1571. 


[1572-88] 


1572-83. 


[1584-5] 


1584-5. 


[1586-7] 


1586. 


[1588-9] 


1588-9. 


[1593] 


1592-3. 


[1597-8] 


1597. 


[1601] 


1601. 



James. 
1st. 
2d. 
3d. 
4th. 

Charles. 
1st. 
2d. 
8d. 
4th. 
6th. 



19 March, 1604, to 9 February, 1611 .... [1604-11] 1603-10. 

5 April, 1614, to 7 June, 1614 [1614] 1614. 

30 January, 1621, to 8 February, 1622 . . . [1621-2] 1620-1. 

12 February, 1624, to 27 March, 1625 . . . . [1624-5] 1623-5. 

17 May, 1625, to 12 August, 1625 [1625] 1625. 

6 February, 1626, to 15 June, 1626 .... [1626] 1625-6. 
17 March, 1628, to 10 March, 1629 [1628-9] 1627-8. 

13 April, 1640, to 5 May, 1640 [1640] 1640. 

3 November, 1640, to 20 April, 1653 . . . [1640-53] 1640-53. 
" The Long Parliament." 



EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS. 



Therb was no fixed way for spelling many names at that time, and it is fre- 
quently impossible to give the correct spelling ; but I sometimes give several of the 
different modes. 

I have generally attempted to give the new style year, while the day of the month 
remains as I find it in the old records. 

I have the list of paid-up Adventurers as published by the Sandys Administration 
in 1620, and also a manuscript copy of this list as prepared at that time by the 
Smythe Party, These generally agree ; but whenever they differ, I have given the 
person the benefit of the doubt, and credited the largest amount. Where the orig- 
inal subscribers died before 1620, the payments must sometimes stand in the names 
of their heirs or assigns ; and when this is the ease, the heirs, etc., cannot always 
be identified by me. As I have only fragments of the subscription list, I am 
frequently unable to give the amount subscribed. 

The figures, 1, 2, and 3, immediately after a name, indicate that the person was an 
incorporator of the 1st, 2d, or 3d Virginia Charter. 

Sub. = subscribed, and is followed by the amount, whenever I have it. 

Pd. = paid, followed by amount, when known. 

£1 then =from $20 to $25 now. 

E. I. Co. = East India Company. 

Rus. Co. = Russia or Muscovy Company. 

S. I. or B. I. Co. = Somers Islands or Bermudas Company. 

N. W. P. Co. = North West Passage Company. 

N. Fid. Co. = Newfoundland Company. 

N. E. Co. = New England Company. 

Va Co. = Virginia Company. 

M. C. for Va. = Member of His Majesty's Council for Virginia (34° to 45°). 

M. C. for Va. Co. = Member of His Majesties' Council for Virginia Company of 
London. 

M. P. = Membex of Parliament 




lilCHARU SACKVIL 
rhird Eail r>l Por 



BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES. 



Abbay, Thomas. I find no trace 
of him save in CCXLIV. and CCXLV. 
He was not a member of the Va. Co. 
Was sent to Virginia by the company 
in September, 1608. If he was living 
in England in 1612, he may have re- 
turned without proper consent. 

Abbot, George, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £75. Son of Maurice Abbot, 
clothworker of Guildford in Surrey, 
was born October 29, 1562 ; educated 
at the grammar school of Guildford ; 
entered Baliol College, 1578 ; B. A., 
1582 ; M. A., 1585 ; B. D., 1593 ; D. D., 
1597, and the same year chosen Mas- 
ter of University College ; chaplain to 
Thomas Saokville, Lord Buckhurst; 
made Dean of Winchester, March 6, 
1600 ; Vice-chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford in 1600, in 1603, and 
in 1608 ; one of the first appointed 
translators of the New Testament in 
1604 ; employed at the suggestion of 
George Hume, Earl of Dunbar, to 
negotiate a union between the churches 
of England and Scotland in 1608 ; 
wrote the Preface to Sir William 
Hart's " Examination, etc., of George 
Sprot " ; was appointed Dean of Glooes- 
ter, 1609 ; Bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, December 3, 1609 ; Bishop 
of London, February 12, 1610, and 
Archbishop of Canterbury, March 4, 

1611. Member of the N. W. P. Co., 

1612. He kept an eye on Zuniga when 
he was in England ; sat on Ralegh's 
•trial, 1618 ; accidentally killed Lord 
Zouehe's park-keeper July 24, 1621, 
for which he was tried by a commis- 
sion of bishops and other lords, acquit- 
ted, pardoned November 22, 1621. 
" He was accused of Puritanism, but 
the favor and good opinion of King 
James was never withdrawn from him. 
He attended the king on his death-bed, 
and placed the crown on the head of 
his successor." (Lodge.) 



As a result of his differences with 
Laud, he withdrew to Guildford in 
1630 ; and afterwards to Croydon 
House, where he died August 4, 1633. 
His last words were, " In te speravi ; 
non confundebor in eterno." [In 
thee have I trusted ; I shall never be 
confounded.] 

He founded an hospital in his native 
town and endowed it richly, and his 
monument is still preserved in Guild- 
ford Church. " His religious views 
had led him to form a definite foreign 
policy, of which the one aim was to 
crush Spain and to be wary of 
France." (S. L. Lee.) 

Abbot, Morris, draper. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £50. Fifth son of 
Maurice Abbot of Guildford, in Sur- 
rey, and brother to George, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and Robert, Bishop of 
Salisbury; was baptized u.t Trinity 
Church, Guildford, November 2, 1565. 
An incorporator of the E. I. Co. in 
1600, and afterwards one of the direc- 
tors of that company. An incorporator 
and director of the N. W. P. Co. in 
1612 ; on the commission " to treat 
with the Hollanders concerning differ- 
ences in the East Indies, and the fish- 
ery in Greenland," December 29, 

1614 ; a member of the B. I. Co. in 

1615 ; elected deputy governor of the 
E. I. Co., July 5, 1615, and again 
chosen to that office frequently there- 
after. He was added to His Majesty's 
Council for the Va. Co. about 1618. 
Again on the commission to treat with 
the Hollanders, January 8, 1619. He 
was recommended by King James to 
the Va. Co. as a fit person for their 
treasurer in 1620, and again in 1622 ; 
M. P. for Hull in 1621-22 ; was one 
of the farmers of the customs ; elected 
governor of the E. I. Co., March 23, 
1624 ; M. P. for Hull, 162^25. On 
the commission for winding up the 



812 



ABBOT— ALBERT 



affairs of the Va. Co., July 15, 1624 ; 
was the first person knighted by King 
Charles at Whitehall, April 12, 1625 ; 
M. P. for Hull in 1625, and for Lon- 
don in 1626 ; was long an alderman 
of London from Bridge Without, and 
after from Coleman Street ward ; 
sheriff of London, 1627-28 ; M. P. for 
Hull, 1628-29 ; Lord Mayor of Lou- 
don, 1638. Died January 10, 1642. 
He was one of the leading men of 
affairs in his day, yet Mr. Stith, in his 
"History of Virginia," says, "As to 
Mr. Abbot, little is known of him, 
only that he was a merchant, and may 
seem from some obscure circumstances 
to have been of kin to his grace. Dr. 
George Abbott, then Archbishop of 
Canterbury." 

He was a leading member of the 
Levant, Italian, French, Muscovy, 
East India, Northwest Passage, So- 
mers Islands, and Virginia com- 
panies. The English merchant ser- 
vice was largely under his control, and 
he was a constant advancer of Eng- 
lish colonization and commerce. Sir 
Maurice Abbot married, first, Joan, 
daughter of George Austen, of Shal- 
ford, near Guildford, by whom he had 
five children. She died in the autumn 
of 1697, and he married, secondly, in 
the spring of 1598, Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Bartholomew Barnes, an alder- 
man of Loudon. She died September 
5, 1630. 

Abdy, Anthony, clothworker, 3. 
Sub. ; pd. £37 1 Os. "A lineal de- 
scendant of the Yorkshire House, en- 
tered into commercial pursuits, estab- 
lishing himself in London." As he 
was an apprentice to Nicholas Pearde, 
clothworker, he must have been a 
member of that guild. He was the 
third son of Roger Abdy, citizen and 
merchant tailor of London, by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Richard White. 
Of the E. I. Co., 1609 ; of the B. I. 
Co., 1615 ; a director of the E. I. Co. 
from 1619; recommended by King 
James to the Va. Co. for treasurer in 
May, 1622 ; on the commission for the 
Va. Co.'s affairs, July 15, 1624 ; sheriff 
of London, 1630 ; alderman of London 
from Bridge Without ward from De- 
cember, 1631 ; on the commission con- 
cerning tobacco, June 19, 1634. He 
died in September, 1640, and lies 
buried in St. Andrew Undershaf t, Eald- 



gate ward, London. By his wife Abi- 
gail, daughter of Sir Thomas Camp- 
bell, he had three sous, all of whom 
were created baronets. 

Abergavenny, Lord. — Henry Ne- 
ville. 

Abot, Jeffra. Arrived in Virginia 
in January, 1608 ; he was executed 
by Sir Thomas Gates for mutiny in 
1612. 

Acland, Sir John, 3. Sub. £37 
10s.; pd. £12 10s. Of Columb- 
John in Broad Clyst, Devon ; M. P. 
for Saltash, 1586-87 ; knighted at the 
Tower, March 14, 1604 ; M. P. for 
Devon, 1607-11. Died in 1613; a 
benefactor of Exeter College, Oxford. 

Acquaviva, Rev. Father Claude. 
Born at Atri, September 14, 1543 ; 
entered Society of Jesus, 1567 ; Gen- 
eral of the Jesuits, 1581. Died Jan- 
uary 31, 1615. 

Acuna. See Gondomar. 

Adams, Captain. Made a voyage 
to Virginia, June to November, 1609 ; 
a second voyage, April to^September, 
1610 ; a third, Decemblr, 1610, to 
July, 1611 ; a fourth, December, 1612, 
to July, 1613 ; and a fifth, October, 
1613, to April, 1614. We ought to 
know more of him than we do, as he 
made so many of the early voyages. 
He was evidently a noted and well- 
known seaman in his own day, and 
this fact makes it the more dii^eult 
to identify him, as he is always spoken 
of simply as " Captain Adams ; " his 
first name is not given in the Virginia 
records. It is probable, however, 
that he is the Captain Robert Adams 
who entered the service of the E. I. 
Co. in 1616, and made several voyages 
to the East Indies. 

Adams, Mr. Thomas, stationer ; 
pd. £10. Son of Thomas Adams, 
yeoman, of Neen Savage, Shropshire ; 
first apprenticed to Oliver Wilkes, 
stationer, on September 29, 1582, for 
seven years, and turned over to George 
Bishop on October 14, 1583, for the 
same period ; admitted a freeman of 
the Stationers' Company October 15, 
1590, and came upon the livery July 
1, 1598 ; younger warden in 1611 ; 
became warden in 1614, and died 
about 1620. A benefactor to his com- 
pany. 

Albert, Archduke. See Arch- 
duke. 



ALD WORTH — ANNE OF DENMARK 



813 



Aldworth, Thomas, merchant of 
Bristol. Interested in Frobisher's 
voyages, 1576-78 ; mayor of Bristol 
in 1583. He was still living in Octo- 
ber, 1593, when he gave Charles Lord 
Howard information regarding a 
"Carvell," called "The Tobacco 
Pipe." 

Alexander VI. (Borgia.) Pope, 
August 11, 1492, to August, 1503. 

Alexander, Sir William. Of 
Menstrie ; a celebrated poet ; had a 
grant of Nova Scotia, September 10, 
1621 ; charter of the Lordship of 
Canada in America, February 2, 1628 ; 
Viscount Stirling, September 4, 1630 ; 
Earl of Stirling, Viscount Canada, and 
Lord Alexander of Tullibody, June 
14, 163S. Died in 1640. (See the 
" House of Alexander." by C. Rogers, 
LL. D.) 

Aliffe, Ayliflfe, Ayloffe, Sir Wil- 
liam, 3. Sub. — ; pd. £50. Of 
Braxsted, Essex ; knighted at Char- 
terhouse, May 11, 1603 ; created a 
baronet, November 25, 1612 ; M. P. 
Stoekbridge, 1621-22. Title extinct. 

AUde, Edward, stationer. Son of 
John Allde (" who was the first per- 
son on the registers to take up the 
freedom of the Stationers' Company, 
vsrhen in January, 1555, he paid the 
modest sum of 6s. 8d. for the custom- 
ary breakfast to the brotherhood." 
H. R. Tedder) ; made free of the 
Company of Stationers by patrimony, 
February 18, 158| ; chosen to go to 
" my lord Maiour's dynner," in 1611. 
Probably died in 1634. 

Allen, AUeine, AUeyne, Ed- 
mund, gent., 3. 
£25. Of Hatfield, 
Died in 1616. 

Allen, Edward, fishmonger, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £100. Also of 
East India and Northwest Passage 
companies. He contributed £62 10s. 
to the first voyages, and afterwards 
subscribed and paid £37 10s. more ; 
elected sheriff of London, July 3, 
1620 ; chosen alderman of Bread- 
street ward, November 7, 1620. Died 
in 1626. 

Allen, John, fishmonger, 2. Sub. 
; pd. £12 10s. 

Allen, Thomas, grocer, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £13 10s. Probably three 

of the name were members of the 
Grocers' Company at this time. One 



Sub. £75 ; pd. 
Peverill, Essex. 



was sworn to freedom in 1589 ; an- 
other in 1592, and a third in 1596. 

AUington, Giles, gent., 3. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Second son of Sir 

Giles AUington, by his wife Dorothy, 
daughter of Thomas Cecil, first Earl 
of Exeter. His elder brother died 
young, and Giles became his father's 
heir, and it is said, "was soon after 
kniglited." " The prospects of this 
gentleman," says Lodge, in his " Life 
of Sir Julius Csesar," " were clouded, 
and his revenues embarrassed, by an 
unfortunate marriage. . . . April 14, 
1631, he was censured and fined in the 
Star Chamber Court £32,000, only for 
marrying the daughter of his sister by 
the half blood. . . . William, his only 
son, was on July 28, 1642, . . . cre- 
ated Baron AUington, of Killard, in 
Ireland." Sir Giles AUington is men- 
tioned in the Fifth Report of Hist. 
MS. Com., as being alive in 1640 ; but 
the date of his death is not known to 
me. His marriage caused much of 
his family history to be excluded from 
the official pedigrees of the family, 
and therefore the data regarding him 
is meagre ; but I beUeve this identi- 
fication to be correct. However, this 
may be the Lieutenant Giles AUington 
who patented lands in Virginia in 1624. 

Amidas, Philip. Said to have 
been born at Hull, England, in 1550. 
Probably related to the Hawkins fam- 
ily. (See pedigree.) Owned lands 
in, and I think it probable that he 
was from, Cornwall. " Some time 
after 1586 he had charge of an expe- 
dition to Newfoundland." Early in 
1609 a warrant was granted to John 
Shelbury for certain lands in Corn- 
wall, purchased by Sir Walter Ra- 
legh from Philip Amidas, and by 
Ralegh's attainder devolved to the 
crown. Amidas, or Amadas, died in 
1618. 

Andrews, John, the elder, Doctor 
of Cambridge, 2. Sub. ; pd. £25. 

Andrews, John, the younger, of 
Cambridge, 2. Sub. ; pd. £25. 

Andrews, Nicholas, " citizen and 
Salter," 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £62 
10s. Afterwards of Little Lever, 
County Lancaster ; married Hetli, 
daughter of Thomas Lever, esquire. 
Their son, John Andrews, was a cap- 
tain in Cromwell's army. 

Anne of Denmark. — Anne Stuart. 



814 



ANTHONY — ARGALL 



Anthony, Charles, goldsmith, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £137 10s. Also 
of N. W. P. Co. Second son of De- 
rick Anthony, " chief graver of the 
mynt and seales to King Edward VI., 
Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth," 
by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Richard Erley. He was the engraver 
for King James, Prince Henry, for the 
Mint, etc. He engraved the stamps 
for the East India moneys, and I am 
quite sure, engraved the seals for the 
Virginia companies. The celebrated 
Dr. Francis Anthony (1550-1623), who 
joined the Va. Co. in May, 1617, was, 
I believe, his elder brother. His sister 
Elizabeth married Richard Yardley, 
of London, fishmonger. 

Apsley, Sir Allen. Born about 
1569 ; at Cadiz, 1698 ; knighted at 
Dublin, June 5, 1605 ; victualer to 
the navy about 1610 ; Lieutenant of 
the Tower, March 3, 1617 ; Member 
of the Council for New England in 
1620. Died May 24, 1630. 

Aquila, Don Juan de. Com- 
mander of tlie Spaniards at Kinsale, 
Ireland, 1601. 

Archduke, The. Albert, Arch- 
duke of Austria, Cardinal and Arch- 
bishop of Toledo ; born 1559 ; sov- 
ereign of the Netherlands, May 6, 
1598. Died July 13, 1621. 

Archer (see Aucher), Captain 

Gabriel, 2. Sub. ; pd. . 

Of Mountnessing, Essex ; admitted to 
Gray's Inn as a student, March 15, 
1593 ; but does not seem to have been 
called to the Bar. Recorder of Gos- 
nold's voyage to our New England 
coast, 1602 ; first secretary or re- 
corder of the first Colony of Virginia, 
where he died in the memorable win- 
ter of 1609-10. As his brother John 
was afterwards admitted into the Va. 
Co., and given a share of land in Vir- 
ginia as his heir, it seems evident 
that Captain Gabriel left no children. 
Archer's Hope, on James River, was 
named for him, and he has the honor 
of having been much abused by Cap- 
tain John Smith. He gave his life to 
the enterprise, and no one could do 
more. He was one of the first law- 
yers in Virginia. 

Argall Pedigree. Thomas ^ Ar- 
gall, of St. Faith-the- Virgin, London, 
esquire, to whom the Manor of 
Walthamstow (see Robert Thorne) 



was granted in 1553, was an officer 
of court in 1559. He died in 1563. 
By his wife Margaret, davighter of 
John Tallakarne, of Cornwall (who 
remarried in June, 1564, Sir Giles Al- 
lington, of Horselieath, Cambridge- 
shire), he had five sons and one 
daughter, namely : Richard ^ (see here- 
after), Lawrence,^ John,'' Rowland,^ 
Gaberell,^ and Anne.'' 

Anne ^ Argall married, first, 
Thomas Sisley, of Essex ; second- 
ly, Augustuie Steward, of London, 
esquire. 

Richard ^ Argall, the eldest son, 
of East Sutton in County Kent, 
esquire, married twice ; tlie name 
of his first wife is not known to me. 
His second wife was Mary, daughter 
of Sir Reginald Scott (see Scott 
pedigree). He died in 1588, leav- 
ing five sons and six daughters liv- 
ing, by his second wife, namely : — 

i. Thomas ^ Argall, who, with his 
brother Reginald,^ were the wit- 
nesses to the challenge sent by Sir 
John Scott to Lord Willoughby, in 
April, 1590 ; which Thomas died in 
1605, s. p. 

ii. Reginald ^ Argall, of Lincoln's 
Inn, Middlesex, gent., married in 
1599 Anne, widow of William 
Rowe (uncle to Sir Thomas Roe), 
of Walthamstow, County Essex, 
esquire, and daughter of John 
Cheney, esquire, of Chesham Boys 
in Buckinghamsliire. This Regi- 
nald 8 was knighted at Hampton 
Court, August 17, 1606, and died 
prior to 1612, s. p. 

iii. John ^ Argall, of Colcliester. 

iv. Richard 8 Argall. (I take 
this to be tlie person of the names 
" noted in the reign of James I. for 
an excellent divine poet.") 

V. Samuel ^ Argall. 

i. Elizabeth ^ Argall married Sir 
Edward Filmore, of East Sutton in 
Kent, knight. 

ii. Margarett ^ Argall married 
Edmond Randolfe, of Aylesford in 
Kent, esquire. 

iii. Mary* Argall married Ray- 
nold Kemps, of Wye in Kent, 
esquire. 

iv. Catherine ^ Argall married 
Randolfe Bathurst, of Horton in 
Kent, esquire. 

V. Jane* Argall married Paul 



ARGALL 



815 



Kettewood, of Roshall in Lanca- 
shire, esquire. 

vi. Sara' Argall, sixth daughter. 
After the death of Richard ^ Ar- 
gall in 1588, his widow (Sir Samuel 
Argall's mother) married Laurence 
Washington, of Maidstone, Kent, 
esquire (his second wife), and died 
in 1605. Mr. Washington, who 
survived her, dying in 1619, was 
register of the High Court of Chan- 
cery. He was the great uncle of the 
Rev. Laurence Washington, whose 
son John was the emigrant ancestor 
of " the Father of his country." 
The following monumental inscrip- 
tions from East Sutton Church are 
illustrative of the foregoing pedigree. 
" Richard Argall of East Sutton in 
the County of Kent Esq., deceased 
anno Dm"', 1588, leaving 6 sons and 
6 daughters living. Mary his second 
wife one of the daughters of Sir Regi- 
nald Scott of Scot's Hall, married the 
second time to Laurence Washington 
Esq., died in anno 1605. Thomas Ar- 
gall eldest son of the said Richard and 
Mary, died in anno 1605, whose souls," 
etc. 

" Under this rest, in certain hope of 
the resurrection of the bodies. Sir Ed- 
ward Filmer and DaiBC Elizabeth his 
wife, daughter of Richai'd Argall 
Esq. They lived together 44 years 
and had issue 18 children 9 sons and 
9 daughters. He departed this life 2. 
Nov. 1629. She the 9. Aug* 1638." 

Their eldest son, Sir Robert Eil- 
mer, was a strong royalist, and a po- 
litical writer of some note. 

Argall, Jo'in, esquire. Of Col- 
chester, Essex. (See pedigree.) He 
was interested in Virginia prior to 
1617 ; held four shares in Captain 
Argall's plantation ; was M. C. for N". 
E., November 3, 1620. He married 
Sara, daughter of the celebrated schol- 
ar, Edward Grant, D. D., master of 
Westminster School. At the visita- 
tion of 1634 he had four sons and two 
daughters, was living at Much Bad- 
do w, in Essex, and was one of the jus- 
tices of the peace for the county. 

Argall, Captain Samuel. (See 
pedigree.) Was probably born about 
1680-85. He was a young man in 
1609 ; but, as he was selected to dis- 
cover a shorter way to Virginia, he 
must have been regarded as a mariner 



of experience and ability, and I sup- 
pose that he had been to America be- 
fore. He left England May 5, and 
returned late in October, 1609, hav- 
ing made the discovery of a direct 
way ; thus proving that the reliance 
in his ability was not misplaced ; con- 
ducted Lord de la Warr to Virginia, 
March, 1610 ; made a voyage to our 
New England coast ; surveyed the 
coast from Cape Cod to Virginia, 
June 19 to September, 1610 (CXLI.) 
(the beginning of the fishing voyages 
sent to the northward from Virginia 
every summer). Explored the Chesa^ 
peake Bay and the waters thereof 
during the autumn and winter, and 
sailed from Virginia vidth Lord de la 
Warr March 28, reaching England in 
June, 1611. 

The Grace of God, with Father 
Biard on board, on the way to Port 
Royal in New France, was at New- 
port, Isle of Wight, in February, 1611. 
(CLXVIII.) Louis XIII. of France 
granted to Madame de Guercheville, 
the Protectress of the Jesuit Missions, 
all the territory of North America 
from the St. Lawrence to Florida, 
and she was sending her missionaries 
to this region. The account of the 
Spaniards in Virginia reached Eng- 
land late in October, 1611. Argall 
sailed from England, July 23, 1612, 
on the Treasurer, a well equipped 
vessel, with a commission to remain in 
Virginia, and to drive out foreign in- 
truders from the country granted to 
Englishmen, by the three patents of 
James I. He was employed in the 
various waters of Virginia from 
September, 1612, to June, 1613. 
(CCLXXV.) Soon after June 28, 
1613, he sailed from Virginia on " his 
fishing voyage, which I beseech God 
of his mercy to blesse us," in a well- 
armed English man-of-war ; destroyed 
the colony of the Jesuits on Mount 
Desert, within the bounds of Virginia ; 
returned to Jamestown late in July, or 
early in August, and was sent back 
by Gates in about thirty days, with 
orders to destroy the buildings and 
fortifications at Mount Desert, St. 
Croix, and Port Royal, which he did, 
and got back to Jamestown about the 
first of December, 1613. He is said 
to have visited, while on this voyage, 
the Dutch settlement on the Hudson, 



816 



ARGALL — ARDNDELL 



and to have compelled the governor, 
Hendrick Christiansen, to submit to 
the crown of Great Britain. New- 
England was reserved for the English 
by Argall's decisive action. The Bay 
of Fundy was sometime known as Ar- 
gall's Bay. He was variously em- 
ployed in Virginia from December, 
1613, to June 18, 1614, when he sailed 
for England, arriving there in July. 
In November, 1614, he proposed to 
enter the service of the E. I. Co. , but 
was retained by the Va. Co., and again 
sent to Virginia in February, 1615 ; 
returning with Dale in May, 1616. 

Early in 1617 he was appointed 
deputy governor and admiral of Vir- 
ginia, and soon after granted patents 
for a plantation. [See Sir William 
Lovelace.] Sailed for Virginia about 
the last of March, 1617, and returned 
to England in May, 1619. Certain 
charges were brought against him in 
August, 1618, and some time after 
this he was " vehemently complayned 
against by Padre Maestro and San- 
chez [see Gondomar] for piracy com- 
mitted by the Treasurer on the King of 
Spain's subjects in the West Indies." 
On his return from Virginia in May, 
1619, he answered these charges satis- 
factorily to some of the officers of the 
company ; but not so to others. From 
October, 1620, to the summer of 1621, 
he commanded the Golden Phenix, in 
the fleet under Sir Robert Mansell, in 
the Mediterranean Sea. About 1621 
he proposed a settlement in that part 
of America called New Netherlands ; 
a member of His Majesty's Council for 
New England, probably before May, 
1622. In the distribution of " the land 
of New England by lotts. Cape Cod, 
and into the Maine," fell to his lot ; 
knighted at Rochester, June 26, 1622 ; 
voted to surrender the Virginia char- 
ter, October 20, 1623. In April, 1624, 
he was proposed for governor of Vir- 
ginia, but was defeated by Sir Francis 
Wyatt ; one of the commissioners for 
the Va. Co., July 15, 1624 ; on Sep- 
tember 6, 1626, he sailed from Plym- 
outh as admiral of twenty-four Eng- 
lish and four Dutch ships ; and during 
the cruise took seven vessels, valued 
at £100,000 ; October to December, 
1626, he commanded the flagship dur- 
ing the attack on Cadiz. 

In 1633, Anue, daughter of Sir 



Samuel Argall, of Walthamstow in 
County Essex, was the wife of Alex- 
ander Boiling of London, scrivener, 
a grandson of Thomas Boiling, of 
Boiling Hall in Yorkshire. From 
the Visitation of London it seems 
that Sir Samuel was then alive ; and 
he probably died that year, as Strype 
says he was a benefactor of " The 
Trinity House, London," in 1633. 
However, he certainly died before 
June, 1641. His daughter Anne 
(widow of Boiling, who died in March, 
1641), and her second husband, Sam- 
uel Percevall, on June 25, 1641, peti- 
tioned the House of Commons, com- 
plaining that they had been defrauded 
by John Woodhall of property in Vir- 
ginia, left to petitioner Anne by her 
late father, Sir Samuel Argall, some- 
time governor of Virginia, etc. 




Arundell, John, esquire, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £25. " Jack for the 
King," grandson of Henry VIII.'s 
" Jack of Tilbury," and son of John 
Arundell, of Trerice. Born in 1576 ; 
M. P. for St. Michaels, 1697-98 ; for 
Cornwall, 1601, 1621-22 ; for St. 
Mawes, 1624-25 ; for Tregony, 1628- 
29, and 1640 ; appointed governor of 
Pendennis Castle about 1643. Clar- 
endon tells the story of its five months' 
siege in 1646, and the gallant defense 
of old Sir John. The fall of Pen- 
dennis and the defeat of the king 
ruined his estates. He died between 
1654 and 1656, and was buried at 
Duloe in Cornwall. 

Arundell. The Lord of Wardour. 
Of N. W. P Co. Sir Thomas Arun- 
dell of Wardour (1560-1640) was the 
son and heir of old Sir Matthew 
Arimdell (on whose fringed cloak it 
once pleased Queen Elizabeth to spit), 
and the grandson of Sir John Arun- 
dell, the friend of Father Cornelius. 

Elizabeth gave him an autograph 
Latin letter, said to be still preserved 
at Wardour Castle, recommending 
him to the service of the Emperor 
Rudolph II. as a brave knight and 
her kinsman. Serving with distinction 
as a volunteer in the impei-ial army in 



ARUNDELL — ASHLEY 



817 



Hungary, he took the standard of the 
Turks with his own hand, in an en- 
gagement at Gran or Estergom ; for 
which heroic achievement he was cre- 
ated by Rudolph II. a count of the 
Sacred Roman Empire. The patent 
of creation is dated at Prague, Decem- 
ber 14, 1595. " March 13, 1596, Eliza- 
beth wrote to Rudolph II., complain- 
ing of his having created Thomas 
Arundel a count of the Empire, and 
she has forbidden him to use the title." 
" She liked not for her sheep to wear 
a; stranger's mark, nor to dance after 
a foreigner's whistle." "Augt. 15, 
1596. The Emperor replies that he 
is surprised at the Queen's displeasure 
at his creating Thomas Arundel a 
count, and requests her to restore him 
to favor." 

In March, 1605, his brother-in-law, 
Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southamp- 
ton, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, himself, 
and others sent out the expedition un- 
der Captain George Waymouth. Cre- 
ated Baron Arundell of Wardour, 
May 4, 1605. In the summer of 1605 
he was levying a body of men in Eng- 
land for the service of the Archduke 
Albert, a 3'ounger brother of his old 
friend Rudolph II. Catesby, the gun- 
powder conspirator, " contrived that 
several of the officers should be ap- 
pointed from amongst his friends, and 
entered into an understanding with 
them that they should be ready to re- 
turn to England whenever the Cath- 
olic cause required their assistance." 
"After the discovery of the Gunpow- 
der Plot, all chance of a close alliance 
between England and Spain was for 
the present at an end. The knowledge 
that the English troops [under Arun- 
dell] in the service of the archdnke 
had been intended by the conspirators 
to cooperate with them by invading 
England, induced James to refuse to 
allow any further levies to be made," 
(Gardiner's "Hist, of England.") 

Lord Arundell married, first. Lady 
Maria Wriothesley, sister of Henry, 
Earl of Southampton. She is known 
as "our sweet Lady Arundell." He 
married, secondly, Anne, daughter of 
Miles Phillipson, Esq., and his daugh- 
ter Anne (by the second marriage) 
married Cecil Calvert, second Baron 
Baltimore, the founder of Maryland. 

Bishop Goodman says " the first Lord 



Baltimore was converted to the Church 
of Rome by Gondomar and Coxmt 
Arundel." 

Lord Arundell died in 1639-40. 

Arundell, Earl of. — Thomas How- 
ard. 

Ashcroft, Richard, merchant. Sub. 
— ; pd. £25. A friend of Dr. Poe, 
he was admitted into the E. I. Co. 
February 26, 1614. On the special 
commission concerning tobacco, April 
7, 1620. 

Ashley, Sir Anthony, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £62 10s. Son of An- 
thony Ashley, of Damerham in the 
county of Wilts, by his wife Dorothy, 
daughter of John Lyte, of Lytes Carey 
in Somersetshire, born about 1551 ; 
entered the public services, it seems, 
about 1672-73, and became clerk of 
the council. He is said to have been 
" highly distinguished by the favor 
of Queen Elizabeth." In 1584 Lucas 
Janz Waghenaer published at Leyden 
in Holland the first known collection 
of sea charts for sailors. In 1585 
Lord Charles Howard drew the atten- 
tion of the Privy Council to the work, 
and they " esteemed it worthy to be 
translated and printed into a language 
familiar to all nations." The task 
was given to Anthony Ashley, and his 
translation appeared in 1588 as " The 
Mariner's Mirrour." I think it high- 
ly probable that he was aided in 
this translation by his brother, Robert 
Ashley (1565-1641), who was a trans- 
lator of note. 

Anthony Ashley was M. P. for 
Tavistock, November 12, 1588, to 
March 29, 1589. In 1689 he served in 
the Norris-Drake expedition. M. A., 
Oxford, September 27, 1592. 1596, 
secretary for war in the famous voy- 
age to Cadiz, where he was knighted, 
and brought over the first account of 
the capture of Cadiz to her majesty. 
He had Been pensioned by Queen Eliza- 
beth, and in 1605 King James also pen- 
sioned him " in consideration of 33 
years services." Created a baronet, 
July 3, 1622. Died January 13, 1628, 
and was buried at Wimborne, St. Giles, 
Dorset. He married twice ; first, 
Jane, relict of Thomas Cokaine, Esq., 
and daughter of Philip Okeover, Esq., 
by whom his only child, Anne Ashley, 
who married Sir John Cooper and be- 
came the mother of Sir Anthony Ash- 



818 



ASHLEY— AUCHER 



ley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, the 
celebrated statesman, a lord proprietor 
of Carolina, and one of the first gov- 
ernors of the Hudson Bay Company. 

Sir Anthony Ashley married, sec- 
ondly, in 1621-22 Philippa Sheldon 
(aged 19), a kinswoman to George 
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. She 
married, secondly, Carew, only surviv- 
ing son of Sir Walter Kalegh. 

Ashley, Captain John, 5. Sub. 

; pd. . Probably the Captain 

Ashley who was at the taking of Saint 
Vincent and Puerto Bello near Pan- 
ama, February 7, 1602. 

Askew — Ascough — Ayscough, 
James, 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; paid £37 
10s. Married a daughter of Roger 
Clarke, alderman of London ; was ad- 
mitted into the E. I. Co. in 1609. 

Askwith, Robert, 3. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Alderman of 
York. Lord Mayor of York in 1617. 
Knighted at York, April 13, 1617. 
M. P. for York, 1576-83, 1604-11, 
1614, and 1621-22. 

Aspley, William, stationer. He 
dealt largely in plays, Shakespeare's, 
and others. Died August 18, 1640. 

Asten — Aston — Austin, Am- 
brose. Paid £12 10s. Transferred 
his share in Virginia to Dr. Anthony, 
July 18, 1620. 

Aston — Ashton, Sir Roger, 
2. Pd. £10. A servant to King 
James, to his father, and grandfa- 
ther ; for many years the messenger 
between Queen Elizabeth and King 
James. From 1587 he was gentleman 
of the bed-chamber to the king, the 
letters patent for which office were in- 
closed with him in his tomb. " He 
was dispatched to London after the 
queen's death to concert measures 
with the council for the reception of 
King James, and being asked by the 
lords how he did, replied, ' Even, my 
Lords, like a poor man who, hav- 
ing wandered above forty years in a 
wilderness and barren soil, is now 
arrived at the land of promise.' " 
Knighted at Grimston, April 18, 1603 ; 
made master of the great wardrobe 
in 1608 ; M. P. for Cheshire in 1610- 
11 ; died May 23, 1612. His first 
wife, Mary, daughter of Andrew Stew- 
art, master of Ochiltree, was related 
to King James. She died in 1606. 
His second wife was Cordelia, daugh- 



ter of Sir John Stanhope. His daugh- 
ter Elizabeth married Sir Robert 
Wingfleld, who was a m.ember of the 
Va. Co. in 1619. 

Aston — Ashton, Sir 'Walter, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. . Grandson of Sir 

Thomas Lucy, " Justice Shallow." Of 
Texall, Stafford ; born July 9, 1584. 
His father died in 1597, and he was 
placed under the wardship of Sir Ed- 
ward Coke. Created a baronet, 1611 ; 
ambassador to Spain, 1620-25 ; created 
Lord Aston of Forfar in the Scottish 
peerage, November 28, 1627 ; ambas- 
sador to Spain, 1635-38 ; died August 
13, 1639. (His cousin, Walter Aston, 
came to Virginia in 1628, and died 
there in 1656. His tomb is at West- 
over.) 

Atkinson, Richard, clerk of Va. 
Co. in 1609. Son of Richard Atkin- 
son, descended out of the North of 
England. His mother married, sec- 
ondly, William Towerson, of London, 
merchant. He was for a long time 
cashier of the E. I. Co. 

Atkinson, William, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. " Counsellor of the 
Lawe dwelling sometime in ffoster 
lane London " ; great uncle of the 
above Richard. He was especially 
instrumental in arresting and pro- 
secuting Papists, recusants, etc. 

Aucher — Archer, Anthony, es- 
quire, 2. Sub. ; pd. . Sir 

Anthony Aucher, knight, of Otterden, 
temp. Henry VIIL, had issue four 
sons, among whom John of Otterden 
(whose daughter married Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert), and Edward, who mar- 
ried Mabel, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Wrothe, and had Anthony (of whom I 
write), and Elizabeth who married Sir 
William Lovelace. Anthony Aucher, 
Esq., of Bishopsbourne, married two 
vrives, but had issue only by the second, 
Margaret, daughter of Edwin Sandys, 
Archbishop of York (see pedigree). 
He died January 13, 1609-10, and was 
succeeded by his son (next). 

Aucher — Archer, Sir Anthony, 

2. Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. Son of 

preceding ; knighted at Chatham, July 
4, 1604 ; sheriff of Kent, 1614 ; M. C. 
for Va. Co. ; of the S. I. Co., 1615 ; 
interested in Argall's plantation, and 
was allowed a bill of adventure of £50 
for sending four persons to Virginia 
at his own charge, February 12, 1617 ; 



AUSTEN— BACON 



819 



sent Carleton " a relation from Guiana 
by a worthy friend," February 23, 
1618 ; married Hester, daughter of 
Peter Collet, Esq. ; buried at Bourne, 
July 24, 1637. His son, Sir An- 
thony Aucher, was created a baronet, 
July 4, 1666. 

(This name was also spelled Ager 
and Auger.) 

Austen. See Asten. 

Avila. See Zuniga. 

Aylmer, John, Bishop of London. 
Of Aylmer Hall, Norfolk. Domestic 
chaplain to Henry Grey, Marquis of 
Dorset, father of Lady Jane Grey to 
whom he was also tutor. During 
Queen Mary's reign he resided at 
Strasburg, and afterwards at Zurich, 
where he assisted Fox in his compila- 
tion of his "Book of Martyrs." On 
the accession of Elizabeth he returned 
to England. He died June 3, 1594, 
and was buried in St. Paul's. 

Ayloffe. See Aliffe. 

Bache, George, fishmonger, 2. Sub. 
; pd. £12 10s. 

Bacon, Sir Francis, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . " The younger of the two 

sons of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Keeper of 
the Great Seal under Queen Eliza- 
beth, by his second wife, Anne, second 
daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, of 
Gideon Hall in Essex, and sister to the 
wife of the Lord Treasurer Burghley. 
Was born at York House, in the Strand, 
London, January 22, 1561. In April, 
1573, he entered Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and was educated there under 
the care of Whitgift, afterwards pri- 
mate. March, 1676, left college ; 
while there he is said to have entered 
his protest against the philosophy of 
Aristotle. In June, 1675, he was ad- 
mitted to Gray's Inn, and became 
ancient there November 21, 1576. 
Soon after was attached to the em- 
bassy of Sir Amias Paulet to France, 
and lived in the house with that min- 
ister during his embassy, on the af- 
fairs of which, he was at least once 
dispatched to communicate person- 
ally with the queen. His father died 
while he was abroad, February 20, 
1579, "leaving him but a small for- 
tune." While in France he wrote his 
discourse on "The State of Europe." 
His father's death compelled him to 
return to England and engage in some 



profitable occupation. He solicited 
his uncle. Lord Burghley, to procure 
for him such a provision from govern- 
ment as might allow him to devote 
his time to literature and philosophy; 
but "he, who desired to live only in 
order to study," was even now " forced 
to study how to live." " He devoted 
himself to the study of the law, and 
on June 27, 1582, was admitted utter 
barrister." November 23, 1584, to 
September 14, 1585, M. P. for Mel- 
combe Regis. Wrote his " Letter of 
Advice to Queen Elizabeth " in 1584- 
85. " In 1586 he became a bencher 
of Gray's Inn, and in the parliament, 
15th October, 1586, to 23 March, 1587, 
he sat for Taunton." Lent reader of 
Gray's Inn, 1588. He was one of those 
who aided T. Hughes in the composi- 
tion of "Certaine Devises and shewes 
presented to her Maiestie at her High- 
nesse Court in Greene wioh, the 28"" day 
of Februarie in the thirtieth yeare of 
her Maiesties most happy Kaigne." 
M. P. for Liverpool, November 12, 
1588, to March 29, 1589. In 1590, 
queen's counsel extraordinary ; about 
1591 became acquainted with Essex. 
M. P. for Middlesex, February 19 to 
April 10, 1593, and incurred Eliza^ 
beth's displeasure by speaking on the 
side of the people. " Elizabeth dis- 
missed this parliament in person, on 
the 10th of April, 1593, in a speech 
which the boldest man of the Plan- 
tagenet line of monarehs would scarce- 
ly have ventured to utter." On Jan- 
uary 25, 1594, Bacon held his first 
brief. M. A., Cambridge, July 27, 
1594. He failed to obtain the attor- 
ney-generalship in 1594, and the soli- 
citor-generalship in 1595. On the 
17th November, 1695, Twickenham 
Park was leased to Francis Bacon, 
Esq., and John Hibbard for twenty- 
one years. This lease is said to have 
been a present from the Earl of 
Essex. In May, 1596, Essex recom- 
mended him for the mastership of the 
rolls, without success ; and in the 
spring of 1597 Essex aided him in 
vain in pressing his suit with Lady 
Hatton (the widow of Sir William 
Newport, and afterwards wife of Chief 
Justice Coke). The first edition of his 
Essays was dedicated to his brother 
Anthony, "30 Jan'y, 1597." In 
1597 he was returned by both South- 



820 



BACON 



ampton and Ipswich as an M. P., — I 
have been unable to gather for certain 
for which borough he elected to sit, — 
October 24, 1697, to February 9, 169 J ; 
arrested for debt September 23, 1598. 
He was duplex reader of Gray's Inn 
in 1600. The Essex troubles, 1599- 
1601 ; Bacon conducted the prosecu- 
tion of Essex, February, 1601. M. P. 
for Ipswich, October 27 to December 
19, 1601 ; knighted by James I., July 
23, 1603 ; appointed king's counsel 
August 25, 1604 ; M. P. for Ipswich, 
March 19, 1604, to February 9, 1611 ; 
May 10, 1606, married Alice, daugh- 
ter of Benedict Barnham, late alder- 
man and sheriif of London ; was 
actively employed in the various con- 
troversies of the time regarding the 
Spaniards, the Papists, the Puritans, 
the Union with Scotland, etc. Feb- 
ruary 17, 160?, replying to Nicholas 
Fuller, in the debate in Parliament on 
the Union with Scotland, he denied 
that the Scots would overrun Eng- 
land ; " but if the land was too little, 
the sea was open. Commerce would 
give support to thousands. Ireland 
was waiting for colonists to till it, 
and the solitude of Virginia was cry- 
ing aloud for inhabitants." (Gar- 
diner's "History of England.") He 
was appointed solicitor-general, June 

25, 1607 ; register of Star Chamber, 
July, 1608 ; M. C. for Va. Co., 1609. 
" He looked upon the Virginian Col- 
ony as upon the romantic achieve- 
ments of Amadis de Gaul ; while he 
compared the settlement of Ireland by 
the English with the deeds related 
in Cfesar's Commentaries." An in- 
corporator of the Newfoundland Com- 
pany, May 2, 1610 ; joint judge of 
Knight Marshal's Court, 1611 ; an 
incorporator of the N. W. P. Co., July 

26, 1612. 

While Salisbury lived he continued 
to fawn on him with high-flown com- 
pliment ; after he was dead he wrote 
his essay " On Deformity." Cham- 
berlain wrote to Carleton, December 
17, 1612 : " Sir Francis Bacon hath 
set out new essays, where in a Chapter 
of Deformity, the world takes notice 
that he paints out his little cousin to 
the life." He was "the chief con- 
triver of the Masque of Grayes Inne 
and the Inner Temple," played before 
the King, the Queen, the Prince Count 



Palatine and the Lady Elizabeth, at 
Whitehall, in February, 1613. Was 
appointed attorney-general October 27, 
1613. His celebrated masque, in honor 
of the marriage of Lord Rochester 
with the divorced Countess of Essex, 
was performed January 6, 1614. M. 
P. for Cambridge University, April 5 
to June 7, 1614, On April 19, 1615, 
he gave the hand of his niece, Mrs. 
Anne (Wodehouse) Hungate, at the 
nuptial ceremony to Sir Julius Csesar 
(his third wife). Made a privy coun- 
cilor, June 9, 1616. Prosecuted Som- 
erset, 1616. Lord keeper of the great 
seal, March 7, 1617. Prepared in- 
structions for Sir John Digby regard- 
ing the projected Spanish match in 
March, 1617. Strickland says : " Sir 
Francis Bacon was the person who 
governed England in the king's ab- 
sence " in Scotland, May to Septem- 
ber, 1617. On May 7, 1617, he rode 
from Gray's Inn to Westminster, to 
open the courts in state, in most regal 
style. Bacon's rise kept pace with 
Coke's decline. He became lord chan- 
cellor, January 4, and was created Lord 
Verulam, July 12, 1618. Prosecuted 
Kalegh in 1618. In this year Captain 
John Smith vainly sought his patronage 
in a long letter still preserved among 
the Colonial State Papers in England, 
and William Strachey presented him 
with a MS. copy of his " Historie of 
Travaile into Virginia Britannia," writ- 
ten in 1612 ; but with alterations in 
the text to miake it correspond with 
the year 1618. In his letter of pres- 
entation Strachey says : " Your Lord- 
ship ever approving yourself a most 
noble factor of the Virginian Planta- 
tion, being from the beginning (with 
other lords and earles) of the princi- 
pall connsell applyed to propogate and 
guide it." On February 27, 1618, Sir 
Thomas Smythe, the governor of the 
E. I. Co., presented his name for mem- 
bership, and on March 18 next he was 
admitted a free brother of the E. I. 
Co. gratis. He prosecuted Suffolk in 
1619, and Yelverton in 1620. 

The year 1621 was a most notable 
one in the life of Lord Bacon. He 
celebrated his sixtieth birthday in 
great style at York House on January 
22, when his friend Ben Jonson read 
a poem in his honor containing these 
lines : — 




GEORGE SANDYS 



BACON 



821 



" Hail, happy genius of this ancient pile I 
How comes it all things so about thee smile ? 
The fire, the wine, the men, and in the midst 
Thou stand'st, as if some mystery thou didst. 

England's High Chancellor, the destined heir 
In his soft cradle, to his father's chair ; 
"Whose even thread the Fates spin round and full, 
Out of their choicest and their whitest wool." 

January 27 lie was created Viscount 
St. Albans ; January 30 Parliament 
met ; February 3, Baeon, in his speech 
referring to the " benefits, attributes, 
and acts of government of King 
James," says : " This Kingdom now 
first in his Majesty's times hath got- 
ten a lot or portion in the New World 
by the plantation of Virginia and the 
Summer Islands. And certainly it is 
ivith the Kingdoms on earth as it is in 
the Kingdom of heaven ; sometimes a 
grain of mustard-seed proves a great 
tree. Who can tell ? " 

On Mareli 14 a cloud appeared on 
the horizon, and from that day his 
fall began. During the rest of March 
and the month of April he was on 
trial, and as he expressed it, " in pur- 
gatory." On May 1 the Great Seal 
was taken from him, and two days 
after he was fined and imprisoned 
for a few days in the Tower. " Ban- 
ished from public life, he had now 
ample leisure to attend to his philo- 
sophical and literary pursuits." His 
severities were thought to prove, by 
accident, happy crosses. " Methinks 
they are resembled by those of Sir 
George Sommers, who being bound 
by his employment to another coast, 
was by tempest cast upon the Bar- 
mudas. And therefore a ship wrack'd 
man made full discovery of a new tem- 
perate fruitful Region, which none 
had before inhabited ; and which Mar- 
iners, who had only seen its rooks, 
had esteemed an inaccessible and en- 
chanted place." 

The Rev. Joseph Mead wrote from 
Christ College, April 6, 1622, to Sir 
Martin Stuteville : « My Lord Veru- 
lam's History of Henry VII. is come 
forth. I have not read much of it, 
but they say it is a very pretty book 
who have read it. The price is six 
shillings." 

The projected Spanish match failed ; 
the Spaniards requiring among other 
things that " James I. should sur- 
render, unto the King of Spain, Vir- 
ginia and the Bermudas, and altogether 



quit the West Indies;" and the same 
year (1622) Bacon wrote " An Adver- 
tisement touching an Holy War, with 
Questions about the lawfulness of a 
War for the propagation of Religion ; " 
in 1624 he published his " Consider- 
ations touching a War with Spain," 
inscribed to Prince Charles. King 
James declared war on Spain, March 
10, 1624. 

Lord Bacon died in the Earl of 
Arundell's House at Highgate, April 
9, 1626, expiring in the arms of Sir 
Julius Casar, who had married his 
niece, and was buried in St. Michael's 
Church, St. Albans. "That glorious 
and melancholy instance of the extent 
of human wisdom and weakness, the 
Philosopher Baeon, found, after his 
disgrace, an asylum in the bosoms of 
his nephew and niece; composed many 
of his immortal works in an utter re- 
tirement in the house of Sir Julius 
Caesar ; became a dependent upon his 
beneficence for a becoming support, 
and expired in his arms." (Lodge's 
" Life of Sir Julius Csesar.") 

The first wife of Sir Julius Cfesar 
was a sister of Captain John Martin 
of Brandon on the James in Virginia, 
and while Bacon was living with, Mar- 
tin corresponded with, Sir Julius. 

In Bacon's Advice to Sir George 
Villiers, in the article of " Colonies, or 
foreign Plantations," and also, in his 
essay " Of Plantations," we find some 
of the same sentiments which had been 
expressed in the Broadsides of the 
Council for Virginia. He may have 
taken these ideas from those Broad- 
sides, or he may have been one of the 
original authors of them, as he was a 
member of that Council. Some of 
the sentiments of the essay obtained 
in the Virginia Council as early as 
1609 ; but the reference to the tobacco 
trouble in Virginia indicates that it 
was not completed as published until 
after 1622. It was probably written 
or rewritten especially for his en- 
larged edition of Essays published in 
1625. His reference to merchants 
indicates that he was friendly to the 
Sandys faction of the Va. Co., and 
his statement, that "it is the sinful- 
lest thing in the world to forsake or 
destitute a plantation once in forward- 
ness," was probably a rap at Ralegh. 

May not Bacon have aided Shake- 



822 



BACON — BAMFIELD 



speare in compiling some of his plays ? 
It was the custom of the time for sev- 
eral writers (taking different series of 
characters, I suppose) to engage on 
the same play, and Bacon always had 
a fancy for such things. 

Lord Bacon was first cousin to Sir 
James Bacon, of Friston Hall, the an- 
cestor of Colonel Nathaniel Bacon of 
the Virginia Council, of Nathaniel 
Bacon, the first Virginia rebel, and of 
Martha Bacon, from whom the pres- 
ent (1890) President of the United 
States doubly descends. 

Badger, John, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£12 10s. 

Baffin, 'William, pilot of the Pa- 
tience in Hall's voyage to Green- 
land, April to September, 1612 ; chief 
pilot of the celebrated expedition of 
Capt. Benjamin Joseph to Spitzber- 
gen, April to September, 1613 ; went 
the next year on tlie same voyage ; 
but with Master Thomas Sherwin and 
Robert Fotherbie went out on a dis- 
covery, also, April to October, 1614. 
(This Robert Fotherbie, I suppose, 
was related to Henry Fotherbie, some- 
time secretary of the Virginia Com- 
pany, and afterwards, possibly clerk 
of the New England Company. 
Robert Fotherbie made a voyage to 
the Northeast himself, May to Sep- 
tember, 1615, and was afterwards in 
the employ of the E. I. Co. at Dept- 
ford from October, 1615, to 1621.) 
Baffin was the pilot of Byleth's 
voyage to the Northwest, March to 
September, 1615, and again, March to 
August, 1616. He was master's mate 
on a voyage to the East Indies, 
March 6, 1617, to September, 1619; 
master on a second voyage to the 
East Indies from early in 1620 to 
January 23, 1622, on which day he 
was killed " whilst taking the angles 
of the Castle Wall" at the siege of 
Kishm in the Persian Gulf. " He was 
one of the iirst to endeavor to deter- 
mine longitude at sea by astronomical 
observations." 

Bagge, James, of Plymouth, mer- 
chant. Son of George Bagge, of Wey- 
mouth. M. P. for Plymouth, 1601 
and 1604-11 ; M. C. for Va. Co., 
1606 ; comptroller of the customs at 
Plymouth and Fowey ; deputy mayor 
of Plymouth in 1623. He married 
Margaret, daughter of John Slone, 



Esq. ; was buried at St. Andrew's 
Church, Plymouth, April 6, 1624. 
His eldest son bore his name, and it 
is sometimes hard to distinguish be- 
tween father and son. One or the 
other of them was an agent for the 
E. I. Co. at Plymouth in 1619, etc., 
and "June 28, 1620, the Virginia 
Company gave Mr. James "Bagge Jive 
shares" of land in Virginia. 

Bagge, James, son of the above ; 
M. P. for Bodmin in 1621-22 ; West 
Looe, 1624-25 ; East Looe, 1625-26, 
and Plympton, 1628-29 ; knighted at 
Saltcombe, Devon, September 19, 1625 ; 
governor of Plymouth Castle ; member 
of " ye Councell for New England," 
June 26, 1632 ; voted to resign the 
N. E. charter, April 25, 1635. In No- 
vember, 1635, he was before the Star 
Chamber. "He was the creature of 
Buckingham, and the 'bottomless 
hagge ' of the patriot Eliot." 

Baker, John, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£25. Probably the father of Sir Rich- 
ard Baker. 

Baker, Sir Richard. Historian ; 
born about 1668; died in Fleet prison, 
February 18, 1645. He was first 
cousin to Sir John Scott. 

Baker, Thomas. Sub. ; pd. 

£100. (Attorney, Guildhall ; died Oc- 
tober 6, 1633 ?). 

Baldwin, Francis, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. 

Ball, Richard, an eminent London 
merchant ; of the E. I. and N. W. P. 
Cos. In 1618 he is mentioned as hav- 
ing fitted out two ships for the discov- 
ery of an island in the West Indies. 
He died after 1624. His brother, 
George Ball, a factor for the E. I. 
Co. at Bantam, was recalled because 
of his notorious abuses. Richard was 
a leading opponent of the Smythe 
party in the Va. Co. during 1622-24. 
His name has generally been trans- 
cribed from the records as Bull ; but 
Ball is correct. 

Baltimore, Lord. — George Calvert. 

Bamfield — Bampfield, Sir Ami- 

as, 3. Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. The 

Bampfyelds have been settled at Polti- 
more, Devonshire, since the reign of 
Edward I. Sir Amias was M. P. for 
Devon, 1597-98; knighted at Windsor, 
July 9, 1603 ; died February 9, 1626, 
and was buried at North Mollon, Dev- 
on. Ancestor of Lords Poltimore. 



BANBURY — BARGRAVE 



823 



Banbury, Earl of. — William Knol- 
lys. 

Bancroft, Richard, Bishop of Lon- 
don, etc. Was born in 1544 ; edu- 
cated at Jesus College, Cambridge; 
under the patronage of Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton about 1585 ; made Bishop 
of London, 1597 ; Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, 1604 ; Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, 1608. Died No- 
vember 2, 1610, and was interred in 
Lambeth Church. 

In my remarks on XLIX., I have 
stated my belief that tliis first draft 
was given by Wingfield to Bancroft, 
and by Bancroft to the Lambeth Li- 
brary. It seems natural that Wing- 
field should do this, as in his defense 
of himself from the charge of athe- 
ism, etc., he makes the following di- 
rect appeal to Bancroft : — 

" For my first worke (which was to 
make a right choice of a spirituall 
pastor), I appeale to the remembraunce 
of my Lo. of Caunt : his grace, who 
gave me very gracious audience in 
my request. And the World knoweth 
whome I took with me : truly, in my 
opinion, a man not any waie to be 
touched with the rebellious humors of 
a popish spirit, nor blemished with ye 
least suspition of a factius scismatick, 
whereof I had a special care." (See 
Rev. Robert Hunt.) 

If Bancroft placed Wingfield's ap- 
peal (as I think) on record in Lam- 
beth Library, it would seem to be an 
indorsation by him of the correctness 
of that appeal. 

Capt. John Smith, writing in 1630, 
in that prevaricating and misleading 
style which developed with his age, 
says : "But Jamestowne was 500 
pounds a yeare, as they say, appointed 
by the Councell here, allowed by the 
Councell there, and confirmed by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury his Grace, 
Primate and Metropolitan of all Eng- 
land, An. 1605 to Master Richard Hae- 
luit Prebend of Westminster : who by 
his authority sent Master Robert Hunt 
an honest, religious and courageous 
Divine." A tangle of truth and false- 
hood. The charter was not sealed 
until April, 1606, and poor Hunt's 
salary was certainly less than £50. 
" 500 pounds a yeare " would be equiv- 
alent to over $10,000 per annum, pres- 
ent values. 



Banister. See Bannister. 

Banks, John, mercer, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £112 10s. Born about 1571 ; 
apprenticed to Baptist Hicks; admit- 
ted a member of the Mercers' Com- 
pany in 1599 ; of the E. I. Co. in 
1607 ; N. W. P. Co., 1612 ; B. I. Co., 
1615. Was master of the Mercers 
when he died, September 9, 1630. 
There is " a faire monument to him in 
the Parish Church of St. Michael the 
Quern, in the North He, mentioning 
his many acts of charity " : — 

'* Much was to Mm committed much he gave. 
Entering his treasure there where all shall have 
Return with use. What to the poor is given 
Claims a just promise of reward in heaven." 

His only daughter and heir, Anne, 
married, July 6, 1631, Edmond Waller 
(the poet), of Berkensiield in Buck- 
inghamshire. She died after Decem- 
ber, 1631, and her husband probably 
inherited her interests in Virginia and 
the Bermudas. Capt. Henry Waller 
of the Massachusetts Company, and a 
relative of the poet's, aided him in 
securing his bride, whom he stole 
from her guardians. 

Banks, Miles, cutler, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £50. 

Bannister, Richard, merchant, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £50. " Licensed to 

make cloths and beaver for twenty- 
one years, March 24, 1618." 

Barber, Edward. See Barkham. 

Barber, Thomas, merchant, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £62 10s. of the E. I. 

and N. W. P. Cos. 

Bargrave (Bargar), Capt. George. 
Sub. ; pd. . Robert Bar- 
grave, of Bridge in Kent, had by his 
wife Joanna, daughter of John Gil- 
bert, of Sandwich, three daughters 
and six sons. One of the daughters. 
Ingle or Angel Bargrave, married, 
October 4, 1604, Rev. John Boys 
(1571-1625), afterwards Dean of Can- 
terbury. The sons were : Rev. Thomas 
(who came to Virginia about 1619, and 
died there in 1621, leaving his library, 
valued at 100 marks, to the college at 
Henrico), Richard, Capt. John, Robert, 
Capt. George, and Rev. Isaac Bar- 
grave (1586-1643), afterwards Dean 
of Canterbury. Capt. George Bar- 
grave was born about 1584. He was 
captain of the Edwin in 1618 and 
1619, and I suppose, before and after 
those dates. The Edwin was sent to 



824 



BARGRAVE — BARKHAM 



the Bermudas in March, 1614 ; re- 
mained there some time, and returned 
to England in the winter of 1614-15. 
She made another voyage to the S. I. 
in 1615 ; and sailed from England on 
a thii-d voyage in February, 161 1 ; soon 
after her arrival in the S. I., "being a 
barke of very good sayle," she was 
sent to the West Indies, from whence 
she returned late in the summer of 
1616, loaded with lignum vitse, certain 
plants and fruits, and " a Negroe the 
first thes Islands ever had." From the 
Bermudas, the Edwin returned to Eng- 
land, arriving there some time before 
March 5, 161f, on which day the Va. 
Co. allowed Capt. George Bargrave 
five shares for services rendered. He 
made a fourth voyage (probably to 
Virginia) in 1617-18, about which 
tliere was some trouble on his return 
in the spring of 1618. His ilfth voy- 
age, in 1619, was certainly to Vir- 
ginia, where he arrived in the spring 
of 1619. He married Dorcas, daugh- 
ter of John Martin. (I am very sure 
this was our Capt. John Martin.) See 
also the next. 

Bargrave, Capt. John. Sub. ; 

pd. ; of Patrieksborne in Kent, 

born about 1578. He tells us that, 
" after 10 yeares service in the warres 
in the summer tyme and at my study 
in the wynter," he became interested 
in the Virginia Colony, and claimed to 
be " the first person who established 
a private plantation in Virginia," I 
infer, about the year 1618. His 
brother George was captain ; James 
Bret, master; and he was part owner 
of the Edwin. He claimed to have 
" a patent of free trade from the 
Va. Co.," and prior to 1619 "had 
bought and set out divers ships." On 
the return of the Edwin from the S. I., 
probably via Virginia, the company 
allowed him fifteen shares of land in 
Virginia for his services, on March 5, 
161f, and on her return in 1618 he 
gave Lord Zouch an indemnifying 
bond May 4, and the Edwin was 
allowed to pass up to London on May 
13. There was a long dispute be- 
tween Sir Thomas Smythe and Capt. 
John Bargrave in regard to his trade 
to Virginia and the S. I., which began 
prior to 1619, and continued as long as 
Smythe lived. There were claims on 
both sides. Smythe sued him for 



£500 due the Va. Co., and he claimed 
heavy damages for being debarred 
certain privileges of free trade, and of 
his private plantation. All of his 
claims were denied by the officials of 
the company prior to 1619. Early in 
1620 he was granted a patent for 
lauds in Virginia by the Sandys ad- 
ministration, and soon after transferred 
ten shares to sundry persons. In Feb- 
ruary, I625, he presents his " learned 
treatise upon the government of Vir- 
ginia, by a gentleman refusing to be 
named," — who signs as " Ignotus," — 
to the Va. Co., and it is considered by 
a committee in February, April, and 
June, 1621, and is continually referred 
to by Bargrave in his petitions, etc., 
until October, 1624. Bargrave's broth- 
er Isaac was one of the actors in 
George Ruggle's Latin comedy of 
"Ignoramus," and it is thought that 
Ruggle aided him in his treatise 
signed " Ignotus." He married, prior 
to 1600, Jane, daughter of Giles 
Crouch, of London, and at the visita- 
tion of Kent in 1619 had two sons 
and two daughters living. It is fre- 
quently hard to distinguish the captains 
Bargrave. Capt. George certainly 
made several voyages to Virginia. 
Capt. John " sent servants and ship- 
ping thither ; " but I doubt if he ever 
went there himself. 
Barker, Robert, cordwainer, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £25. 

Barker, Mr. (Robert), stationer. 
Pd. £5. The sou of Christopher 
Barker, " The Queen's [Elizabeth] 
Printer." He was « The King's 
[.James I.] Printer ; " made free of 
the Stationers' Company, per patri- 
moniiim, June 25, 1589, and was ad- 
mitted to the livery, July 1, 1592. 
With George Bishop and Ralfe New- 
berie, he printed Hakluyt's " Principal 
Navigations " in 1598. He was the 
printer and patentee of the new trans- 
lation (1611) of the Bible. Died 
January 10, 164|, while a prisoner in 
the King's Bench for debt. 

Barkham, Edward, draper, 3. 
Sub. £37 10s; pd. £12 10s. Stith 
gives this name as Barber, the Kim- 
bolton MS. as Barker, and Strype also 
gives it as Barker, in his list of the 
lord mayors ; but the correct name is 
Barkham. He was the son of Edward 
Barkham by his second wife, Eliza- 



BARKHAM — BARRINGTON 



825 



beth Rolfe, of Norfolk ; was a mem- 
ber of the E. I. Co. ; alderman of 
London, successively, of Farringdon 
and Cheap wards ; sheriff in 1611 ; 
lord mayor 1621-22 ; knighted June 
16, 1622 ; readmitted into the Va. 
Co., July 3, 1622 ; will dated Janu- 
ary 15, 1632. Died January 15, 163|. 
His son Edward's (created a baronet 
in 1623 ; M. P. for Boston in 1625 and 
1626) daughter Margaret married 
Sir Edmund Jennings, of Ripon, and 
was the mother of Edmund Jennings 
(acting governor of Virginia, 1710), 
an ancestor of Gen. R. E. Lee, and 
of very many other distinguished Am- 
ericans. 

Sir Edward Barkham's (the lord 
mayor) daughter Jane married Sir 
Charles Csesar (master of the rolls), 
the nephew of Capt. John Martin ; 
another daughter Margaret was the 
wife of Sir Anthony Irby. 

Barneham, Sir Francis, 3. Sub. 

; pd. . Of Boughton Mou- 

ohelsea ; knighted, with his father, 
July 23, 1603 ; M. P. Grampound, 
1604-11 ; Maidstone, 1614, 1621-22, 
1624-25, 1625-26, 1628-29, 1640, and 
1640 till decease about 1645. He was 
first cousin to Sir Francis Bacon's wife. 

Earners — Berners, Anthony, 
esquire, 2. Sub. £37 10s ; pd. £100. 

Barnes, alias Baron, Edward, 
mercer, 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £62 
10s. Son of Richard Baron by his 
second wife, Margaret Morton ; ad- 
mitted into the Mercers' Company by 
patrimony in 1686 ; warden in 1601 
and 1610 ; master in 1615. His father 
and himself were both benefactors of 
the Mercers. 

Barnes, Sir George, the elder, 
haberdasher. "Dwelled in Barthol- 
omew Lane." SherifE of Loudon, 1645- 
46 ; the first merchant adventurer to 
Barbary, Russia, and Genoa ; an in- 
corporator of the first organized Eng- 
lish company for discovery, etc., 1651 ; 
lord mayor, and knighted, 1552-63 ; 
" a principall doer " in sending Sir 
Hugh Willoughby to the N. E. in 
1653 ; one of " the first four Con- 
suls" of the Merchant Adventurers, 
February 6, 1563. He is mentioned 
most kindly in the farewell letter of 
Bishop Ridley (the martyr), October, 
1555. Died February 8, 1558, and 
was buried in the Church of St. Bar- 



tholomew the Little. He married 
Alice, daughter of Mr. Brooke, of 
Shropshire. She died in 1559, leaving 
two sons and two daughters, George 
(of whom hereafter), John, Anne, and 
Elizabeth. John married Jane Lang- 
ton ; left two daughters. Anne mar- 
ried, first, Alexander Carliell, of Lon- 
don, leaving at least one son and one 
daughter : namely. Captain Christo- 
pher Carliell, and Alice, who married 
Christopher Hudson. 

Anne Barnes-Carliell married, sec- 
ondly, Sir Francis Walsingham, but 
left no issue by him. Elizabeth Barnes 
married Sir John Rivers, Lord Mayor 
of London, in 1573. He died in 1584, 
leaving six sons and three daughters. 
Captain John Rivers was the second 
son. 

Barnes, Sir George, the younger, 
haberdasher. Eldest son of Sir 
George, the elder aforesaid ; was a 
leading merchant adventurer ; alder- 
man of London, 1674 ; sheriff, 1576 ; 
interested in Fenton's voyage, 1582- 
83, and in Davis's voyages to the 
N. W., 1585-87 ; Lord Mayor of Lon- 
don, and knight, 1586-87. John Stow 
dedicated the 1587 edition of " The 
Chronicles of England " to him. Presi- 
dent of St. Thomas's Hospital, 1591. 
Died February 8, 1592. " He dwelled 
in Lombard Street, over against the 
George, in the house which was Sir 
William Chester's, and was buried in 
the Church of St. Edmond tlie King, 
hard by." He married Anne, daughter 
of Sir William Gerrard, and had issue 
by her one daughter and eight sons. 
The daughter, Anne Barnes, married 
Walter Marler, and the eldest son, 
William Barnes, married Anne, sister 
of Sir Edwin Sandys. 

Barnes, "William, 2. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Son of Sir George, 
the younger (the preceding); married 
Anne Sandys. 

Barnevelt. See Olden Barnevelt. 

Baron, Christopher, elothworker, 

2. Sub. ; pd. £62 10s. 

Barrett, 'William, " king's grocer," 

3. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £25. Of the 
E. I. Co. 

Barrington, Sir Francis, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Great-great- 
grandson of George, Duke of Clar- 
ence, brother to Edward IV. ; was 
M. P. for Essex, 1601 ; knighted at 



826 



BAEEOS — BEADLE 



Theobald's, May 7, 1603 ; M. P. Es- 
sex, 1604-11 ; created a baronet, 
June 29, 1611 ; M. P. Essex, 1621-22, 
1624-25, 1625, 1626, and 1627-28. 
Died July 3, 1628. He married Joan, 
daughter of Sir Henry Cromwell, 
and aunt of the Protector Cromwell. 
Their daughter Joan married Sir 
Richard Everard, and Bishop William 
Meade of Virginia was a descendant 
of theirs. Lady Joan Barrington sur- 
vived her husband. See the letters 
written to her by Rev. Roger V/il- 
liams, in 1629, published in " N. E. 
Register," July, 1889, pp. 316, 320. 

Barros, John. Joan de Barros, 
" the Portuguese Livy." He died in 
1571. Gilbert refers to him in his 
Discourse of the N. W. P. 

Bartle, Barklet, Hartley, Peter, 
3. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £37 10s. On 
November 15, 1619, he sold his three 
shares in Virginia to Dr. Theodore 
Gulston. 

Barton, Captain George. A sol- 
dier in the Low Country wars. 

Baskerville, Sir Thomas. 
Greatly distinguished himself as a cap- 
tain in the Low Country wars. The 
Duke of Parma said of him at Sluys, 
in 1587 : " There serves no prince in 
Europe a braver man than this Eng- 
lishman." Knighted by Lord Wil- 
loughby, at Bergen, in November, 
1588 ; went to France with Wil- 
loughby in 1689 ; commanded the gar- 
rison at the Bammekens in 1592 ; 
commanded troops sent to Brittany, 
1594 ; appointed colonel general of 
the soldiers in the fleet of Drake and 
Hawkins, June 21, 1595 ; commanded 
troops in Picardy in 1596, where he 
died of a fever, June 4, 1597. He 
married Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Throckmorton (see pedigree). 

Basse, Humphrey, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. Of the E. I. and N. W. 
P. Cos. 

Bateman, Robert, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. " A member of the Skin- 
ners' Company ; was joined in com- 
mercial matters with Nicholas Ferrar 
the elder, and others." He was the 
second son of Richard Bateman, of 
Hartington, County Derby ; baptized 
there September 8, 1561 ; an incor- 
porator of the E. I. Co., 1600 ; of the 
N. W. P. Co., 1612 ; he served on the 
committee, and was an auditor and 



solicitor to the E. I. Co. ; M. P. for 
Weymoutli, 1614 ; deputy governor 
of the company for bringing a new 
river to London, 1619 ; one of the 
treasurers of the E. I. Co., 1620 ; M. 
P. for London, 1621-22 ; recom- 
mended to the Va. Co. by King James 
as a fit person for their deputy treas- 
urer in May, 1622; M P. for London, 
1624-25 ; member of the royal com- 
mission for winding up the Va. Co., 
July 15, 1624. I think he was a 
member of the Company of Massa- 
chusetts Bay in New England, 1629. 
Was chamberlain of the City of Lon- 
don. Died December 11, 1644 ; will 
dated August 3, 1641; proved August 
2, 1645. He founded and endowed 
the divinity lectureship of Aslibourne, 
County Derby, and was a benefactor 
to the Skinners' Company. He was 
married twice, and left four sons: first, 
Robert, of Rotterdam, Holland ; sec- 
ond. Sir William; tliird. Sir Anthony, 
lord mayor in 1664 ; and fourth, Sir 
Thomas, created a baronet in 1664. 
The last three were aldermen of Lon- 
don and suffered great losses by the 
fire of 1666. 

Bathe, Earl of. — William Bour- 
chier. 

Bathurst, Timothy, grocer, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £25. Having served 

his apprenticeship to Launcelot Bath- 
urst, was admitted to the freedom 
of the Grocers' Company, January 
14, 1577 ; to the livery. May 24, 1596; 
paid £15 as his share of the £2O,0O0 
levied on the city by Queen Elizabeth 
in 1598 ; junior warden of the Grocers 
in 1609 ; became insolvent during his 
wardenship, and was found to be a de- 
faulter at the expiring of his term to 
the extent of £368, which the senior 
warden, Edmond Peshall, was required 
by the court (of the company) to pay, 
because he knew of Warden Bathurst's 
insolvency. (Launcelot Bathurst, al- 
derman, was ancestor of the present 
Earl Bathurst.) 



<>jr*>t^^ 




Bayley, Thomas, vintner, 2. Sub. 
; pd. £25. 

Beadle — Beaell, Gabriel, 2. Sub. 
; pd. £12 10s. 



BEADLE — BERKLEY 



827 



Beadle — Bedell, John, 2. Sub. 
; £12 10s. 

Beale, Ediward, grocer, 2. Sub. 
; pd. . Admitted to free- 
dom, 1594 ; to livery, 1609 ; to the 
Court of Assistants, March 14, 1621. 

Beale, Robert (1541-1601). Di- 
plomatist and antiquary. 

Beaumont, John, olothworker, 3. 
Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. 

Beaumont, Sir Thomas, the elder, 
3. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £25. Knighted 
April 23, 1603 ; M. P. Tamworth, 
1605-11. Died November 27, 1614. 

Beck, Charles. Pd. £25. 

Beck, 'William, gent., 3. Sub. 
; pd. £25. 

Bedford, Countess of. — Lucy 
Harrington. 

Bedford, Earl of. — Edward Rus- 
sell. 

Bedingfield, Sir Henry, 3. Sub. 

; pd. £37 10s. Of Oxburgh Hall, 

Norfolk ; knighted at Whitehall, July 
21, 1604 ; M. P. for Norfolk, 1614 ; 
fought under the royal standard in the 
civil war. Died November 22, 1656. 
In 1607 George Wilson dedicated to 
him "The Commendation of Cock- 
Fighting. Wherein is shewed that 
ooek-flghting was before the coming 
of Christ " 

Bell, Robert, merchant, 3. Sub. 

; pd. £37 10s. Of the N. W. P. 

Co., and one of the directors of the 
E. I. Co. ; on the Virginia Commission 
of July 15, 1624. He married Alice, 
daughter of Ralphe Colston, of Essex ; 
was deputy alderman of Lime Street 
ward, London, in 1633, and was living 
in 1634. 

Bennet, G-eorge, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Also of E. I. and N. W. 

P. companies. 

Bennet, Sir John, 3. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Judge of High 
Court of Admiralty, and of the Pre- 
rogative Court of Canterbury ; M. P. 
Rioon, 1597-98 ; York, 1601 ; knighted 
at ^Whitehall, July 23, 1603 ; M. P. 
Ripon, 1604-11, Oxford University, 
1614 and 1621, until expelled. Died 
in 1627. His grandson, Henry Bennet, 
was created Earl of Arlington. 

Bennet, "William, fishmonger, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £25. One of the six 

wardens of the Fishmongers in 1605. 

Benson, Nicholas, 2. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £76. " He was the sixth 



son of Richard Benson, of the North 
parts of England, nigh Kendall, in 
Heram parish." 

Benson, Peter, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£25. Of Knaresborough ; a friend 
of Sir William Craven's. He became 
interested in the plantation of Ulster, 
Ireland. 

Berkeley — Berkley — Barkley, 
etc. Berkeley, Sir Charles. Eldest 
son of Sir Maurice Berkeley, of Bru- 
ton, County Somerset. Born about 
1597 ; M. P. for Somerset from March, 
1621, to February, 1622 ; for Bodmin, 
1624-26 ; Heytesbury, 1625, 1626, 
and 1628-29 ; for Bath in 1640, and 
again in 1661, until void ; knighted at 
Bewley, August 26, 1623. Father of 
Charles, created Viscount Fitzhar- 
dinge, in Ireland, March 17, 1664, and 
Earl of Falmouth, in England, whom 
he succeeded in the Irish Visoountcy 
of Fitzhardinge, June 3, 1665, and 
died June 12, 1668. He was the old- 
est brother of Sir William Berkeley, 
the governor of Virginia. 

Berkeley, Edward, gent., 3. Sub. 
; pd. £12 10s. He came to Vir- 
ginia, and was living on Hog Island 
in 1625. 

Berkeley, George, merchant, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £12 10s. " Being 
a childe, he was transported into the 
East Countries." Purchas, vol. iii. 
pp. 625-631, gives the narrative of his 
travels in Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
America. He went twice to the Ber- 
mudas. Smith calls him " Master 
Bartlet." In 1615 he went out to the 
East Indies as factor for the com- 
pany, and died there in 1618. 

Berkley, Sir Maurice, 2. Sub. 
£75 ; pd. £80. Sir Richard Berkeley, 
knight, of Stoke Gifford in Glouces- 
ter, died in 1514, leaving by Elizabeth 
his wife, daughter of Sir Humphrey 
Coningsby, two sons, namely, Sir 
John Berkeley (ancestor of Norborne 
Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, gov- 
ernor of Virginia, 1768-70), and Sir 
Maurice Berkeley, Knight of the Bath, 
of Bruton in Somersetshire, stand- 
ard-bearer to Henry VIII., Edward 
VI., and Queen Elizabeth ; who, by 
his first wife, Catherine, daughter of 
William Blount, Lord Mont joy, and 
his wife, Alice Kebel (Cabell), had 
a son. Sir Henry Berkeley, who was 
the father of Sir Maurice Berkeley, 



828 



BERKELEY — BING 



of Bruton, Somerset, of whom I write ; 
which Sir Maurice was knighted 
by Essex for gallantry at Cadiz, in 
1596 ; M. P. for Truro, 1597-98 ; for 
Somerset, 1601, and for Minebead, 
1604-11 ; M. C. for Va., March 9, 
1607 ; M. C. for Va. Co., May 23, 
1609 ; about 1610 he was an under- 
taker for 2,000 acres of land in Ul- 
ster, Ireland; M. P. for Somerset in 
1614. He married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Sir William, and sister of Sir 
Robert Killigrew, of Han worth, Mid- 
dlesex, and died prior to May 10, 1617. 
George Lord Carew, writing to Sir 
Thomas Roe (who was in East India) 
under May, 1617, says, "Sir Maurice 
Berkeley is lately dead, who was a 
gentleman, as you know, of many good 
parts." He left five sons, all of whom 
were knights, and two daughters, 
namely, 1. Sir Charles (whom see) ; 
2. Sir Henry, baptized December 8, 
1600 ; 3. Sir Maurice, baptized April 
24, 1603 ; 4. Sir John, baptized Feb- 
ruary, 1606-07 (the first Baron Berke- 
ley, of Stratton, and a proprietor of 
Carolina) ; 5. Sir William, baptized 
July 16, 1608 (governor of Virginia, 
1641, etc.) ; 1. Margaret, and 2. Jane, 
daughters. 

On the 12th of April, 1621, Lady 
Berkeley (widow of Sir Maurice) was 
admitted into the Va. Co. of London 
for one share, and February 13, 1622, 
five and a half more shares were al- 
lowed her. 

Berkeley, Richard, esquire. Of 
Stoke ; son of Henry Berkeley and 
his wife Muriel, daughter of Thomas 
Throckmorton, of Warwick ; was born 
in 1578 ; married in February, 159 1, 
Mary, daughter of Robert Roe, 
Esq., and sister to Sir Thomas 
Roe. Richard Berkeley was first 
cousin to the wife of Sir Thomas Dale 
and to Sir William Throckmorton 
(see Throckmorton pedigree), with 
whom, together with George Thorpe 
and John Smythe of Nibley, he en- 
tered into an agreement to form a 
plantation in Virginia, on February 3, 
161 1 ; which plantation was after- 
wards named for him, "the towne 
and hundred of Berkley." He was 
probably retaining his interest in this 
plantation as late as August, 1633 ; 
but what disposition he finally made 
of it I do not know. He died May 



12, 1661. He had issue five sons and 
five daughters. His eldest son. Sir 
Maurice Berkeley, knighted Septem- 
ber 11, 1661, died in 1654, was 
father of Richard, the father of John 
Syms, the father of Norborne Berke- 
ley, Baron de Botetourt, who was 
governor of Virginia, 1768-70. 

Berkley, Robert, gent., 3. Sub. 

; pd. . Of Spetchley, 

County Worcester. Born 1584 ; en- 
tered Middle Temple, 1600 ; called to 
bar. May 6, 1608 ; sheriiS of Worces- 
ter, 1613 ; sergeant at law, 1627 ; 
knighted in 1632 ; justice of King's 
Bench, October 11, 1632 ; removed, 
1640. Died August 5, 1656 ; buried 
at Spetchley. Probably M. P. for 
Worcester, 1621-22 and 1623-24. 

Berkeley, William, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. 

Bei'kshire, Barl of. — Francis Lord 
Norris. 

Bernard, Captain John. S. I. 
Co. Governor of Bermudas. Son of 
Thomas Barnard, of Elsingham in Es- 
sex. 

Berresford, Robert (Rowland), 

grocer, 2. Sub. ; pd. ; 

sworn to the freedom, January 27, 
1607. 

Berty — Bertie, Peregrine, es- 
quire, 3. Sub. ; pd. . Second 

son of Peregrine Bertie, Baron Wil- 
loughby de Eresby. Capt. John 
Sm.ith's master, with whom he went 
to France in 1599. He died in 1640. 

Biancourt. See Poutrincourt. 

Biard, Father Peter. Born at 
Grenoble, France in 1565 ; died in 
France, 1622. 

Biggs, Captain Walter. The 
chronicler of the voyage, died shortly 
after leaving Cartagena. 

Bill, Mr. , stationer. Pd. 

£3. John Bill, king's printer. Died 
in 1630, aged fifty-six ; buried under 
a fair monument in Black Friar's 
Chnrch. 

Bing, W. Probably Mr. Byng of 
Grantchester, counselor, of Gray's 
Inn, whose servant got into such seri- 
ous trouble in January, 1622, by say- 
ing a good word for Sir Edward Coke. 

Lord Coventry, in explaining why 
Bing was not placed on the Virginia 
Commission of July, 1624, wrote that 
he was " a mere good fellow, of no es- 
tate, who, for offensive behavior to 



BINGLEY ~ BLAND 



829 



Lord Southampton, had been com- 
mitted to the Marshalsea." 

Bingley, John, esquire, 2. Sub. 
£75 ; pd. £126. " August 2, 1604, 
grant in reversion to him, of the office 
of writing tallies in the receipt of the 
Exchequer," i. e., teller of the ex- 
chequer. He afterwards became re- 
membrancer of the exchequer ; M. C. 
for Va. Co., 1612. 

July 22, 1617, George Gerrard wrote 
to Carleton : " Mr. Bingley of the 
Exchequer has married Sir John 
Grey's widow, the mother of Lord 
Grey." (Elizabeth, daughter of Ed- 
ward Nevil, Lord Abergavenny, widow 
of the Hon. Sir John Grey, and 
mother of Henry, second Lord Grey 
of Groby, who married the Lady Anne 
Cecil, and was created Earl of Stam- 
ford, March 26, 1628.) He must 
have married twice, as he is said to 
have " married a daughter of Thomas 
Henshaw, silk-man, and servant to 
King James." He was knighted at 
Theobald's, January 10, 1618. In 
October, 1619, he was tried, with the 
Earl of Suffolk and his countess, and 
the Lord Keeper Bacon, in his speech 
against the delinquents, compared the 
countess to an exchange woman who 
kept her shop, while Sir John Bing- 
ley, pimping for her, cried, " What 
d' ye lack ? " In November he was 
committed to the Fleet and fined 
£2,000 ; afterwards released on his 
resigning his office, and on November 
21, 1622, he obtained a pardon of his 
sentence and fine . He was still living 
in 1629. The date of his death is not 
known to me. 

Bingley, Sir Richard, 3. Sub. 

; pd. . Knighted at Otelands 

in 1611 ; he was a member of the Af- 
rican Company in 1618 ; convoyed a 
Dunkirk privateer to Mardike in Sep- 
tember, 1623. 

Biondi, Francesco. Bom in Lie- 
sena, an island of Dalmatia, in the 
Gulf of Venice, in 1572 ; was intro- 
duced by Sir Henry Wotton, to the 
notice of King James, who sent him 
with secret commission to the Duke 
of Savoy, and afterwards made him 
a gentleman of the bed-chamber. He 
was knighted at Windsor, September, 
6, 1622. He wrote a " History of the 
Civil Wars betwixt the Houses of York 
and Lancaster," " The Banish'd Vir- 



gin," etc. He died in 1644. His wife, 
Mary, was sister to Theodore de May- 
erne, the king's physician. 

Bishop, Bdiward, stationer, 2. Sub. 
£37; pd. £75. 

Bishop, George, stationer. Pd. 
£10. Master of the company in 1609 ; 
" gave ten poundes a yeare forever 
to be given unto such unbeneficed 
preachers as shall preach at Paules 
Crosse." One of the printers of the 
works of Haklnyt, Brereton, Rosier, 
and Pory ; an alderman of London. 
He died in 1610. 

Blakemore, Richard. Pd. £26. 

Bland, Gregory, merchant-tailor. 
Pd. £25. Son of Adam Bland, and 
brother to John Bland. His daughter 
Jane married her first cousin, Edward 
Bland, and emigrated to Virginia. 

Bland, John ^ grocer. Of Syth 
Lane, London, in the parish of St. 
Antholin's, and of Plaistow in Es- 
sex ; tenth son of Adam Bland de- 
scended of the house of Gibord in 
Westmoreland ; born in 1673 ; in- 
terested in the Colony of Virginia. 
Mr. David Waterhouse transferred 
four shares of land there to him, Sep- 
tember 16, 1618. He was a leading 
member of Sir Edwin Sandys' party 
during 1620-24, and was chosen to be 
of the Council for Va. Co., June 25, 
1623. He was made free of the Gro- 
cers' Company in 1626, and was also 
free of the Merchant Adventurers. 
He died suddenly, April 20, 1632, leav- 
ing a very large family and a very 
great personal estate, and was buried 
in his vault at St. Antholin's. 

Four of his sons emigrated to Vir- 
ginia, namely, 1. Adam, 2. John % 3. 
Edward, and 4. Theodorick. 

1. Adam died on the way there in 
164-. 

2. John 2, a merchant, trading to 
Virginia and the West Indies, prob- 
ably made his first voyage in 1635. 
On March 20, 167|, his nephew Ed- 
ward, son of his brother Edward, con- 
veyed to him by deed 8,000 acres of 
land called Kymages in the Parish of 
Westover, Charles City County, Vir- 
ginia. His son, Giles Bland, settled 
on this land, was collector of lower 
James River, took part in Bacon's 
Rebellion, and was hanged under the 
decree of Berkeley's court-martial in 
1676. John 2 Bland died in 1680, 



830 



BLAND — BOHUN 



leaving Kymages to his wife and 
Thomas Povey, whose daughter Fran- 
ces was the widow of his son Giles, 
aforesaid. This branch is now extinct. 

3. Edward married his cousin Jane, 
daughter of Gregory Bland ; came to 
Virginia before 1650 and on the 27th 
August in that year "set out with 
Abraham Wood, Sackford Brewster 
and Elias Pennant from Port Henry 
at the head of Appamattuck River in 
Virginia, and made a discovery to the 
Fals of Bland, to the Southwestward, 
in a first River in New Brittaine which 
runneth West." In 1652 he published 
an account of this discovery which he 
dedicated to Sir John Danvers. He 
died in 1653, leaving an only son, Ed- 
ward, and was buried at Kymages. 
His only grandson, John, never mar- 
ried. The News and Hortons descend 
from his only granddaughter, Sarah 
Bland, who married, first, Edward 
New, and, secondly, Alexander Horton. 

4. Theodorick, the fourth son of 
John 1 Bland the elder to come to 
Virginia, was his fifteenth child ; bap- 
tized at St. Antholin's, January 16, 
16|§ ; was first a merchant with his 
brother Edward at St. Luca in Spain ; 
then in the Canary Islands, and shortly 
after his brother's death in 1653, he 
came to Virginia. Purchased " Ber- 
keley " and " Westover ; " was speak- 
er of the House of Burgesses ; mem- 
ber of the council, " and was both in 
fortune and in understanding inferior 
to no person of his time in the coun- 
try." He lies buried at Westover. 
His descendants have been numerous, 
and many of them distinguished, both 
in the male and female lines. 

Bludder, Sir Thomas, 2. Sub. 
; pd. £25. Of Sir Thomas Blud- 
der and Company, merchants of Lon- 
don, patentees for the preemption 
and exportation of tin ; victualers of 
the navy ; farmers of the imposition 
for sea-coals, etc. He was knighted 
at Chatham, July 4, 1604, as of Essex ; 
died in 1618 ; buried at Eyegate in 
Surrey. 

Blunt — Blount, John, grocer. 
Sub. ; pd. £25. Sworn to free- 
dom, August 13, 1606 ; still found on 
the books as paying brotherhood money 
in 1612. 

Blunt, Ned (EdwardJ. Sub. ; 

Pd. £12 10s, I suppose this was Ed- 



ward Blunt, the stationer and trans- 
lator ; admitted a freeman of the Sta- 
tioners' Company, June 25, 1588. In 
1623 he was one of the printers of the 
great First Folio of Shakespeare ; mar- 
ried, before December, 1623, Eliza- 
beth, widow of Richard Bankworth ; 
died after 1632. 

Blunt, Richard. Pd. £12 10s. 

Bohun — Boone, Dr. Lawrence, 

3. Sub. ; pd. . "Docktorin 

phisiok." " A long time brought up 
amongst the most learned Surgeons 
and Physitions in the Netherlands ; " 
came to Virginia with Lord De la 
Warr in 1610. June 7, 1619, he con- 
signed to Richard Boothby, Dr. 
Thomas Winston, Hugh Windham, 
John Tucker, and John Strange, one 
share each in Virginia. Prior to Feb- 
ruary 2, 1620, " Doctor Bohnne, James 
Swifte and their Associates, were 
granted patents " for the transportation 
of 300 persons to Virginia. He was 
one of the " ancient adventurers " who 
petitioned " to have some man of 
qualitye sent governor unto Virginia." 
December 13, 1620, he was appointed 
a " Phisition Generall for the Colony, 
unto which place they had allotted five 
hundred acres of Land and twenty 
Tenants to be placed theruppon att 
the Companies' charge." And soon 
after he sailed from England in the 
Margaret and John, Captain Chester. 
In the latter part of March, 1621, this 
vessel had a severe battle with two 
Spanish men-of-war in the West In- 
dies, in which action Dr. Bohnn was 
killed. Seeing that he was mortally 
wounded. Captain Chester embraced 
him, " and thus recomf orted him, say- 
ing, Doctor Bohnne what a disaster is 
this ; the Noble Doctor no whit exan- 
imated replyed. Fight it out, brave man, 
the cause is good, and Lord receive my 
soule." 

The Spaniards had been constantly 
on the lookout, in the West Indies, for 
the vessels of the Virginian adven- 
turers ; but after the taking of the 
first vessel (Captain Challings), the 
English captains in some way eluded 
them. The sea-fight of the Mar- 
garet and John caused much excite- 
ment, and two accounts were pub- 
lished, one at Amsterdam, the other 
at London. The following is the title 
of the latter : " A True Relation of a 




SIR JOHN SCOTT 



BOLLS — BURROUGHS 



831 



Wonderful! Sea Fight betweene two 
great and well appointed Spanish Ships 
or Men of Warre. And A small and 
not very well provided English Ship, 
. . . The Margaret and John, or The 
Black Hodge. London, Printed for N. 
B. 1621." Smith's History, pp. 128- 
130, and Purehas, iv. p. 1780, give 
abstracts from this Relation. 

Bolls — Booles — BoUes — 
Bowles, George, esquire, grocer, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. Born about 

1538; is found on the Grocers' books as 
paying- brotherhood money in 1577 ; 
was a " retailing grocer " ; a member 
of the Rus. Co, ; was admitted on the 
Court of Assistants of the Grocers, 
and assessed at £30 as his share of 
£1,700 contributed by the Grocers to 
the loan levied on the city by Queen 
Elizabeth in 1598 ; was junior warden 
of the Grocers and an adventurer in 
the East India voyage in 1599 ; an in- 
corporator of the E. I. Co. in 1600. 
In 1603 he was executor of the last 
will and testament of the Right Wor- 
shipful Sir John Hart, whose eldest 
daughter, Joan Hart, he had married 
in 1590 ; senior warden of the Gro- 
cers in 1608 ; sheriff of London in 
1608 ; was long an alderman from 
Walbrooke ward ; an incorporator of 
the N. W. P. Co. in 1612; Lord 
Mayor of London, 1617-18 ; knighted 
at Greenwich, May 31, 1618 ; died 
September 1, 1621, and was buried in 
the family vault in St. Swithin's, Lon- 
don. 

" His Charity was better felt than knowne, 
For when he gave, there was no Trumpet blowne. 
What more can be compriz'd in one Man's Fame, 
To crown a soule, and leave a living Name ? " 



Bond, Martin, haberdasher, 2. 
Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. Son of Wil- 
liam Bond, " the flower of the mer- 
chants," an alderman of London, and 
merchant adventurer, most famous in 
his age for his great adventures both 
by sea and land. Martin Bond was 
born in 1658 ; captain of the Train 
Band of London at Tilbury Camp, 
1588 ; M. P. for London, 1624-25, and 
1625; buried May 11, 1643, in St. 
Helen's Church, Bishopsgate. He was 
treasurer of St. Bartholomew's Hos- 



pital, 1019-1636, and his portrait is 
still preserved in the hospital ; a mer- 
chant adventurer; a benefactor of the 
Haberdashers' Company, and the 
chief captain of the trained bands of 
London from 1688 to his death ; also 
in the artillery. 

Bond, Thomas, esquire. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. Son of William Bond, 
Esq., of Holwood in Cornwall ; was 
M. P. for Launceston, 1521-22, for 
Southampton, 1624-25, and for Bos- 
siney, 1040, till unseated on petition. 

Bond, Sir William, of Highgate, 
Middlesex. Knighted July 23, 1603 ; 
son of Sir George Bond, Lord Mayor, 
1587. 

Bonham, William, vintner, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £120. Son of 
Thomas Bonham, of Stanway Hall in 
Essex ; a prominent citizen of Lon- 
don ; a member of the N. W. P. Co. 
and a director of the E. I. Co. 

Borlaoe (Burlaoie, etc.), Sir John, 
2. Sub. ; pd. . " Bred a sol- 
dier in the wars of the Low Countries, 
where he served with distinction be- 
fore the truce of 1608 ; " knighted at 
Greenwich, June 19, 1606 ; an officer 
of the Tower ; married, October 1, 
1610, Alice Ravis, widow (probably of 
Thomas Ravis, Bishop of London, who 
died in 1609) ; served in Sir Horace 
Vere's expedition to the Palatinate in 
1620, and was one of the commanders 
of the 6,000 who were serving in the 
United Provinces in 1626. He was 
master of the ordnance in Ireland, 
1634-49 ; lord justice, Ireland, 1640- 
44 ; died early in 1649. He was the 
father of Dr. Edmund Borlase, the 
historian. 

Borough — Burroughs — Bur- 
rowes — Borowgh — Brough — 
Burgh. Burgh, Sir John. The third 
son of William, fourth Lord Burgh. 
He was born in 1562 ; went to the 
Netherlands with Leicester in 1585 ; 
was governor of Doesburg ; knighted 
by Leicester in 1686, and by Henry 
IV. of France on the field of Ivry 
in 1689 ; " admiral of England, re- 
nowned for his exploits by sea and 
land ; " killed in a duel, it seems, with 
John Gilbert, March 7, 1593-94, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Burroughs, William, "navigator 
and author." Born in 1536 ; a young- 
er brother of Stephen Borowgh, with 



832 



BOTELER — BRERETON 



whom he sailed in the voyages to Rus- 
sia of 1653, 1556, and 1557. He con- 
tinued to make these voyages for many 
years after ; made a map of Russia, 
1574-75; publislied liis "Discourse of 
the Variation of the Compass " in 1581 ; 
was comptroller of the navy, 1583; 
commanded the fleet which took the 
Earl of Leicester to Flushing in 1685; 
with Drake in the expedition to Cadiz, 
1587; commanded a ship in the Ar- 
mada fight, 1588 ; died in 1599. 

Boteler. See Butler. 

Boulstrode — Bulstrode, Sir 

William, 3. Sub. £25; pd. . 

Knighted at Dublin in 1599; M. P. 
foj Rutland, 1604-11, 1621-22, 1624- 
25, 1625, 1626, and 1628-29. 

Bourchier, Sir John, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. Knighted at 
Whitehall, June 2, 1609, as of York. 
" In 1619 Capt. Nath' Butler brought 
S' John Bourchier a letter from his 
daughter Mrs. Whittakers in Virginia, 
which letter was said to have been a 
forgery." (See " Discourse of the Old 
Company of Virginia," 1625.) He was 
of the King's Council for New Eng- 
land in 1620; patented lands in Vir- 
ginia in 1621; M. P. for Hull, 1614. 
Entered Gray's Inn, 1584. Uncle to 
the regicide of the same name. 

Bourchier, William, Earl of Bath. 
Succeeded on the death of his grand- 
father in 1560 as fifth baron and third 
Earl of Bath ; was in the expedition, 
1585-86, to the Netherlands in aid of 
the Dutch, vmder Robert, Earl of 
Leicester; M. C.forVa.Co., 1612-20; 
of the King's Council for the N. E. 
Co., November 3, 1620 ; died July 12, 
1623. 

Bourke — Burke, Richard, Earl 

of Clauricarde, 3. Sub. ; pd. £20. 

Knighted at Tyrone's overthrow at 
Kinsale, December 24, 1601, and was 
surnamed of Kinsale from the valor 
he had displayed against the rebels 
there ; succeeded on the death of his 
father in 1601 as fourth earl; married 
in 1603 Frances, daughter of Sir Fran- 
cis Walsingham, and widow of Sir 
Philip Sydney and of Robert, Earl of 
Essex ; lord president of Munster, 
and one of the councilors of state in 
Ireland ; created an English peer, 
April 3, 1624, by the titles of Baron 
Somerhill and Viscount Tunbridge, 
County Kent, and August 23, 1628, 



advanced to the earldom of St. Al- 
bans ; died in 1636-36. 

Bourne — Borne — Bone, David, 
2. Sub. ; pd. £25. Of the E. I. Co 

Bourne, Nicholas, stationer. (See 
Butter.) May 23, 1622, Nicholas 
Bourne and Thomas Archer issued 
the first extant copy of " The Weekly 
Newes from Italy, Germanie," etc. 

Bourne, Reuben, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. 

Bo'wyer, Sir Edmund, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. Knighted at 
Charterhouse, May 11, 1603; M. P. 
for Surrey, 1604-11, 1614, and for 
Gatton, 1624-25. He was of Camber- 
well, Surrey. 

Bowyer, Robert, esquire, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. I think this was the 

keeper of the records in the Tower ; 
afterwards clerk of the Parliament. 
He was M. P. for Steyuing, 1601; 
died in 1634. 

Bovryer, Robert, grocer. I ihiuk 
this was the second son of Francis 
Bowyer, sheriff of London in 1578, 
and the Robert Bowyer who died 
April 2, 1626. 

Brackley, Viscount. — Thomas 
Egerton. 

Brand (or Brond) Benjamin, 

esquire, 3. Sub. ; pd. . 

Probably the son of John Brond, of 
Boxford in Suffolk, by his second wife. 

Brath-waite, R., a prolific poet and 
writer, was of a Westmoreland fam- 
ily; born about 1688; died in 1673. 
The most famous of his numerous 
works, "Barnabse Itinerarium, or 
Barnabee's Journal," was first pub- 
lished in 1638. " The Smoaking Age, 
or the Man in the Mist, with the life 
and death of Tobacco," was first pub- 
lished in 1617. 

Brearley — Bryerley, James, fish- 
monger, 2. Sub. ; pd. £87 10s. 

Of E. I. Co. 

Brereton (see Bretton and Britton), 
John, was admitted sizar at Caius 
College, Cambridge, 1587, and was 
B. A., 1592-93; went to our New Eng- 
land coast with Gosnold in 1602, and 
published a " Brief e Relation" of the 
voyage. The following items may 
refer to him : " Westminster, July 
18, 1611. Grant to John Brereton of 
Barrow, Co. Chester, of pardon for life 
only, for manslaughter." 

" Sept. 13, 1613. Letter from Sir 



BRET — BROOKE 



833 



Thomas Smythe to M' Robert Whit- 
bee, mayor of the city of Chester. In 
behalf of the letter's bearer, John 
Brereton, who is desirous to become a 
citizen in Chester and to keep an Inn 
there." Symthe commends him to the 
mayor's kindly consideration. 

Bret, Thomas, fishmonger. Pd. 
£25. 

Bretton — Britton — Brereton, 

John, 3. Sub. ; pd. . This 

may be John Brereton, who went to 
the New England coast in 1602. 

Bretton, Thomas, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. 

BrevTsey. See Prusey. 

Brewster, Captain Edward, son 

of William, 2. Sub. ; pd. £30. 

" Son of William Brewster," in char- 
ter of May, 1609 ; came to Virginia 
with Lord De la Warr in 1610 ; had 
trouble with Governor Argall in 1618, 
and returned to England ; June 7, 
1619, he transferred one share in Vir- 
ginia to William Cranmer ; Novem- 
ber 13, 1620, he transferred four 
shares to Sir Francis Wyatt, and there 
still remained to his credit on the 
books of the company the sum of £30. 
In 1616, and after, there was a printer 
of the same name in London, but this 
was not Captain Edward. Did he go 
to New England ? 

Brewster, "William, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £20. Was this the Pilgrim Fa- 
ther ? 

Bridges, John, Lord Bishop of 

Oxenford, 3. Sub. ; pd. . 

The controversialist ; B. A., Cam- 
bridge, in 1656 ; Dean of Salisbury, 
1577 ; Bishop of Oxford, 1604. Died 
1618, at a great age. 

Briggs, Henry, mathematician. 
Born at Warley Woods, in the parish 
of Halifax, Yorkshire, in February, 
1661 ; educated at Cambridge ; M. A. 
in 1686 ; professor of geometry in 
Gresham College, 1598-1620 ; mem- 
ber of N. W. P. Co. in 1612 ; he pro- 
moted the use of logarithms, first ex- 
plained by Lord Napier in 1614, and 
made a journey to Edinburgh in 1616, 
on purpose to confer with the discov- 
erer. The Earl of Warwick passed a 
share in Harington Tribe, Bermudas 
Islands, to him in 1619. He was pro- 
fessor of astronomy at Oxford from 
1619 to his death, I suppose, in 1631. 
To " A Declaration of the State of 



the Colony and Affaires in Virginia," 
published by Edward Waterhouse in 
1622, there is " A Treatise annexed, 
written by that learned mathematician, 
Mr. Henry Briggs, of the Northwest 
Passage to the South Sea, through the 
Continent of Virginia, and by Fretum 
Hudson." On page 9, Waterhouse, 
referring to this treatise, says, " which 
I having happily attained unto, have 
published for the common good." It 
occupies pp. 45-60, and is signed " H. 
B." He was a promoter of the voy- 
age of N. W. Fox, but did not live to 
see its departure. He died January 
26, 1631. Fox sailed in 1631, and 
named a group of islands in Hudson's 
Bay, " Brigges, his Mathematiokes." 

Bristol, Barl of. — John Digby. 

Britton. See Bretton. 

Brochero, Don Diego. Of the 
Spanish " Council of Warre." A cele- 
brated Spanish admiral. 

Brocket, Thomas, gent., 2. Sub. 
; pd. £25. 

Bromfield, Arthur. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. M. P. for Yarmouth, Isle 
of Wight, 1604-11, 1614, and 1621-22. 

Brooke, Lord. — Fulke Greville. 

Brooke — Brookes, Sir Calis- 

thenes, 2. Sub. ; pd. . Of 

Kent ; knighted in the Glynes, Ire- 
land, May 8, 1597 ; he was discharged 
by Sir Francis Vere, before Ostend, 
in February, 1601. January 21, 1609, 
Ann Lady Cobham writes to Salisbury, 
" soliciting a pension for her son, Calis- 
thenes Brooke, wounded in serving 
against the rebels in the Irish wars." 
Chamberlain to Carleton, from the 
Hague, October 5, 1611 : " Sir Calli- 
phenes Brook died here lately, leaving 
his wife in very poor estate, for they 
say he was seven or eight hundred 
pounds worse than naught." 

Brooke, Christopher, esquire, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £50. A barrister 
of Lincoln's Inn, and a poet ; was the 
son of Robert Brooke, alderman, and 
twice Lord Mayor of York, by Jane, 
daughter of Christopher Maltby (al- 
derman of York). " He was the 
chamber fellow at Lincoln's Inn, and 
the bosom friend of the celebrated Dr. 
John Donne, and aided him in 1600, in 
his clandestine marriage with Anne, 
daughter of Sir George Moore. The 
indignant father-in-law is said to have 
sent the groom and his two friends, 



834 



BROOKE — BRYDGES 



Christopher and Samuel Brook, to 
prison." M. P. for the City of York in 
1604-1611 ; M. C. for Va. Co., May 
23, 1609. 

In 1613 he published " An Elegy on 
the Death of Henry, Prince of Wales." 
He was the author of several " Eg- 
lognes, Elegys," etc. ; M. P. for 
York City in 1614, when the Virginia 
business came before the House, and 
took part in the debate thereon ; after- 
wards consulted as an attorney by the 
Va. Co. of London ; was one of a com- 
mittee to represent that company be- 
fore the king in 1620 ; continued an 
active member of the company ; M. P. 
for York City again in 1624-25, 1625, 
and 1626 ; buried at St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, February 7, 1627-28. He 
married, December 18, 1619, Mary 
Jacob. His wife died before him, 
leaving an only son, John. (Capt. 
Christopher Brooks of Virginia was 
one of the godfathers of George 
Washington.) 

Brooke, Henry, Lord Cobham. 
Eldest son of William, seventh Lord 
Cobham, whom he succeeded as eighth 
lord, March 6, 1597 ; was Lord War- 
den of the Cinque Ports, and governor 
of Dover Castle, 1597 ; Knight of the 
Garter, 1599 ; he was an enemy to 
Essex, and was one of the objects of 
the Essex plot of February, 1601 ; a 
friend of Ralegh's ; aided in sending 
Gosnold to our New England coast, in 
the voyage of March 26, to July 23, 
1602 ; was implicated in the plot 
against James I, in 1603 ; a witness 
against Ralegh ; was condemned to 
die, but his life was spared. His 
estates and honors were forfeited, and 
he remained in the Tower until 1617, 
when he was allowed to go to Bath 
for his health. He died January 24, 
1619. The king allowed him a pen- 
sion of about £500 per annum. He 
was not concerned in " The Bye Plot " 
of 1603, in behalf of the Catholics, 
but in "The Main Plot," "to place 
Arabella Stuart on the throne, and to 
kill ' the king and his cubs.' " 

Brooke, Sir John, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Long interested in foreign 

commercial afEairs. The E. I. Co. 
thought of sending him to the East 
Indies in 1614, but decided to send 
Sir Thomas Roe. Was M. P. for Gat- 
ton in 1614 ; one of the King's Council 



for New England, and a patentee of 
lands in Virginia in 1620 ; retained his 
interest in the Va. Co.; M. P. for Bod- 
min, 1625 ; on the commission for the 
better plantation of Virginia, and a 
patron of Luke Fox in his northwest 
voyage in 1631. 

Brooke, Richard 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £50. Of the E. I. Co. 

Brooker, Hugh, esquire, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £50. Prothonotary of the 

Common Pleas. " He lyeth buried in 
Saint Saviour's Church, in the North 
He, by the Quire. He gave unto the 
Free school £5 per annum forever, 
and likewise unto the Poor of the 
same parish £5 per annum forever." 
(Strype.) 

Brough, Captain John. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. I believe this to be the Sir 
John Brough (or Borough) who was 
killed at the Isle of R^ in 1627, aged 
forty-one. 

Brown, John, merchant - tailor. 
Pd. £26. 

Brown, Richard. " He was slain 
about 1577, in The Elizabeth of Mr. 
Cockin's, of London." 

Brown, William, coi-dwayner, 2. 
Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. 

Brown, Sir 'Williani, 2. Sub. 
; pd. . Only son of Nicho- 
las Browne by Eleanor, daughter of 
Ralph Shirley ; was born in 1558 ; one 
of the Low Country captains ; taken 
prisoner at Gravelines. " Sir Philip 
Sydney was his particular friend and 
patron, and tlie valiant brethren. Sir 
Francis and Sir Horace Vere, who 
had probably been trained to the mili- 
tary profession under his care, always 
styled him ' Father.' " (Lodge.) Ap- 
pointed lieutenant-governor of Flush- 
ing towards the end of the reign of 
Elizabeth. 

Brownrig, Matthew, skinner. 
Pd. £66. Of E. I. and N. W. P. 
companies. 

Brundenel, Edmund, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Of Stoke Mandwill, 

County Bucks ; March 27, 1622, he 
transferred his two shares in Virginia 
to his son Francis. In 1623 he was a 
member of the New England Council. 

Brydges, Grey, Lord Chandos, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £50. Born about 

1579 ; was the son of William, the 
fourth lord, by his wife Mary, daugh- 
ter of Sir Owen Hopton, lieutenant 



BRYDGES — BULKELEY 



835 



of the Tower ; was implicated in the 
Essex rising of February 8, 1601, and 
sent to the Fleet prison, but was soon 
released ; he succeeded his father in 
the barony, November 18, 1602. 
Chamberlain writes to Carleton on 
March 30, 1603, that " the Lord 
Chandos, who had secretly married 
the Lady Strange, did now publish his 
marriage, and made no more dainty." 
The Lady Strange was Anne Stanley, 
daughter of Ferdinando, fifth Earl of 
Derby, and great-granddaughter of 
the Princess Mary Tudor by her hus- 
band, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suf- 
folk. He was made a Knight of the 
Bath at the creation of Charles Duke 
of York (afterwards King Charles I.), 
January 6, 1605 ; M. A., Oxford, 
August 30, 1605 ; M. C. for Va. Co., 
1609 ; served at Juliers in 1610 ; ap- 
pointed to receive and introduce the 
Muscovite ambassadors, November 8, 
1617. Died at the Spa, August 10, 
1621, and was buried at Sudeley. 
Collins says he had so great an in- 
terest in Gloucestershire that he was 
commonly called " The King of Cots- 
would." 

Buck, Rev. Richard, 3. Sub. 

; pd. . Rev. William Cra- 

shaw says he was " an able and pain- 
full preacher, of whom I can say the 
lesse, because he was of Oxford, and 
unknown to me ; but of whom I have 
heard Sir Thomas Gates give a good 
and worthie testimonie ; and he came 
to the Counsell and this imployment 
with the commendation of a Right 
Reverend Prelate, Dr. Ravis, Lord 
Bishop of London. " 

He sailed from England in June, 
1609 ; wrecked on the Bermudas in 
July ; christened John Rolfe's child 
there, February 11, 1610 ; reached 
Virginia in May, 1610 ; became the 
minister at Jamestown ; married in 
Virginia ; his first child, Mara, born 
in 1612 ; married John Rolfe to Poc- 
ahontas, at Jamestown, April 5, 1614. 
In 1616 Rolfe writes that he was " a 
verie good preacher." In 1616 or 
1617 a child was born to him, called 
Benoni, who was " the first idiot born 
in that plantation." During Argall's 
government (1617-19) a new church 
was built for him at Jamestown, 
" wholly at the charge of the inhab- 
itants of that cittie, of Timber, being 



fifty foote in length and twenty foot 
in breadth." And in the Quire of 
this church, the first General Assem- 
bly of English Representatives " con- 
vented " m America, met on Friday, 
July 30, 1619. And " forasmuche as 
men's affaires doe little prosper where 
God's service is neglected, all the 
Burgesses stood in their places, un- 
till a prayer was said by Mr. Buoke, 
that it would please God to guide 
and sanetifie all our proceedings to 
his owne glory and to the good of 
the Plantation." 

March 10, 1621, he was one of the 
witnesses to John Rolfe's will. His 
wife and himself both died before 
February, 1624. They left four chil- 
dren in the care of guardians, a cer- 
tain number of cattle, 760 acres 
planted, and 100 acres of glebe land, 
all by patent, and all in the Corpora- 
tion of James cittie." 

Buckhurst, Lord. See Sackville. 

Bullion, Duke de. Henri de la 
Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon. 
Born 1555 ; declared for King of Na^ 
varre, 1576 ; Marshal of France, 1592 ; 
ambassador to England, 1612. Died 
March 25, 1623. 

Buisseaus: — Bisseaux, Mon- 
sieur de. Ambassador from France 
to the Court of London. On May 14, 
1617, Ralegh wrote from Plymouth to 
" M. de Bisseaux, member of the 
Council of State of France." 

Bulkeley (Buckley), Sir Rich- 
ard. Eldest son of Sir Richard Bul- 
keley, of Cheadle and Beaumaris. 
Was born in 1533 ; sheriff of Angle- 
sey, 1570 ; M. P. for Anglesey, 1571, 
1604-11, and 1614; knighted at White- 
hall, November 6, 1604. He was of 
the Council for Wales, 1617 ; was 
admitted to the Va. Co. of London, 
January 29, 1621 ; but, I am quite 
sure, had been interested in the colony 
at a much earlier date. He patented 
lands in Virginia. " Died on 28 June, 
1621, at the advanced age of eighty- 
eight. Possessing great wealth, he 
made use of it in the encouragement 
of foreign commerce," etc. His sec- 
ond son by his second wife, Thomas, 
afterwards created Viscount Bulkeley, 
succeeded to his shares in Virginia on 
the 13th of February, 1622. Sir Rich- 
ard's youngest daughter, Katherine, 
married Sir Edwyn Sandys. 



836 



BULL — BUTLER 



Bull. See Ball. 

Bullock, John, esquire, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Of Darley and Norton, 

County Derby, and of tbe Inner Tem- 
ple. Born in 1578 ; married in 1608 
Katherine, daughter of Thomas Fan- 
shawe, Esq., and his second wife, Joan 
Smythe (see pedigree). 

Burbage, Richard, the actor. Son 
of James Burbage, actor and theatri- 
cal manager, by his wife, Ellen Brayne, 
was born about 1567 ; died March 13, 
1619. In the Visitation of Loudon, 
1633, he is styled "the famous actor 
on the stage." His name was fre- 



quently associated with Shakespeare's 
by writers of their day. 

Burghley, Lord, — William CecU. 

Burgoyne, Peter, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. 

Burgoyne, Robert, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. 

Burgoyne, Thomas, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. Possibly these were 
descendants of Nicholas de Burgoyne, 
the Huguenot, who lived some years 
in Florida, and was carried thence to 
England by Drake in 1586. 

Burley, Rev. Francis, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Doctor of Divinity ; 

fellow of Chelsea College ; translator 
of King James' Bible, etc. 

Burnham, Samuel, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. 

Burrell — Burwell, Ninian. Pd. 
£12 IDs. Of Cuckiield, County Sus- 
sex. 

Burrell — Burwell, William, 3. 
Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. The son 
of John Burrell, twice master of the 
Trinity House. He lived at Stepney. 
In January, 1612, made a proposition 
to Henry Prince of Wales for building 
ships in Ireland; a member of the E. 
I. and N. W. P. companies ; " one of 
the commissioners for the Navy Boyall 
15 yeares and dyed 1630 ; " married 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Andrews, 
and sister of Dr. Andrews, Bishop of 
Winchester, and their son, Andrews 
Burrell, married Alice, daughter of 
Capt. Martyn Bring. 

Burrough. See Borough. 

Burton, George, gent., 2. Sub. 
; pd. £12 10s. 

Busbridge — Buckeridge, John, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. Of the 
N. W. P. Co. and one of the directors 
of the E. I. Co. May 23, 1614, the 



E. I. Co. voted him " a gratification 
towards his expenses in passing a bill 
through Parliament to stop the ex- 
portation of ordinance," etc. 

Busby, Ralphe, grocer, 2. Sub. 
; pd. . " Admitted a free- 
man of the Grocers' Co. in 1586. In 
1605 he was reproved by the court of 
assistants, and excluded from all office 
of authority in the company and not 
allowed to be of the court of assist- 
ants, because of unjust conduct to the 
clerk and defiance of the authority of 
the court ; admitted to the livery, 22 
May, 1613 ; occupied a house in Wood 
Street in 1614." (Grocers' Records.) 
Also of the E. I. and N. W. P. com- 
panies. 

Butler, George, gent., 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Probably M. P. for 

Carlisle in 1614 and 1621-22. 

Butler — Boteler, Captain Na- 
thaniel. Sub. ; pd. . He 

was " the eldest son of John Butler of 
Tofte in Sharnbooke in County Bed- 
ford Esquier per the 2 venter, Mary 
dau. of James Gedge and wydow to 
Christopher Harris Esq." Thus Cap- 
tain Butler was the half brother to Sir 
Oliver Butler, or Boteler of Teston, 
and full brother to James Butler 
(afterwards of the Va. and S. I. com- 
panies) and to Butler who mar- 
ried John Cornelius of London, mer- 
chant. 

Captain Butler was a M. C. for Va. 
Co.; was elected governor of the Ber- 
mudas in the spring of 1619, and was 
on that island from October, 1619, to 
October, 1622, during which time Sir 
Thomas Wrothe wrote an epigram " To 
his worthy friend Captaine Butler, 
Governour of Bermuda, or the Sum- 
mer Hand," which was published in 
"The Destruction of Troy, or The 
Acts of jEneas," licensed April 4, 
1620. 

Butler was in Virginia during the 
winter of 1622-23, and while there 
Capt. William Powell and himself led 
forces against the Indians. He re- 
turned to England in the spring, and 
his " Unmasking of Virginia," one of 
the causes of the serious factions in 
the Va. Co., appeared early in April, 
1623. He was on the Va. Commission 
of July 26, 1624 ; at Cadiz in 1625, 
and the Isle of R^ in 1627 ; a captain 
in the Royal Navy ; was governor and 



BUTTER — CABOT 



837 



admiral of the Bahamas from 1638 to 
1641, and was probably the person 
who was committed to Newgate by the 
Council of State of the Common- 
wealth for dispersing treasonable and 
scandalous books in June, 1649. The 
date of his death is not known to me. 
He was the author of " Six Dialogues 
about Sea Services between an High 
Admiral and a Captain at Sea," which 
remained in m.<inuscript until 1685, 
when it was published by Moses Pitt. 

Butter, Nathaniel, stationer and 
journalist. Admitted to freedom of 
the Stationers' Co., February 20, 1604. 
" A true and tragical discourse of the 
expedition to Guiana [1605] was is- 
sued by him, June 25, 1607. Newes 
from Lough If oyle in Ireland, May 19, 
1608. Newes from Spain in 1611. 
Newes from most parts of Christen- 
dom, Sept. 25, 1622; this was his iirst 
attempt at a Newspaper and its suc- 
cess induced him to make journalism 
his chief business, in partnership with 
Nicholas Bourne and others." 

"Feb. 22, 1664, Nath. Butter, an 
old stationer [the first English jour- 
nalist], died very poor." 

Button, Captain Thomas, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £25. Fourth son of 
Miles Button, of Worlton in Glamor- 
ganshire ; entered the naval service of 
Queen Elizabeth ; distinguished him- 
self at the siege of Kinsale in Ireland 
in 1601 ; was thought to have died in 
the West Indies, but returned safely 
to England prior to March 25, 1604; 
of the N. W. P. Co. 1612 ; entered 
the service of Henry, Prince of Wales, 
and in 1612-13 made his celebrated 
voyage to Hudson's Bay, where he 
wintered, and named New North and 
New South Wales for his patron ; 
commanded his majesty's ship Phce- 
nix on the coast of Ireland, 1614-20; 
knighted by Sir Oliver St. John, lord 
deputy of Ireland, August 30, 1616; 
rear-admiral of the fleet under Sir 
Robert Mansell, 1620-21 ; on the 
council of war, 1624 ; on naval com- 
mission, 1626 ; consulted by Lord 
Keeper Coventry about the West In- 
dies in 1629, and by Capt. Thomas 
James about the N. W. P. in 1630. 
He died of a fever in April, 1634. 

Button's Bay was named for him. 

Butts, Thomas. Of Great Ri- 
burgh, Norfolk, and son of the very 



celebrated Sir William Butts, physi- 
cian to Henry VIIL, one of the found- 
ers of the College of Physicians, etc. 
(See Shakespeare's Henry VIIL, act 
V. scene 2.) Hakluyt, writing at 
some date prior to 1600, says that 
"Thomas Butts was lately living, to 
whom I rode two hundred miles only 
to learn the whole truth of this voyage 
[of 1536] from his own mouth, as be- 
ing the only man now alive that was 
in this discovery." 

Byleth, Robert. Master's mate in 
the voyage to Hudson's Bay, April, 
1610, to October, 1611 ; member N. 
W. P. Co., 1612 ; went with Captain 
Button, April or May, 1612, to about 
September, 1613 ; was possibly with 
Gibbons in 1614 ; made a voyage to 
the Northwest with Baffin, March to 
September, 1615; and another, March 
to August, 1616. The name is vari- 
ously spelled ; but I believe the cor- 
rect way to be Blythe, and I am in- 
clined to believe him to be the Captaine 
Blythe who commanded the fleet in the 
East Indies in 1622 (when Baffin was 
killed), although this person is alluded 
to once or twice in the E. I. records 
as Capt. Richard Blythe or Blieth. 

Cabot, John, a Venetian pilot. 
Was probably employed in Bristol, 
England, as early as 1472, but con- 
tinued to make journeys to Venice for 
some time after. 

The following brief account of his 
connection with American discovery 
seems to me about as correct as we 
can now make it ; yet there is still 
some confusion on several points : — 

" About the year 1491 the people of 
Bristol, England, began sending out 
every year, light ships under the com- 
mand of John Cabot in search of the 
island of Brazil and the Seven Cities." 

It seems probable that he saw land 
while on one [1494 ?] of these private 
voyages, as he petitioned Henry VII. 
in 1495 to grant unto him and his 
three sons the royal authority to dis- 
cover and possess new lands, etc. In 
answer to which petition letters patent 
passed the seal on March 5, 1496, and 
on May 2, 1497, John Cabot sailed 
from Bristol on "ins first royally author- 
ized voyage, and returning in August, 
he was for the first time able to pro- 
claim publicly under the protection of 



838 



CABOT 



Henry VII., " The certain news that 
he had found land." The king gave 
him presents, and in December, 1497, 
a pension out of the customs of the 
port of Bristol. The order for this 
pension passed the seals, January 28, 
1498. On the 3d of February, 1498, 
Henry VII. granted him authority to 
impress vessels for another voyage, 
and " In the begynnynge of Somer " 
John Cabot sailed with five ships from 
Bristol. " The king furnished one 
ship, and with this ship went 3 or 4 
more out of Bristol." John Cabot 
seems to disappear in this voyage, and 
was probably among the " many men 
lost." Possibly he died on our coast. 

As early as December 18, 1497, we 
are told that John Cabot " had the de- 
scription of the world in a chart, and 
also in a globe, which he made, showing 
where he landed in the new world," 
etc. His charts, or copies of them, 
had reached Spain in 1499, and it 
seems certain that a large part of our 
northern coast on the map of the 
world made by Juan de la Cosa in 
1500 was compiled from them. 

It seems almost certain that Eu- 
ropeans had discovered America at 
much earlier dates ; but Cabot fur- 
nishes the first definite starting-point 
for English claims, and Columbus for 
the Spaniards, though it may be that 
Americns Vespucius saw the conti- 
nent before either of them. Columbus 
never saw any part of the territory of 
the United States. As a nation we 
trace back to the discoveries of John 
Cabot. We do not trace back to Co- 
lumbus ; the claims of Spain and the 
Bulls of the Pope were based on his 
discoveries. Had England continued 
to acknowledge those claims, this 
nation would not now be in existence. 

Cabot, Sebastian, second son of 
John Cabot aforesaid, was probably 
born in Bristol, England. His name 
appears in the petition to Henry VII. 
and in the charter, March 5, 1496. He 
was probably with his father on sev- 
eral of his voyages of discovery, and I 
am inclined to infer that the voyage 
of 1498, which sailed under the fa- 
ther's, returned to Bristol under the 
son's command ; but much of the old 
" traveler's tale " has been woven into 
the early life of Sebastian Cabot. 
He was making a chart of Gascoigne 



and Guienne for Henry VIII. early in 
1512, but entered the service of Spain 
in the fall of that year, and, it seems, 
remained there until toward the end 
of 1516, when he returned to Eng- 
land, where he probably continued 
until 1519. He was appointed pilot- 
major to Charles V. on May 6, 1619, 
about which time he probably returned 
to Spain. He was presumably in 
England again in 1521, when Henry 
VIII. required the London compa- 
nies to furnish him with five ships for 
the discovery of the new found land. 
The Drapers record that they consid- 
ered it " a sore adventure to jepard V 
shipps w"* men and goods unto the 
said island, upon the singular trust of 
one man, called, as they understood, 
Sebastyan, who, as they had heard 
say, was never in that land himself, 
and made report of many things, only 
as he had heard his father and other 
men speke in times past." In 1522 
he had an interview with the Vene- 
tian ambassador, in which he offers to 
enter the service of Venice. He at- 
tended the congress of pilots at Ba- 
dajos in 1524, in the interest of Spain; 
appointed to command an expedition 
to Brazil in April, 1526, exploring 
that country four years ; returned to 
Spain in August, 1530 ; " was im- 
prisoned for nearly a year, and after- 
wards condemned by the Council of 
the Indies to two years' banishment to 
Oran in Africa for mismanagement of 
the expedition to Brazil. He returned 
to Seville in June, 1533, and was soon 
reinstated in his former position." He 
remained for many years examiner of 
pilots in the Contractation House at 
Seville, during which time he made 
his famous mappe monde, which was 
first engraved in 1544. " Shortly 
after the death of Henry VIII. (28 
January, 1547), Cabot received tempt- 
ing offers from friends in England to 
transfer his services to the country of 
his birth." He probably arrived in 
England in the fall of 1547 and re- 
mained there to his death. January 
6, 1549, Edward VI. granted him a 
pension of £166 13s. 4d., to date from 
September 29, 1548, " in considera^ 
tion of good and acceptable service 
done and to be done by him ; " Janu- 
ary 19, 1550, Charles V., through the 
Spanish ambassador in England, de- 



CABOT — CiESAR 



839 



nianded the return of Cabot to Spain. 
The English Council replied, through 
the English Ambassador, in refusal, 
April 21, 1550. Some accounts state 
that Edward VI. renewed to Cabot 
the patent of March 5, 1496, on June 
4, 1550. He settled a dispute be- 
tween the English and German mer- 
chants, and for his services in this mat- 
ter the king granted him, in March, 
1551, a reward of £200. Under his 
leadership " certain grave citizens of 
London ' ' formed a company, which 
was incorporated on December 18, 
1551, by the name of " The Mysterie 
and Companie of the Merchant Ad- 
venturers for the Discoverie of Re- 
gions, Dominions, Islands and Places, 
unknown." This company (of which 
Cabot was " governor for life ") set 
forth the expedition to the Northeast, 
which sailed under Sir Hugh Wil- 
loughby in May, 1553. Edward VI. 
having died, Charles V. again requested 
the return of Cabot to Spain, Septem- 
ber 9, 1553 ; but he did not go. In 
answer to the humble petition of Wil- 
liam Paulet, Marquis of Winchester, 
Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, 
John Russell, Earl of Bedford, Wil- 
liam Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, 
William Lord Howard of Effingham, 
and others, Philip and Mary granted 
to " the Company of Merchant Adven- 
turers for the Discoverie of Regions 
. . . unknown," a second charter on 
February 6, 1555, with Sebastian 
Cabot as governor, and on Novem- 
ber 27 of the same year. Queen Mary 
renewed to him his pension. On 
April 13, 1556, he went aboard the 
Searchthrift at Gravesend before she 
sailed on her voyage to the Northeast, 
and "entered into the dance himself." 
He resigned his pension May 27, 1557, 
an annuity was granted him two days 
after, and this is our last record of 
him alive. He was then an old man, 
and within a few months he was prob- 
ably in his grave. 

Opinions may differ as to Cabot's 
early voyages to the " Newfound- 
land; " but in the matter of organiz- 
ing the first English company " for 
the Discoverie of Regions, Dominions, 
Islands and Places unknown," his ser- 
vice seems to stand on the "firme 
lande." This company, which still 
exists, forms a most interesting chain 



in the history of English discovery, 
commerce, and colonization. The iirst 
recorded voyages to America from 
England were sent out under the com- 
mand of John Cabot, whose son Sebas- 
tian (also interested in his father's 
letters patent) was the first governor; 
among the first four Consuls (" the 
Council ") and their twenty-four as- 
sistants (" the directors ") we find Sir 
George Barnes, Sir William Garrett, 
Thomas Lodge, and Rowland Hai- 
ward, as well as Sir Andrew Judde 
(grandfather of Sir Thomas Smith), 
Sir John Yorke (Sir Martin Frobish- 
er's uncle), Richard Chamberlaine the 
elder, Thomas Offley the elder, Henry 
Hudson, and others, whose heirs were 
afterwards interested in colonizing 
America. And at the time of which 
we write we find Sir Thomas Smythe, 
the treasurer of the Virginia Com- 
pany of London, occupying Cabot's 
old place of governor in this company, 
and we see their vessels sailing on the 
Great White Sea of Russia and taking 
emigrants to Virginia. 

There can be no mistake about the 
service rendered by Cabot, Barnes, and 
others, in forming this old merchant 
company, which was so largely instru- 
mental in laying the business founda- 
tion of England's future prosperity, 
in advancing English discovery, com- 
merce, and colonization. (See the 
Muscovy Companj'.) The William 
Worthington who shared Cabot's an- 
nuity in 1557, and who fell heir to the 
maps and papers of Cabot, was of 
Orsett in County Essex, esquire, 
" Pentinor to King Henry VIII., King 
Edward VI., Queen Mary, and Queen 
Elizabeth." He married Ann, daugh- 
ter to Sir Robert Tirrell, of Warley in 
Essex, master of horse to King Henry 
VIII. His son, Sir William Worthing- 
ton, of Springfield in Essex, gentle- 
man, porter of the Tower, and " Pen- 
tinor to Queen Elizabeth and James 
I.," married, first, Mary, daughter to 
Richard Atkins, recorder of London, 
and, secondly, Margaret, daughter to 
Christopher Peyton of Bury St. Ed- 
munds, and widow to Richard Eden. 

Caesar, Sir Julius, oldest son of 
Dr. Caesar Adelmare (physician to 
Queens Mary and Elizabeth) by his 
wife Margaret, daughter of Martin 
Perin (Bring ?) ; born at Tottenham in 



840 



CjESAE 



1558 ; baptized at St. Dunstan's, Feb- 
ruary 10, 1558, his sponsors in bap- 
tism being William Pawlett, Marqius 
of Winchester, Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl 
of Arundel, and Queen Elizabeth, 
represented by the Lady Montacute. 
Denization was granted to his father, 
" Csesar Aldemarius of Venice, Doctor 
of Medicine, on the 28th of August, 
1558." His father, who was prob- 
ably a Roman Catholic, died in 1569, 
and his mother afterwards married 
Michael Locke, a zealous Protestant. 
The son, who was baptized Julius- 
CsBsar Adelmare, finally dropping his 
ancestral name, was educated at 
Magdalene College, Oxford ; B. A., 
May 17, 1575 ; M. A., 1578 ; a sub- 
scriber to Frobisher's voyages, 1576- 
78 ; left Oxford for Paris in 1579, 
" to finish the study of liis profession 
of a civilian ; and on the 15, 18, and 22 
April 1581, was admitted there bache- 
lor, licentiate and doctor, of both Laws. 
On the tenth of the following May, he 
received the complimentary appoint- 
ment of advocate in the parliament of 
Paris, and within a few weeks after 
returned to England, which he seems 
never again to have qiiitted in the 
course of his long life." (Lodge.) 
Appointed "justice of the peace in 
all causes of piracy, and such like, 
throughout the land," October 9, 1581. 
" He now laid the surest foundation 
for his future advantage, by a most 
prudent match with Dorcas, daughter 
of Richard Martin, an alderman of 
London, who was afterwards knighted, 
and thrice filled the office of lord 
mayor, and was master of the mint 
in the reigns of Elizabeth and James 
the First. To this lady, who, though 
scarcely twenty years old, was already 
the widow of Richard Lusher, a stu- 
dent of the Middle Temple, who had 
died February 18, 1581, at the age 
of 28, he was married on the 26th of 
February, 1582." He was a subscriber 
to Fenton's voyage, and on March 11, 
1582, dined with the Rev. Mr. Mad- 
dox (who was licensed to preach in 
all the world) at Sheriff Martin's (his 
father-in-law's) house. 

Counsel for the City of London, June 
11, 1583 ; D. C. L., Oxford, March 
5, 1584 ; appointed judge of the Ad- 
miralty Court, April 30, 1584 ; a sub- 
scriber to the voyage of Cavendish 



round the world; master in chancery 
in ordinary, October 9, 1588 ; "M. 
P. for Reigate in Surrey, 1589; " Sub- 
scriber to the second voyage of Cav- 
endish ; master extraordinary of the 
Court of Requests, January 10, 1691 ; 
treasurer of the Inner Temple ; M. 
P. for Bletchingley, 1593. Dorcas, his 
first wife, died June 16, 1595, aged 
34, and was buried in the Temple 
Church, London. (Her son. Sir Charles 
Cassar, succeeded Sir Dudley Digges 
as master of the rolls.) 

Master of Request, September, 1595. 
He married, secondly, on April 10, 
1596, Alice, daughter of Christopher 
Grene, gent., and widow of John Dent, 
of London, merchant, at her house at 
Mitcham in Surrey. Master of St. 
Catherine's Hospital by the Tower of 
London, June 17, 1596. _ Wrote "The 
Ancient State, Authoritie and Prooed- 
ings of the Court of Requests, 2 Oc- 
tober, 1596 ; " pubHshed in 1597. M. 
P. for Windsor, 1597-98 and 1601. He 
was visited by Queen Elizabeth at 
Mitcham, September 12 and 13, 1598, 
and the entertainment of her majesty 
cost him £700. Eldest master of the 
Requests, May 10, 1600 ; Knighted at 
Greenwich by King James, May 20, 
1603 ; M. P. for Westminster, 1604. 
Appointed chancellor and under- 
treasurer of the Exchequer, April 11, 
1606 ; a member of the Privy Coun- 
cil, July 5, 1607 ; member of the N. 
W. P. Co., July 26, 1612 ; M. P. for 
Middlesex, 1614. His second wife, 
Alice, died May 23, 1614, aged 44 
years 11 months, and was buried in 
the Church of St. Helen's. He was 
master of the rolls, September 13, 
1614. Married, thirdly, April 19, 1615, 
Anne, daughter of Sir Henry Wode- 
house, widow of William Hungate, 
and niece of Sir Francis Bacon (then 
attorney-general) who gave her away 
at the altar. Admitted a free brother 
of the E. I. Co., January 20, 1618. 
Many of his papers, still preserved, 
prove his interest in Virginia, and 
some of Capt. John Martin's (his 
brother-in-law's) letters to him from 
Virginia still remain. M. P. for Mai- 
den, 1621-22. He was a member oi 
the commission for winding up the 
affairs of the Va. Co. of London, July 
16, 1624. Lord Bacon is said to have 
died in his arms in April, 1626. A 




JOHN SELDEN 



CAGE — CALVERT 



841 



eommissioner to examine the case be- 
tween Capt. David Kirke and the 
French in Canada, March 5, 1630. 
He died April 18, 1636, in his 79th 
year, and was buried in the south 
transept of the Church of Great St. 
Helen's, in Bishopsgate Street, where 
his monument (erected by Nicholas 
Stone at the cost of £110) with its 
curious device still remains. The de- 
vice and inscription were designed and 
written by himself ; his widow had the 
monument erected. He left a high 
character for integrity, talent, and 
charity. It was said of him, that he 
was kept alive beyond nature's course 
by the prayers of the many poor whom 
he daily relieved. 

Cage, Edward, grocer, 2. Sub. 
£37 IDs. ; pd. £87 10s. Admitted to 
the livery of the Grocers' Company 
in 1586 ; married Judith, daughter of 
Sir John Hart ; died in 1619, and on 
November 15 in that year, his son, 
John Cage, Esq., sold nine shares of 
land in Virginia, — six to Dr. Theodore 
Gulston and three to Isaac Seaward. 

Callamata, mentioned in "The 
Epistle Dedicatory " to Smith's " Gen- 
eral History " (1624), in Brathwait's 
verses prefixed to " The True Travels, 
etc." (1630), and in "The True 
Travels," on page 32. The same 
narrative as printed by Purohas in 
1621 contains no reference to her. 

Calthorpe. See Galthorpe. 

Calvert, George, esquire, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Born about 1579-80, 

at Kipling in Yorkshire ; entered. 
Trinity College, Oxford in 1594 ; A. 
B., Oxford, February 23, 159? ; after- 
wards traveled abroad ; entered pub- 
lic life under the patronage of Sir 
Robert Cecil ; M. P. for Bossiney in 
Cornwall, October, 1609, to February 
9, 1611 ; A. M., Oxford, 1605. Pro- 
thonotary and keeper of the rolls in 
Connaught, Ireland, 1606 ; member of 
the E. I. Co. ; clerk of the Privy Coun- 
cil in September, 1611. In January, 
1612, " he was settled about the king, 
and wholly employed in reading and 
writing." One of the executors of 
Robert, Earl of Salisbury, May, 1612. 
One of the commissioners for Ireland, 
August 24, 1613. He adventured 
£1,600 in the joint stock of the E. I. 
Co. in 1614 ; knighted at Hampton 
Court, September 29, 1617; in the 



proceedings against Ralegh in 1618 ; 
appointed secretary of state for life 
in February, 1619 ; purchased a part 
of Newfoundland from Sir William 
Vaughan in 1620, and in 1621 sent a 
body of settlers there. M. P. for 
County York, January 30, 1621, to 
February 8, 1622. Admitted into the 
New England Company July 5, and 
his bounds in that colony were laid off 
July 24, 1622. Avalon ("the first 
fruits of Christianity"), Newfound- 
land, was granted to him by letters 
patent of December 31, 1622, March 
30 and April 7, 1623. He was granted 
lands " at the king's service " in Ire- 
land, February 18, 1623 ; M. P. for 
Oxford University, February 12, 1624, 
to (the king's death) March 27, 1625 ; 
member of the commission for wind- 
ing up the affairs of the Va. Co., 
July 15, 1624, and afterwards one 
of the committee of the Council for 
plantation affairs ; resigned the sec- 
retaryship, for a consideration, in 
favor of Sir Albert Morton, February 
9, 1625 ; created Lord Baltimore, 
February 16, 1625, and a few days 
after went into the north of England 
" with Sir Tobie Matthew, which con- 
firms the opinion, that he is a bird of 
that feather," i. e. a Roman Catholic. 
On March 11, following, the king 
granted him the Irish lands " in fee 
simple," and soon after the king's 
death he went over to his Irish pos- 
sessions. He visited "Ferryland," 
his colony in Newfoundland in 1627, 
and again in 1628 ; remaining there 
from about April, 1628, to about Sep- 
tember, 1629, when, after having 
spent about £25,000 in advancing that 
plantation, he seems to have aban- 
doned it. Going to Virginia, " to view 
those parts," he arrived at Jamestown 
early in October, 1629, where he seems 
to have met with but a " cowlde " re- 
ception. Yet he was pleased with 
the climate and the soil, if not with 
the people. In December, 1630, he 
was again in England. In February, 

1631, he was very near obtaining a 
charter for land south of James River. 
Early in 1632 he overcame all ob- 
stacles, and the king agreed to grant 
him lands north and east of the Poto- 
mac ; but he died before his charter 
passed the seals, " in London, April 15, 

1632, in the 53rd year of his age, and 



842 



CAM — CAKE W 



was buried in the chancel of St. Dun- 
stan's in the West." He married 
Anne, daughter of George Wynne. 
" His rights were transmitted to his 
son and heir, Cecil, second Lord Balti- 
more, to whom the Maryland charter 
was finally issued 20 June, 1632." 




/^7^2W^ 




Cam, Master Thomas. Probably 
Thomas Canne, who was afterwards 
knighted by James I. His son Wil- 
liam was mayor of Bristol in 1648. 

Campbell — Cambell, James, iron- 
monger, 2. Sub. ; pd. £25. Son 

of Sir Thomas Campbell, Lord Mayor 
of London in 1609-10 ; born in 1570 ; 
became a leading merchant of Lon- 
don ; member of the E. I. Co. ; mas- 
ter of the Ironmongers in 1615; sheriff 
of London, 1619 ; elected alderman of 
Billingsgate ward. May 24, 1620; re- 
moved to Lime Street ward. May 14, 
1625, and at his death in 1642 was the 
senior alderman of London ; a direc- 
tor of the E. I. Co., 1621 ; master of 
the Ironmongers, 1623 ; on the Va. 
commission, July 15, 1624; was a mem- 
ber of the French and Eastland com- 
panies; Lord Mayor of London, 1629- 
30 ; knighted at Whitehall, May 23, 
1630 ; master of the Ironmongers in 
1641. Died January 5, and was buried 
in St. Olave's, Jewry, London, on the 
8th of February, 1642. By will he 
left to various objects, charities, and 
persons, £48,967 6s. 8d., besides real 
and personal estate, which was a vast 
sum in those times. His servant, Ed- 
ward Browne, was inclined to " Booke- 
makeing," and has thus preserved for 
us much of interest regarding his mas- 
ter. 

Campe, Laurence, draper, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £100. Founded an 
almshouse in the parish of Friarn 
Barnet ; was a donor to the Parish 
Church of "Alhallowes the Wall," 
and " from his love to Learning gave 
£40 towards the maintenance of poor 
scholars in Cambridge." 

Candish. See Cavendish. 

Camiing, Paul, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. Member of the E. I. Co.; in 



1612 he was sent, with letters from 
King James and orders from the E. I. 
Co., to the East Indies ; taken by the 
Portuguese, September, 1612 ; set on 
shore at Surat in October, 1612, and 
died at Agra May 29, 1613, having 
been " poysoned by Jesuits," so it was 
said. 

Canning, 'William, ironmonger, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £37 10s. William 
and Paul were brothers, being sons of 
Richard Canning, of Foxcote, County 
Warwick ; another brother, George, 
was the ancestor of the celebrated 
George Viscount Canning, orator and 
statesman. 

William was born about 1562 ; was 
" of Bashingshaw Blackwell Hall," 
London ; patented lands in County 
Derry, Ireland ; member of the E. L 
Co. ; deputy governor of the B. I. 
Co. ; master of the Ironmongers in 
1617 ; elected a director of the Va. 
Co. of London, April 28, 1619 ; voted 
to surrender the Virginia charter to 
the crown, October 20, 1623. During 
the factions of 1623 in the Va. Co., he 
struck Thomas Keightley in the Ex- 
change, which resulted in a lawsuit 
and fines. Master of the Ironmongers 
in 1627, and died during year of office. 
He married, in 1592, Eachael, daughter 
of William Ormshawe, of St. Mary-le- 
Bow, London, grocer. 

Cannon, Thomas, gent., 2. Sub. 

; pd. £12 10s. Probably M. P. 

for Haverford West, 1625 and 1626, 
and for Haslemere, 1628-29; knighted 
at Greenwich, June 30, 1623. 

Cantrell, William, gent., 2. Sub. 
; pd. £12 10s. 

Carbery, Earl of. — John Vaughan. 

Carew. See Carne. 

Carew, George Lord, 2. Sub. 
; pd. . 

Edmund Carew, who was knighted 
on the field of Bosworth, was the father 
of Katherine Carew, the grandmother 
of Sir Walter Ralegh, and of George 
Carew, the very Reverend Dean of 
Exeter and Windsor, the father of 
George Lord Carew, of whom I write. 

George Lord Carew was born May 
29, 1565 ; at Pembroke College, then 



CAEEW — CAREY 



843 



called Broadgate Hall, Oxford, 1564 
to 1573 ; " distinguished by the va- 
riety, the rapidity, and the success of 
his studies ; " suddenly adopted the 
military profession ; quitted the uni- 
versity without taking his degree, 
and joined his uncle, James Wingfield 
(see pedigree), in Ireland, where he 
had distinguished himself so early as 
1579 ; knighted by Lord Deputy Per- 
rott, lord president of Munster, in 
1585 ; M. A., Oxford, 1589 ; lieuten- 
ant of the ordnance. Tower of Lon- 
don, in 1592, when his cousin, Sir Wal- 
ter Ralegh, was placed in his custody 
for marrying against the wishes of the 
queen, and it was with him that Sir 
Walter had the memorable flght (so 
called) for a sight of Elizabeth; ac- 
companied Essex in the expedition to 
Cadiz in 1596. In 1597 he was lieu- 
tenant of the ordnance of the fleet un- 
der Essex sent out against the Azores 
Islands ; M. P. for Queenborough, 
1597-98. In June, 1598, Essex too 
earnestly advocated him for lord dep- 
uty of Ireland, for which Elizabeth 
gave Essex a box on the ear, and bade 
him "go and be hanged!" Then 
Essex lost his temper, and called the 
queen " a king in petticoats." 

Sir George Carew was appointed 
lord president of Munster, 1599, 
" when, uniting his forces with those 
of the Earl of Thomond, he reduced 
several castles and other strong places, 
obtained many triumphs over the reb- 
els, brought the Earl of Desmond to 
trial, and gained great honor to him- 
self." One of the lord justices of 
Ireland, treasurer of the army, etc., 
1600-03 ; "he defeated the Spaniards 
on their landing at Kinsale in 1601, 
and obliged them to abandon their 
projects against Ireland." Upon the 
accession of King James I. he was 
constituted captain and governor of 
the Isle of Guernsey, vice-chamberlain 
to the queen and receiver-general of 
her revenues ; M. P. for Hastings 
from 1604, until he was created a 
peer. Having married Joyce, only 
daughter and heiress of William Clop- 
ton, Esq., of Clopton, County War- 
wick, he was elevated to the peerage. 
May 4, 1605, as Baron Carew of Clop- 
ton ; M. C. for Va., 1607. July 27, 
1608, he was made master of the 
ordnance for life, and sworn of the 



Privy Council. He continued to have 
a great interest in the advancement of 
commerce and colonization. M. C. 
for the Va. Co., May 23, 1609. June 
24, 1611, sent as a commissioner to 
examine into affairs in Ireland. In 
1618 he was on his knees before James 
I., in behalf of Sir Walter Ralegh, 
without avail. July 22, 1623, one of 
a committee "To frame such orders 
as they conceive most fit for regulat- 
ing the government of Virginia ; " a 
movement which resulted in the an- 
nulling of the old charters. April 22, 
1625, the Privy Council to Secretary 
Conway and Lord Carew, master of 
the ordnance: "To take into considera- 
tion what forts and places of strength 
are to be erected and maintained in 
Virginia, and to give an estimate of 
the present charge and of the aunual 
cost to maintain them." He was cre- 
ated Earl of Totness, February 1, 
1625-26. Died March 27, 1629, at 
the Savoy in the Strand in the sub- 
urbs of London, and lies buried at 
Stratford-upon-Avon. 

He was the author of " Paeata Hi- 
bernia," and the unique papers relating 
to Ireland, collected by him, are now 
preserved in the Lambeth Library. 
" He was a wise statesman, an eminent 
commander, and an estimable histo- 
rian. His niece Anne married, sec- 
ondly, Sir Allen Apsley. 




Carew, Sir George, statesman. 
Ambassador to King of Poland, 1597 ; 
to Court of France, 1605-09; "Mas- 
ter of the wards, 1612, succeeding the 
late lord treasurer ; " died in Novem- 
ber, 1612. Author of "Relation of 
the State of France," etc., written in 
1609 ; published in 1749. 

Carey — Gary, Sir George, of Dev- 
onshire, 3. Sub. £45 ; pd. £46. Of 
Cockington, Devon ; son of Thomas 
Carey ; was born about 1540 ; active 
against the Spaniards in 1588 ; a pat- 
ron of Cavendish, 1591 ; knighted at 
Whitehall in February, 1597 ; treas- 
urer for Ireland, March, 1599 ; lord 



844 



CAKEY 



deputy of Ireland, 1603-04 ; died in 
February, 1617 ; was twice married, 
but left no surviving issue. His widow 
was Lucy, daughter of Robert Lord 
Ricli and first Earl of Warwick. 

Carey (or Gary) Henry, iirst Lord 
Hunsdon. First cousin to Queen 
Elizabeth ; subscriber to Erobisher's 
(1576-78) and Fenton's (1682-83) 
voyages, and patron of Cavendish. 
He gathered plants from the farthest 
parts of the world. " Died at Somer- 
set House, 23d July, 1596, aged 72." 

Carey (or Gary), Sir Henry, 2. 
Sub. £75 ; pd. . Son of Sir Ed- 
ward Gary, of Berkhamstead and Al- 
denham, Hertfordshire (first cousin to 
the first Lord Hunsdon), by his wife 
Catherine, daughter of Sir Henry 
Knevet, master of the jewel office to 
Queen Elizabeth. He was educated 
at Exeter College, Oxford, where he 
acquired distinction by his talents ; 
knighted at Dublin, July 12, 1599, by 
the Earl of Essex ; served in France 
and the Low Countries, where he was 
taken prisoner by Don Louis de Ve- 
lasco, at the battle of Mulheim in 1605, 
a fact referred to in the epigram on 
Sir Henry Cary by Ben Jonson. On 
his return to England he was intro- 
duced to court, and became one of the 
gentlemen of the bed-chamber ; one 
of the masters of the royal jewels, 
June 21, 1603-18 ; M. C. for Va. 
Co., May 23, 1609; N. W. P. Co., 
1612 ; a privy councilor in 1617 ; 
comptroller of the household in Jan- 
uary, 1618 ; on commission for reg- 
ulating the deputies of the E. I. Co., 
1618 ; created Viscount Falkland, 
November 10, 1620 ; M. P. for Hert- 
fordshire, 1621-22 ; made an earnest 
attempt to establish a colony in New- 
foundland in 1621-22 ; lord deputy of 
Ireland, September, 1622, to 1629. 
Old Fuller says, " an unruly colt 
will fume and chafe (though neither 
switched nor spurred) merely because 
hacked. The rebellious Irish will com- 
plain, only because kept in subjection, 
though with never so much lenity ; 
the occasion why some hard speeches 
were passed on his government." 
He lost his life by an accident in 
Theobald's Park in September, 1633. 
He married, about 1609, Elizabeth, 
only daughter and sole heir of Sir 
Laurence Tanfield, chief baron of the 



Exchequer (she was a grand-niece of 
old Sir Henry Lee, "the Queen's 
knight "), by whom he was the father 
of Lucius, the celebrated Viscount 
Falkland, who was killed at the battle 
of Newbury, September 20, 1643. 

Carey (or Cary), Sir Henry. Sub. 

; pd. . Son of Sir Robert 

Carey ; born in 1596 ; made a knight 
at the creation of Charles, Prince of 
Wales, 1616 ; married Martha, daugh- 
ter of Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Mid- 
dlesex ; succeeded his father as second 
Earl of Monmouth in 1639; died 
June 13, 1661. 

As there were two Sir Henry Careys, 
members of the Va. Co. in 1619-20, 
when the accounts were audited, I can- 
not assign the payments with any cer- 
tainty. The following payments were 
made to Sir Thomas Smythe : " Sir 
Henry Carie, £20;" "Sir Henry 
Carie, Captaine, £25 ; and to Sir 
Baptist Hicks : "Sir Henry Carie, 
£75." 

Carey (or Cary), Sir Philip. 
Third son of Sir Edward Cary of 
Aldenham, and brother of Henry, first 
Viscount Falkland. M. P. for Wood- 
stock in 1614, 1621-22, 1624-25, and 
1625 ; knighted at Greenwich by 
James I. on March 23, 1605. Buried 
at Aldenham, June 13, 1631. 

Carey, Sir Robert, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Seventh and youngest sou 

of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon ; 
born about 1560 ; with Sir Thomas 
Layton in the Netherlands, 1577 ; at- 
tended in the suite of Duke of Alen- 
(jon in the Low Countries, 1581 ; went 
with Walsingham to Scotland, 1583, 
when King James became interested 
in him ; M. P. for Morpeth, 1586-87; 
with the Earl of Cumberland at Sluys, 
1587 ; serves against the Armada, 
1588 ; M. P. for Morpeth, 1588-89 ; 
serves at Rouen, 1591 ; M. P. for 
Morpeth, 1693 ; for Northumberland, 
1597-98 and 1601. After the death 
of Elizabeth, he left London about 9 
A. M., March 24, and reached Holy- 
rood late on the 26th, carrying to King 
James the news of the death of the 
queen. He was created Baron of 
Leppington, February 6, 1622, and 
Earl of Monmouth, February 7, 1626; 
died April 12, 1639. His memoirs 
were published in 1759 by the Earl of 
Cork and Orrery. 



CAKLEILL — CARON 



845 



Carleill (Carliell, CarZile, etc.), 
Capt, Christopher, son of Alexander 
Carleill by his wife Anne, daughter 
of Sir George Barnes the elder (see 
Barnes pedigree). He was born about 
1551 ; educated in the University of 
Cambridge ; went to Flushing in 1572, 
ar.d " followed the fortune of the 
Warres in Flanders and by desert was 
made a great commander in ye States 
Campe ; " served the Prince of Coud^ 
at La Kochelle ; took an interest in 
American discoveries as early as 1574; 
admiral of the English merchants into 
Eussia, 1682 ; interested in Feuton's 
voyage, 1582-83 ; interested in Amer- 
ica to the southwest of Cape Breton, 
1582-83 ; serving in Ireland, 1684 ; on 
the celebrated expedition to America, 
September, 1585, to July, 1586 ; again 
serving in Ireland in 1588 ; died in 
Loudon, November 11, 1693 ; married 
Mary, daughter of Sir Francis Wal- 
singham, and sister of Sir Philip Sid- 
ney's wife. 

He was the author of " A Brief Sum- 
mary Discourse upon a Voyage intend- 
ing to the uttermost parts of America " 
(given by Hakluyt) and of " A Dis- 
course on the Discovery of the hither- 
most parts of America, written by 
Captain Carleill to the Citizens of 
London," Lansd. MS. 100, art. 14. 

Carleton, Sir Dudley, born 
March 10, 1573. After a course of 
instruction at Westminster school, he 
became a student of Christ Church 
College, Oxford, about 1691, and had 
for his tutor Mr. John King, after- 
wards Dean of Christ College and 
Bishop of London ; B. A., 1595 ; 
spent most of the next five years in 
improving himself by foreign travel ; 
M. A., 1600 ; accompanied Sir Thomas 
Parry, ambassador to the Court of 
France, as his secretary, in 1602 ; M. 
P. for St. Mawes in Cornwall, 1604; 
some time secretary to the Earl of 
Northumberland, and as such was un- 
der some suspicion, and placed under 
arrest for a time, during the excite- 
ment incident to the Gunpowder Plot. 
The series of Gazette Letters from, 
and to, him, still preserved, contain a 
perfect mine of historical information, 
and throw a flood of light on the times 
in which he lived. Many of these let- 
ters contain references to Virginia. 
Knighted in September, 1610, and sent 



ambassador to Venice, where he re- 
mained until 1615, when he was trans- 
ferred to Savoy ; ambassador to the 
States General in 1616, and continued 
chiefly in this employment until 1628, 
except that in the year 1626 he was sent 
as ambassador extraordinary to the 
Court of France. M. P. for Hastings 
in 1626 ; created Baron Carleton of 
Inibercourt, County Surrey, May 21, 
1626, and Viscount Dorchester, July 
25, 1628 ; one of the principal sec- 
retaries of state, December 14, 1628, 
and in this position he evidently took 
great interest in the colonies, as papers 
still remaining amply prove. Gov- 
ernor Harvey of Virginia constantly 
appealed to him. He was a member 
of the royal commission for the better 
plantation of Virginia, June 27, 1631. 
He died February 15, 1632, and was 
buried in St. Peter's, Westminster. 
"He was an able diplomatist and a 
polished statesman ; a master of dif- 
ferent languages ; a good ancient and 
modern historian ; and was esteemed 
a graceful and eloquent speaker." 

He married, first, in November, 1607, 
Anne, step-daughter of Sir Henry 
Saville, and daughter and co-heir of 
George Gerard, Esq., second son of 
Sir William Gerard, knight of Dorney, 
which lady accompanied him in all his 
travels, as is expressed in her epitaph 
in Westminster Abbey. He married, 
secondly, in 1630, Anne, daughter of 
Sir Henry Glenham, and widow of 
Paul Viscount Bayning, which lady 
survived him. He left no surviving 
issue by either wife. 

Carlisle, Earl of. — James Hay. 

Carne, Edward, esquire, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £37 10s. Of Nashe Gla- 

moi'gan, eldest son of William Carne, 
Esq. He was one of the tellers of the 
Exchequer. 

Caron, Sir Noel de. " He was 
leger ambassador from the States of 
the Netherlands to the English Court, 
for the space of 33 or 34 years, in 
which time he performed that place 
with much honor and good to his own 
country and State hei'e. He died at his 
house at Lambeth, December 1, 1624, 
and was buried with due solemnity in 
the chancel of the church there, Janu- 
ary 25, 1625. Archbishop Abbot 
preached his funeral sermon." In 
1622 he built and endowed, in Lam- 



846 



CARPENTER — CAVENDISH 



beth parish, seven almshouses for poor 
women, " and thereby hangs a tale." 

Carpenter, Abraham. Fd. £12 
10s. 

Carpenter, Thomas, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £49 3s. 

Carpenter, William, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. Alderman's deputy of 
the Ward of Portsoken ; married 
Alice, daughter of Thomas Carpenter 
(probably the above Thomas) of the 
Home in Pembridge, Com. Hereford. 

Carr, Sir Edward, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. Of Sleaford, County 
Lincoln ; knighted April 23, 1603 ; 
created a baronet, 1611 ; died, 1619. 

Carr, Robert, Earl of Somerset. 
Knighted December 23, 1607 ; lord 
treasurer of Scotland, 1610 ; Vis- 
count Rochester, March 25, 1611 ; 
K. G. May, 1611 ; privy councilor, 
April, 1612 ; Earl of Somerset, No- 
vember 3, 1613 ; married Countess of 
Essex, December 26, 1613; condemned 
to death for murder of Sir Thomas 
Overbury, 1616 ; pardoned and re- 
leased, 1622 ; died July, 1645. (See 
Gondomar.) 

Carter, Francis, 3. Sub. ; pd. 

. He was an officer of the Va. 

Co. of London and a very large share- 
holder in Virgmia ; in 1621 and 1622 
he transferred 86 shares to 39 per- 
sons. 

Carter, Randall (or Randolph), 
tallow chandler, 2. Sub. £37 10s.; pd. 
£100. He died prior to 1620, and his 
executors also adventured £25 in addi- 
tion on account of his estate. 

Cart-wright, Abram, draper, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £75. Member of 
the E. I. Co. ; on the Virginia Com- 
mission of July 15, 1624. His daugh- 
ter Frances married Samuel Vassall, 
of London. (See John Vassall.) 

Carvil — Kervill, etc., John, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £75. Barrister at 
law of New Monkton, York, and of 
the Middle Temple; married, prior to 
1600, Dorothy, daughter of Robert 
Kay, of Woodsome. He was M. F. 
for Aldborough (York), 1621-22, 
1624-25, 1625, and 1626. 

Carwarden — Carmarden, Rich- 
ard, esquire, 3. Sub. ; pd. £25. 

He was the surveyor of the great cus- 
toms to King Charles in 1634 ; his fa^ 
ther, Richard Carmarden, of London, 
was surveyor of the customs to Queen 



Elizabeth. Of the same family, I 
suppose, as Sir Thomas Carwardine, 
master of the revels to Henry VIII. 

Cassen — Cason, John, grocer, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £60. Married 
Margaret, sister to Richard Edwards; 
also of N. W. P. and E. I. companies. 

Caswell, Richard, baker, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £125. Of St. Swithin, 
London ; married, in 1619, Mary, 
daughter of Richard Slany, Esq. ; on 
the committee of the Va. Co., April 28, 
1619 ; on the committee in charge of 
the two Virginia Maydes, November 
15, 1620 ; one of the stewards for or- 
dering and preparing the annual sup- 
per of the Va. Co., November, 1621 
and 1622; treasurer for the magazine 
of provisions sent to Virginia in July, 
1623. He informed the Archbishop 
of Canterbury of the non-conformity 
of the officers and others in the Ber- 
mudas, for which he was suspended 
from his place in the court of the S. I. 
Co., November 27, 1639. He died 
1646. 

Cater — Catto, William, 2. Sub. 

; pd. . A citizen of London, 

who lent money to the king ; member 
of the E. I. Co.; in 1608 he was on 
the committee of that company. In 
1609 he lent the company £1,000 at 9 
per cent, interest, and asked to be 
allowed to buy carpets in the Indies 
for his own use; also of N. W. P. Co. 

Cavendish-Talbot, "Mary Count- 
ess of Shrewsbury," 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £50. Wife of Gilbert Talbot, and 
sister of William Lord Cavendish. 

Cavendish, Captain Thomas. 
Of Grimston Hall in the parish of 
Trimley, St. Martin, Suffolk. He was 
probably born about 1555; was on the 
voyage to Roanoke (North Carolina) 
in 1585. He sailed around the world 
in 1586-88, and made a second "at- 
tempte to do the like " in 1591, but 
was obliged to alter his course and re- 
turn for England. He died at sea in 
the summer of 1592, and was buried 
in the Atlantic Ocean somewhere near 
8° N. Lat. 

Cavendish, William Lord, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. £187 10s. He was 

the second son of Sir William Caven- 
dish by his third wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Hardwick, Esq. 
His mother was a noted woman for 
nearly a century in the history of 



CAVENDISH 



847 



England. " Bess of Hardwick " was 
born about 1518 ; at the age of four- 
teen years, she married Robert Bar- 
ley, Esq., who died without issue, Feb- 
ruary 2, 153|. "She lived a widow 
a considerable time, and then took for 
her second husband Sir William Cav- 
endish, who died in 1557, having had 
by her a hopeful number of sons and 
daughters." She married, thirdly. Sir 
William St. Loe, and fourthly, George 
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, who died 
November 18, 1590 ; but she had is- 
sue by her second husband only. She 
died February 13, 160 J, immensely 
rich. 

Lodge says, " She was a woman of 
a masculine understanding and con- 
duct ; . . . a builder, a buyer, and 
seller of estates, a money-lender, a 
farmer, and a merchant of lead, coals, 
and timber. . . . She lived to a great 
old age, continually flattered, but 
seldom deceived." Her second son 
by her second husband, of whom I 
write, was probably born about 1650. 
M. P. for Newport in Cornwall, No- 
vember 12, 1588, to March 29, 1589 ; 
sheriff of Derbyshire, 1594-95 ; cre- 
ated Baron Cavendish of Hardwick, 
County Derby, May 4, 1605; an in- 
corporator of the N. W. P. Co., July 
26, 1612. 

Collins says, " His lordship was 
one of the first adventurers, who set- 
tled a colony and plantation in Vir- 
ginia ; and on the first discovery of 
the Bermudas Island, had (with the 
Earl of Northampton, the Earl of 
Pembroke, the Lord Paget, the Lord 
Harrington, and others) a grant of 
them from the king. Whereupon, in 
April, 1612, they sent a ship thither, 
with sixty persons, to take possession 
thereof, who were followed by others, 
and yearly supplies, which soon made 
them a flourishing plantation. The 
great island was divided into eight 
cantons or provinces, bearing the name 
of eight of the chief proprietors, 
whereof one of them still retains the 
name of Cavendish." 

He was one of the incorporators of 
the Bermudas Company, June 29, 
1615. Mr. Henry Cavendish, his elder 
brother, died in 1616, " without lawful! 
yssue, whereby his inheritance, which 
is esteemed to be of better valew then 
£4,000 by the yere, is fallen uppon the 



Lord Cavendishe ; " " who thus inher- 
ited the whole estate, and possessed 
three of the finest houses in England : 
Chatsworth, Hardwick, and Oldcotes, 
all erected by his celebrated mother." 
"He was declared Earl of Devon- 
shire, on August 2, 1618, in the Bish- 
op's palace at Salisbury ; but the let- 
ters patent bear date August 7, 1618." 
In the disputes of 1623 in the Va. Co. 
of London, he sided with the Sandys 
faction, of which his son, the Lord 
Cavendish, was a leader. He died 
March 3, 162 1, and was buried at 
Endsore, near Chatsworth, where a 
monument is erected for him. His 
second son by his first wife (Anne, 
daughter of Henry Kighley, Esq.) was 
" Sir William Cavendish Knight." 

Cavendish, Sir William. Sub. 
; pd. £25. Son of the forego- 
ing; was born about 1589-90. In 1608 
he went on his travels into France 
and Italy, under the tuition of Mr. 
Thomas Hobbs,, and on his return 
was knighted at Whitehall, March 7, 
160| ; and by the policy of King 
James was married to Christian, only 
daughter to his great favorite, Ed- 
ward Lord Bruce, of Kinlosse in Scot- 
land. The king gave her a fortune 
of £10,000, and requested "that Sir 
William might bear up the port of 
his son; which mediation proved so ef- 
fectual, that the Lord Cavendish did 
what the king thought reasonable." 
" But this addition," says Collins, 
"though it answered the king's, yet it 
did not rise up to the generosity of 
the son's mind, which occasioned his 
contracting a very great debt, entered 
into by an excess of gallantry, the vice 
of that age, which he too much in- 
dulged himself in." M. C. for Va. 
Co. He succeeded his father as Lord 
Cavendish in August, 1618. M. P. for 
Derby in 1621 ; governor of the S. I. 
Co., 1622-23 ; a leading member of 
the Sandys faction in 1623, he fre- 
quently presented the case of that fac- 
tion to King James. " On Wednesday 
(July 16, 1623) at the Bermudas Court, 
Sir Edwin Sandys fell foul upon the 
Earl of Warwick. The Lord Caven- 
dish seconded Sandys, and the Earl 
told the Lord, by his favour, he be- 
lieved he lied. Hereupon it is said, 
they rode out yesterday, and, as it 
is thought, have gone beyond sea to 



848 



CAVENDISH — CECIL 



fight." (Letter to Rev. Joseph Mead, 
July 18.) On the 19th of July the 
Privy Council ordered that all the 
ports of the kingdom should be care- 
fully watched so that they might not 
cross the Channel. July 26, Cham- 
berlain wrote to Carleton : " The last 
week, the Earl of Warwick and Lord 
Cavendish fell so foul at a Virginia, 
or Bermuda's Court, that the lie passed 
and repassed, and they are got over to 
try their fortune ; yet we do not hear 
they are met ; so that there is hope 
they may return safe. In the mean- 
time, their ladies forget not their old 
familiarity, but meet daily, to lament 
their misfortune." "In a few days 
Cavendish was detected and arrested 
at Shoreham in Essex ; but War- 
wick, disguising himself as a merchant, 
reached the opposite shore, where he 
was taken at Ghent early in August 
and ordered to return to England." 

Lord Cavendish was M. P. for Derby 
again in 1624, 1626, and 1626. 

" In the year 1625 Lord Cavendish 
and his lady waited on Charles I. to 
Canterbury, by his royal appointment, 
to be present at his nuptials with 
Maria-Henrietta (second daughter to 
Henry IV. of France), who arrived at 
Dover on May 13, and came the same 
night to Canterbury, where the mar- 
riage was consummated." 

He succeeded his father as Earl of 
Devonshire, March 3, 1626, and died at 
his house near Bishopsgate in London 
on June 20, 1628. 

This earl was a great speaker 
in both houses of Parliament. Mr. 
Hobbs, who had lived with him for 
20 years (1608-28) held him up as a 
pattern to Ms son. 

His widow. Christian, Countess of 
Devonshire, who survived him nearly 
47 years, dying January 16, 167|, was 
a woman of oonsideriible celebrity, 
the patroness of the wits of that age, 
and a zealous royalist. 

His daughter Anne married Robert, 
the eldest son of his old opponent, 
Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick. 

Cecil, Sir Edward, 2. Sub. £76; 
pd. £25. Third son of Thomas Cecil, 
first Earl of Exeter, by his first wife, 
Dorothy, daughter of John Neville, 
" Lord Latymer.' ' He was born Feb- 
ruary 29, 157|, and entered service in 
the Low Country wars in 1599, where 



" he passed the degrees of Captaine 
of f oote and horse; Colonell of foote, 
and served with great distinction as 
CoUonell of the English horse at the 
battle of Nieuport in Flanders anno 
1600." At Ostend in July, 1601 ; 
knighted by Elizabeth September, 
1601 ; M. P. for Aldborough in 1601 ; 
granted the keepership of Mortlake 
Park for life in 1603. In active ser- 
vice in the wars in the Low Countries, 
1602-05; M. C. for Va. Co., May 23, 
1609; March, 1610, appointed by King 
James to command the English forces 
employed in the war about the succes- 
sion to the deceased Duke of Cleves ; 
served at the siege of Juliers, July jj 
to August II . In 1612 he acted for 
Henry, Prince of Wales, as sponsor to 
the child of Count Ernest of Nassau. 
"He followed the Warres in the 
Netherlands 35 years." M. P. for 
Chichester in 1614. In 1620 he was 
consulted by the Virginia Company re- 
garding the fortifying of Virginia ; 
M. P. for Chichester in 1621-22, in 
which Parliament " they say he made 
a brave speech concerning the de- 
fenses of England ; " M. P. for Dover 
in 1624r-25. He was admiral and lord 
marshal, lieutenant-general and gen- 
eral of the expedition sent by King 
James and King Charles against the 
King of Spain and Emperor, which 
finally sailed for Spain, October 1, 
1625 ; created Baron Cecil of Putney, 
November 9, 1625, and Viscount Wim- 
bledon, July 25, 1626. He was also 
"a Counsellor of State and Warre, 
and Lord Lieutenant of the County of 
Surry, and Captain and Governour of 
Portsmouth." 

In August, 1636, he wrote two let- 
ters from Portsmouth to Secretary 
Windebank, in which " he blames 
Governor Harvey for his delays in 
sailing to Virginia." He died at 
Wimbledon November 16, 1638, and 
lies buried in the parish church there, 
under a tomb on which a brief outline 
of his life is inscribed. 

He was one of the most famous 
generals of his time, thongh he lost 
some reputation by the miscarriage of 
the expedition to Cadiz in 1625, in 
which he commanded. He wrote a 
short defense of his conduct on this 
occasion which was printed in 1627, 
and two short tracts on military affairs, 



CECIL 



849 



which remain in MS. in the British Mu- 
seum. 

He was thriee married, but left no 
male issue. He married, first, Theo- 
dosia, a daughter of Sir Andrew Noel; 
secondly, February 27, 1617, Diana, 
daughter of Sir William Drury (who 
" after the death of her brother. Sir 
Robert Drviry," says Chamberlain, 
" became a good marriage worth £10,- 
000 or £12,000"); and, thirdly, So- 
phia, daughter of Sir Edward Zouohe. 

Cecil, Robert, Earl of Salisbury, 
2. Sub. ; pd. £333 6s. 8d.; con- 
tributed £333 6s. 8d. (S8,000) to the 
Va. Co. and was the constant and faith- 
ful friend of the Virginia enterprise ; 
"The little beagle " of James I. He 
was the son of Lord Treasurer Burgh- 
ley by his second wife, Mildred, daugh- 
ter of Sir Anthony Coke, or Cooke, of 
Gidea Hall in Essex ; bom June 1, 
1560 ; educated at home and at Cam- 
bridge; M. P. for Westminster, 1586- 
87; served against the Spanish Armada 
in 1588; knighted in June, 1591 ; privy 
eouuciior, August, 1591; spoke against 
Ralegh, and in defense of aliens in 
1593 ; one of the principal secretaries 
of state, 1596; chancellor of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, and keeper of the privy 
seal, 1597. He was the chief commis- 
sioner on the part of England in the 
treaty between France and Spain, at 
Vervins in 1698. " He succeeded his 
father, who died in the autumn of that 
year, in the post of master of the wards ; 
and in his office of secretary exercised 
in fact that of prime minister for tlie 
remaining five years of the queen's life, 
with as full a share of her favor and 
confidence as she had at any time be- 
stowed on his illustrious natural and 
political predecessor. No one among 
her ministers but himself could have 
supplied the loss of ¥/alsingham, who 
furnished her with the means of eon- 
trolling foreign powers through intel- 
ligence gained in their own courts. 
Cecil even rivaled him in this dark 
faculty." (Lodge.) He was the sole 
secretary of state to James I. from 
1603 to his death in 1612 ; created 
Baron Cecil of Essingden, May 13, 
1603 ; Viscount Cranbourne, August 
20, 1604 ; Earl of Salisbury, May 4, 
1605 ; Chancellor of the University of 
Oxford ; Knight of the Garter, May, 
1606 ; lord high treasurer. May 4, 1608. 



He died of pulmonary consumption at 
Marlborough, May 24, 1612, and was 
buried in the parish church of his 
princely seat of Hatfield in Herts. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Wil- 
liam Brook, Lord Cobham, by whom 
he had one son, William, his successor, 
lineal ancestor of the present Marquis 
of Salisbury. 

In 1603 Sir Robert Cecil wrote as 
follows to Sir James Harington : 
"Good Knight rest content, and give 
heed to one that hath sorrowed in the 
bright lustre of a Court and gone 
heavily on even the best-seeming fair 
ground. 'Tis a great task to prove 
one's honesty and yet not mar one's 
fortune. You have tasted a little 
thereof in our blessed Queen's time, 
who was more than a man, and, iu 
truth, sometimes less than a woman. 
I wish I waited now in your presence- 
chamber, with ease at my food and 
rest in my bed. I am pushed from 
the shore of comfort, and know not 
where the winds and waves of a court 
will bear me. I know it bringeth little 
comfort on Earth ; and he is, I reckon, 
no wise man that looketh this way to 
heaven." 

Thomas Sackville, Earl of Dorset, 
who died in April, 1608 (who had been 
long intimate with Cecil), in his last 
will, solemnly records, " with the ut- 
most warmth of expression," Cecil's 
many public and private virtues, be- 
cause as he says, " I am desirous to 
leave some faithful remembrance in 
this my last Will and Testament ; that 
since the living speech of my tongue 
when I am gone from hence must then 
cease and speak no more, that yet the 
living speech of my pen, which never 
dieth, may herein thus forever truly 
testify and declare the same." 

After Salisbury's death Digby wrote 
from Madrid to King James : " Ve- 
lasco . . . writeth, in his Letters of 
April 14, 1612, that there is arrived 
a Secretary from Florence who . . . 
hath made promises of 100,000 crowns 
to Beltenebras [i. e. Salisbury] in ease 
he procure the eifeoting of the mar- 
riage." And again on September 9, 
1613, Digby wrote to King James : 
" I conceive your Majesty v/ill think 
it strange that your late High Treas- 
urer and Chief Secretary, the Earl of 
Salisbury (besides the Ayudas de oosta, 



850 



CECIL 



as they term them, — which are gifts 
extraordinary upon services) should 
receive 6,000 crowns yearly pension 
from the King of Spain." But when 
Digby made these charges Salisbury 
was dead, and it may be remembered 
that it is said that Digby's own hand 
sometimes felt the roughness of a 
Spanish dollar. I will not enter into 
these controversies. If the accounts 
of the time are to be relied on, the 
Duke of Lerraa made the Court of 
Spain a market in which nothing could 
be done without the medium of money, 
— state affairs were for trade and bar- 
ter. Lerma expected to receive money 
for himself from others, and was lib- 
eral in bestowing the money of Spain; 
but it is not in evidence that Spain al- 
ways received compensation therefor. 
(See Gardiner's "Hist. England," i. 
pp. 215, 216.) 




Cecil, Thomas, Earl of Exeter, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £220. The only son 

of the first Lord Burghley by his first 
wife Mary, daughter of Peter Cheke, 
and sister of the noted Sir John Cheke, 
tutor to Edward VI. ; born May 5, 
1542 ; traveling in Europe with his 
tutor, Thomas Windebank, in 1560-62 ; 
M. P. for Stamford in Lincolnshire in 
1563, and also in two other Parlia^ 
ments of Elizabeth's reign. In 1573 
he served with distinction as a vol- 
unteer in the expedition into Scotland 
under Sir William Drury, in aid of 
the Earl of Murray, the regent of the 
young King of Scots, when the castle 
of Edinburgh was besieged and taken. 
In July, 1575, waiting on Queen Eliza- 
beth at Kenilworth Castle in Warwick- 
shire, when she was entertained by the 
Earl of Leicester with all princely 
pleasures, her majesty at that time 
conferred on him the honor of knight- 
hood. In 1581 he was one of those 
illustrious gallants who entertained 
Francis of Valois, Duke of Alanson, 
heir presumptive of France, and broth- 
er to the French King, then in Eng- 
land as a suitor to Queen Elizabeth, 



and gained honor in the justs, barriers, 
and tourney performed on that occa- 
sion. He also distinguished himself 
in the wars of the Low Countries, and 
was, in November, 1585, made gov- 
ernor of the Brielle, one of the cau- 
tionary towns which the states of 
Holland pledged to Queen Elizabeth. 
In September, 1586, he fought as a 
volunteer at Doesburg, and resigned 
his command of the Brielle late in 
1587. 

In 1586 he was chosen a member of 
Parliament for the county of Lincoln, 
and was also in another Parliament for 
that county. In 1588 he was a vol- 
unteer on board the fleet which for six 
days maintained many sharp fights and 
fierce assaults with the Spanish Ar- 
mada, and at length forced them to fly. 
M. P. for Northamptonshire in 1693. 
In 1598, at the funeral of his father, 
the Lord Burleigh, on August 29, he 
was chief mourner, and by her maj- 
esty's order mourned as an earl, being 
at that time in the 57th year of his 
age. Warden of Rockingham Forest 
and constable of the castle there for 
life in 1599 ; one of the commanders 
against Essex in February, 1601. 
" He was elected one of the Knights- 
Companions of the Most Noble Order 
of the Garter, and installed at Wind- 
sor, May 26, 1601." (Collins.) 

On the accession of King James to 
the throne in 1603, he was sworn of 
the Privy Council at the Charter- 
House, May 10, 1603, the fourth day 
after his majesty's arrival in London, 
and was constituted lord lieutenant 
of the county of Northampton. And 
his majesty, in consideration of his 
great merits and services, created him 
Earl of Exeter, May 4, 1605. M. C. 
for Va. Co., May 23, 1609. The meet- 
ings of the managers of this company 
were sometimes held at his house in 
London, facing the Strand. The old 
Lord Burleigh died in this house in 
1598. He called it Burleigh House, 
and when in London resided there, 
and was visited there by Queen Eliza- 
beth. Pennant says it was " a noble 
pile, built with brick, and adorned 
with four square turrets." It was af- 
terwards known as Exeter House, and 
was still existing in 1826 as Exeter 
'Change Koyal Menagerie, and adorned 
with the sign of " Edward Cross, 




EDMOND SHEFFIELD 
First Earl of MuJgrav,- 



CECIL 



851 



Dealer in Foreign Birds and Beasts." 
It was pulled down in 1830, and the 
Lyceum Theatre, Wellington Street, 
stands on part of the site. 

The Earl of Exeter was now grow- 
ing old ; but during the remainder of 
his life he continued in many noble 
employments. In 1617 he was trou- 
bled by the disagreement between his 
daughter, the Lady Hatton, and her 
husband. Lord Chief Justice Coke, 
and in 1618 by the scandalous squab- 
ble between his grandson. Lord Roos, 
and his wife and her father, Sir 
Thomas Lake. And he seems, to- 
wards the conclusion of his life, to 
have taken up an inclination to church- 
government, for in 1618 he accepted a 
nomination, with others, to proceed 
against Jesuits and Seminary priests, 
with authority to banish them from the 
realm ; and in 1620 was joined with 
the Archbishop of Canterbury in a 
special ecclesiastical commission for 
that province, and towards the end of 
the same year, in another for that of 
York. He left some proofs too, not 
only of a charitable disposition, but 
of an affection to learning, for he 
founded and endowed a hospital at 
Liddington in Rutlandshire for a ward- 
en, twelve poor men and two women, 
and gave an estate to Clare Hall in 
Cambridge for the maintenance of 
three fellows and eight scholars. 

He died February 7, 1622, in his 
80th year, and was buried in the 
chapel of St. John the Baptist in 
Westminster Abbey, where a magnifi- 
cent monument remains to his memory. 

He married, first, Dorothy, daugh- 
ter and co-heir of John Lord Latimer, 
by whom he had five sons and eight 
daughters. Of the sons, William, the 
eldest (see hereafter) ; Richard, the 
second son, married a daughter of Sir 
Anthony Cope, and the present Mar- 
quis of Exeter descends from them ; 
Edward, the third son, of whom I have 
written ; Thomas, the fifth son, mar- 
ried Anne, daughter of Sir Robert Lee, 
mayor of London ; Mary, the fourth 
daughter, married Edward Lord 
Denny; Elizabeth, the sixth daughter, 
married, first. Sir William Newport 
alias Hatton (heir to Sir Christopher 
Hatton), and secondly. Sir Edward 
Coke, the lord chief justice. Dorothy, 
the seventh daughter, married Sir 



Giles Alington, and Frances, the 
eighth, married Nicholas Tufton, Earl 
of Thanet. 

The Earl of Exeter married, sec- 
ondly, Frances, eldest daughter of 
William Brydges, fourth Lord Chan- 
dos, and widow of Sir Thomas Smith 
of Parson's Green. She was the sis- 
ter of Grey Brydges, fifth Lord Chan- 
dos. 

Cecil, Captain William. Eldest 
son of Thomas, Earl of Exeter ; with 
Drake 1585-86 ; father of William 
Lord Roos. At the death of his father 
in 1622 he succeeded as second Earl 
of Exeter, and died in 1640. 

Cecil, William, Lord Burleigh. 
He was born at Bourne, Lincolnshire, 
September 13, 1520 ; master of re- 
quests to the Protector Somerset, 1547; 
at the battle of Musselburgh, Septem- 
ber 10, 1547 ; secretary of state, 
1548 ; committed to the Tower, 1649; 
restored to office, October, 1551 ; 
knight and member of Privy Council, 
1551 ; resigns office, 1553 ; M. P., 
Lincolnshire, 1655 ; secretary of state; 
privy councilor, 1558 ; patron of the 
trade to Russia ; master of the wards, 
1561 ; interested in Capt. John Haw- 
kins's voyages, 1564-68 ; Baron Bur- 
leigh, 1671 ; Knight of the Garter, 
1572 ; lord high treasurer, July 15, 
1672 ; interested in Frobisher's voy- 
ages, 1676-78, and Fenton's, 1682-83; 
died May 4, 1598. 

He was a truly great man. The 
church and state of England prob- 
ably owe as much to him as they do to 
any man. His biography would be 
almost a history of the time in which 
he lived. He patronized all the Eng- 
lish voyages for discovery, etc. He 
married, first. May 8, 1641, Mary, 
daughter of John Cheke, who bore 
him an only child, Thomas (whom 
see), and died February 22, 154|. He 
married, secondly, December 21, 1546, 
Mildred, daughter of Sir Anthony 
Cooke. She was the mother of Robert 
(whom see). 

Cecil, William, Lord Cranborne, 

3. Sub. ; pd. £26. Only son of 

Robert, Earl of Salisbury. In 1600 
he was at Sherborne, pursuing his 
studies under Ralegh's guidance ; 
married, in December, 1608, Cather- 
ine, youngest daughter of Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Suffolk ; aided in 



852 



CHADERTON — CHAMBERLAIN 



sending out Hudson to the Northwest 
in 1610 ; succeeded his father as sec- 
ond Earl of Salisbury in 1612. Ralegh 
dedicated his " Brief History of Eng- 
land" to him ; May 28, 1619, passed 
to Captain Brett two shares of land in 
Virginia. One of his Majesty's Coun- 
cil for New England, November 3, 
1620; Knight of the Garter, December 
21, 1624 ; served King Charles I. as 
an ambassador extraordinary to the 
Court of France; sat in the Long Par- 
liament during the interregnum. Died 
December 3, 1668, and was succeeded 
by his grandson. 

Chaderton (or Chatterton), Dr. 
Laurence. His wife was aunt to 
Rev. Alexander Whitaker of Vir- 
ginia (see under Dr. William Whit- 
aker). He is said to have been 
born in 1536 ; was master of Emman- 
uel College, Cambridge, 1584-1622 ; 
took part in the Hampton Confer- 
ence, 1604 ; employed on the Author- 
ized Version of the Bible, 1607-1611. 
He died November 13, 1640, aged 
104(?). He is classed among the Pu- 
ritan divines. He joined the Va. Co. 
soon after 1612. " On Feb'y 12, 161 f 
renouncing all Prizes by ye Lottery he 
had a Bill of Adventure of £12 10s. 
granted him in Virginia." His daugh- 
ter Elizabeth was the second wife of 
Abraham Johnson, whose son, Isaac 
Johnson (by his first wife), went to 
New England. 

Chaloner, Sir Thomas, 2. Sub. 

; pd. . " Son of Sir Thomas 

Chaloner the elder, of Gisborough in 
Yorkshire and of Steejjle Claydon in 
Bucks, an eminent scholar, poet, and 
statesman in the reigns of Edward 
VI., Mary, and Elizabeth; ambassador 
to Spain in 1661," etc. He was born 
in 1559 ; ediicaied iirst at St. Paul's 
School, and then at Magdalen College, 
Oxford. About 1584 he addressed 
" A Shorte Discourse of the most rare 
and excellent vertue of Nitre : " etc., 
" from the Isle of Lamby on the Ea,st 
coast of Ireland, to his cousin John 
Napper, Apothecary, at the sign of the 
Ewe and Lamb, over against Soper 
Lane end in cheapside," which was 
"Imprinted at London by Gerald 
Dewes in 1584." 

M. P. for St. Mawes in 1686 ; 
knighted by Henry IV. in the wars of 
France in 1691 ; traveling in Italy in 



1596 and 1697, " and several oi his 
letters to the Earl of Essex and Mr. 
Anthony Bacon written at this time 
may be found in Dr. Birch's Memoirs 
of Elizabeth." August 9, 1603, he 
was appointed by James I. to have the 
charge of the person and household 
of Prince Henry. On August 17, 
1603, he was appointed tutor to the 
prince, and James I. presented him 
with £4,000 "as a free gift." Hiss 
first wife died June 22, 1603, and he 
afterwards married Judith, daughter 
of William Blunt, esquire, of London, 
and sister to Sir Thomas Smith's wife. 
June 10, 1604, he accompanied Sir 
Thomas Smith to the Court of James 
I., when he was about to leave on his 
embassy to Russia; and, according to 
some accounts, he went with Smith on 
that embassy. M. P. for Lostwithiel, 
1604-11. He discovered the alum 
mines in Yorkshire about 1600, for 
which he was afterwards granted a 
pension of 40 marks per annum, and 
brought its manufacture to perfection 
near Whitby in 1608. M. C. for Va., 
March 7, 1607 ; M. C. for Va. Co., 
May 23, 1609. He became chamber- 
lain to Prince Henry when he was 
created Prince of Wales in 1610 ; 
July 26, 1612, an incorporator of the 
N, W. P. Co. ; August 28, 1613, was 
one of those who received a grant for 
" all that part of Guiana or continent 
of America between the rivers Ama- 
zon and DoUesquebe." He died No- 
vember 18, 1615, and is buried in the 
church at Chiswick in Middlesex. 
"This able and upright governor of 
Henry Prince of Wales lay under some 
suspicion of puritanism." 

Chambers, George, fishmonger. 
Pd. £12 10s. 

Chamberlaine, Abraham, mer- 
chant, 2. Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £112 
10s. He was a Huguenot ; was first 
cousin to the celebrated Dr. Peter 
Chamberlayne ; married, in 1594, Hes- 
ter (born in 1576), daughter of Thomas 
Purpillian (Papillon) of the bedcham- 
ber to King Henry IV. of France; 
aided in sending out Hudson in 1610; 
was a member of the Va., E. I., N. 
W. P., S. I., and Providence (Baha- 
mas) Island companies. He died in 
August, 1651. 

Chamberlain, George, ironmon- 
ger, 3. Sub. £37 10s.; pd. . Of 



CHAMBERLAIN — CHERRY 



853 



St. Mary, Aldermanbury, London ; of 
the E. I., Va., N. W. P., and 8. I. 
companies ; a brother of John Cham- 
berlain (the next). He died in 1616 ; 
a benefactor of the Ironmongers, and 
of Christ's, St. Thomas's, and St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospitals. He married, 
in 1604, Anne, daughter of Laurence 
Overton, and niece of Sir John Mer- 
rick, the ambassador to Muscovy. 

Chamberlain, John. Son of 
Alderman Richard Chamberlain (sher- 
iff of London in 1561) by his iirst 
wife, Anne, daughter of Robert and 
Margery Downes of Yalding in Kent; 
baptized at St. Olave's in the Old 
Jewry, January 15, 155| ; educated at 
Cambridge ; made a voyage to Ire- 
laud, 1597; a journey to Venice, 1610- 
1611 ; was of the Court of Wards. 
The Horace Walpole of his day, wrote 
many newsy letters temp. Elizabeth, 
James I., and Charles I. He was 
buried at St. Olave's in the Old Jewry, 
March 20, 162|. 

An abstract of his will, written June 
18, 1627, is given in the " N. E. Regis- 
ter," January, 1889, pp. 89-91. 

He was brother to the foregoing 
George and to one of the following 
Richards. 

Chamberlain, Richard, ironmon- 
ger, 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £150. 
M. C. for Va. Co. 

Chamberlain, Richard, 3. Sub. 

; pd. . (Two of the name 

were members of the Va. Co. and it is 
frequently impossible to tell the one 
from the other.) 

Chamberlain, Robert. Sub. ; 

pd. £100. 

Champion, Richard, merchant, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. Of the E. I. 

and N. W. P. companies. 

Ralegh's wife was under his charge 
for a time in 1618. 

Champlaine, Samuel de, 27. Of 
Brouage; born 1567; died 1635; found- 
er and governor of Quebec; explored 
our Nev/ England coast in 1604-05. 

Chandler, George, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Of the E. I. and N. W. P. 

companies. 

Chandos, Lord. — Grey Brydges. 

Chanoyes, Shanols. Capt. John 
Smith writes : " I was more beholden 
to the French men that escaped drown- 
ing in the man of Warre, Madam 
Chianoyes at Rotchell, and the Law- 



yers of Burdeaux, then all the rest of 
my country-men I met in France." 

Chapman, George, the poet, dram- 
atist, translator. Born 1559 ; died 
May 12, 1634 ; buried in St. Giles-in- 
the-Fields, London. 

Charatza Tragabigzanda. Smith 
tells us that when he was taken pris- 
oner, he fell to the share of Bashaw 
Bogall, who sent him to Constantino- 
ple to his fair mistress for a slave, 
they marched in chains to this great 
city where he was delivered to the 
young Charatza Tragabigzanda, who 
sent him to her brother in Tartary; 
"there but to sojourne to learn the 
language, and what it was to be a 
Turke, till time made her Master of 
herselfe." He had only her love to 
cheer him in bis captivity ; but he 
finally killed her brotlier, and escaped, 
and never saw his young love again. 
She was not forgotten, however, and 
he afterwards named a cape on his 
map of New England for her, which 
name Prince Charles changed to Cape 
Ann. 

Charles V., emperor. Born at 
Ghent, February 24, 1500 ; died Sep- 
tember 21, 1558. 

Charles, Prince. — Charles Stuart. 

Cheeke, Sir Hatton, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Grandson of the celebrated 

Sir John Cheeke ; was killed in a duel 
by Sir Thomas Dalton in 1610. 

Cheeke, Sir Thomas. Of Pirgo, 
Essex ; grandson of the celebrated Sir 
John Cheeke, tutor to King Edward 
VI., and eldest son of Henry Cheke 
by Frances, daughter of Sir Humphrey 
Ratcliffe. He was knighted May 7, 
1603. His first wife, the daughter of 
Peter Osborne, Esq., died without is- 
sue in February, 1615, and he after- 
wards married Essex, daughter of 
Robert Rich, first Earl of Warwick ; 
M. C. for Va. Co., 1612-20 ; M. P. for 
Harwich, 1621-22 ; for Essex, 1624- 
25 and 1625 ; for Maiden, 1626 ; for 
Colchester, 1628-29 ; for Harwich, 
1640 and 1640-53; died March 25, 
1659. 

Cherry, Sir Francis, merchant and 
vintner. Of a Huguenot family, the 
De Cheries of Picardy and Normandy; 
Queen Elizabeth's ambassador to Rus- 
sia in 1598; a leading man in the Mus- 
covy and E. I. companies ; knighted 
at Chatham, July 4, 1604. The date 



854 



CHESTER — CLARKE 



of his death is not known to me. His 
first wife, Margaret, died "of her 
twelfth child" in 1595. His second 
wife, Elizabeth, was a widow in 1613. 
Of his daughters, Frances married Sir 
John Merrick, Rebecca married Robert 
Fenne the younger, and Elizabeth was 
the first wife of Sir William Russell, 
whose ships carried the first colony to 
Virginia. 

Chester, Sir William, merchant, 
draper. Of the Muscovy Company ; 
M. P.; alderman, 1553 ; sheriff, 1554; 
knighted, 1556 ; lord mayor, 1660 ; 
interested in Capt. .John Hawkins' 
voyages, 1564-68. The martyr, Law- 
rence Saunders, was an apprentice of 
his. 

Chester, William. Pd. £12 10s. 

Chicheley, Clement, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £26. 

Chichester, Captain Arthur. 
Born in May, 1563; educated at Ox- 
ford ; served against the Armada, 
1588 ; in the American voyage, 1595 ; 
Cadiz, 1596; in Pieardy, 1597 ; at Os- 
tend, 1598; in Ireland, 1599, and after, 
as lord deputy, etc.; created Lord Chi- 
chester of Belfast, February 23, 1613; 
sent to the Palatinate, spring, 1622; 
member of the English Privy Council, 
December 31, 1622; of the council of 
war (on the projected war with Spain), 
April 21, 1624; on the Virginia Com- 
mission, July 15, 1624. Died Feb- 
ruary 19, 1625, and was buried at 
Carriekfergus. 

Childe, Alexander, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. . (Capt. Alexander Childe 

was in the E. I. Co.'s service.) 

Chiles, Alexander, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . (Sir Josiah Child was one 

of the most famous merchants of Lon- 
don in the next generation.) 

Christian IV., King of Denmark. 
Brother-in-law to King James of Eng- 
land. Was born in 1577, and died in 
1648. King, 1596-1648. 

Chudley (or Chudleigh), George. 
Of the N. Va. Co. "Son of John 
Chudleigh, Esq., of Ashton, who as- 
pired to rival the famous actions of 
Drake and others by sea, but died a 
young man in the Streights of Magel- 
lan, leaving by his wife, daughter of 
George Speke, Esq., two sons and two 
daughters." The eldest son, Oeorge, 
was only three or four years of age at 
the time of his father's decease, but 



was thoroughly educated by his trus- 
tees at home and abroad. M. P. for 
East Love, 1614; of the N. E. Coun- 
cil, 1620; M. P. for Lostwithiel, 1621- 
22; created a baronet, August 1, 1622; 
M. P. for Tiverton, 1624-25; M. P. 

for Lostwithiel, 1625; M. P. for , 

1640. He fought on the side of the 
Parliament at Stratton, but afterwards 
took up arms for the king, and pub- 
lished a declaration in 1643, in vin- 
dication of his doing so. He married 
Mary, daughter of Sir William Strode, 
and died in 1657, leaving issue. 

Church, Thomas, draper, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £62 10s. Of N. W. P. 
Co. He was a benefactor of St. Bar- 
tholomew's, Christ's, St. Thomas's, 
and Bridewell Hospitals ; was buried 
in "St. Bartholomew's behind the 
Exchange," London. " Here lyeth the 
body of Master Thomas Church, citi- 
zen and draper of London. He was 
helpfull to many, hurtfull to none, and 
gave every one his due. . . . He de- 
parted this life in August the 26 day 
1616, being aged 65 yeeres." "A 
good Life hath the Days numbred, 
but a good Name endureth forever." 

Chute, Sir George, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. Knighted by Sir Arthur 
Chichester, lord deputy in Ireland, at 
Christ Church, October 14, 1 608. 

Chute, Sir Walter, 3. Sub. £75 ; 
pd. £25. Served in the expedition of 
1697 against the Azores ; knighted at 
Beaver (Belvoir) Castle, April 23, 
1603. He is mentioned (not favor- 
ably) in several of Chamberlain's let- 
ters of May, 1614, as being " so near 
the King that he cuts all the meat he 
eats." 

Clanricard, Earl of. — Richard 
Bourke, Burke, or de Burgh. 

Clapham, John, gent., 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. M. P. Sudbury, 1597- 

98; one of the controllers of the Han- 
aper (1605-10), and one of the six 
clerks of the chancery; died Decem- 
ber 6, 1618. 

Clare, Earl of. — John Holies. 

Clarke, Captain. 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . (Engineer at the siege of 

Ostend in 1601 ?) 

Clarke, Captain John. " An 
Englishman by nation, a native of 
London, and of {he same religion as 
his king." Born about 1576 ; a pilot 
by profession; was in Malaga in 1609; 



CLARKE — CLINTON 



855 



sailed from London with Dale for Vir- 
ginia in March, 1611 ; taken prisoner 
by the Spaniards at Point Comfort in 
the summer of 1611 ; remained a pris- 
oner in the West Indies and in Spain 
until about 1616, when he was re- 
leased ; made a voyage to Virginia in 
1619 ; was the pilot of the Mayflower 
in 1620. On the 13th of February, 
1622, at a meeting of the Virginia 
Court, "Mr. Deputy acquainted the 
court, that one Mr. John Clarke beinge 
taken from Virginia long since by a 
Spanish ship that came to discover 
that plantation ; that forasmuch as 
he hath since that time done the com- 
panie good service in many voyages to 
Virginia, and of late went into Ire- 
land for transportation of cattle to 
Virginia, he was an humble suitor to 
this court, that he might be admitted 
a free brother of the companie, and 
have some shares of land bestowed 
upon him." He was admitted and 
given two shares. He arrived in Vir- 
ginia, April 10, 1623, with Daniel 
Gookin's ship, the Providence, and 
soon after this he died in that colony. 

Cleave — Clive, Sir Christopher, 

2. Sub. ; pd. . Of Kent ; 

was knighted at Greenwich, April 22, 
1605. 

Cletheroe (Clitherowe, etc.), 
Christopher, ironmonger, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £50. Sou of Henry 
Cletherow of London. Was a mem- 
ber of the E. I. Co. in 1601 ; of the Va. 
Co. of London, 1609 ; of the N. W. P. 
Co. in 1612 ; of the B. I. Co. in 1615; 
on the committee of the E. I. Co. from 
1614 ; master of the Ironmongers' 
Company, 1618; nominated for deputy 
treasurer of the Va. Co. in April, 1619, 
and recommended to that company by 
King James as a suitable person for 
their treasurer in May, 1622 ; master 
of the Ironmongers' Company again 
in 1624 ; sheriff of London in 1625 ; 
M. P. for London, 1628-29. He was 
an alderman for many years from Bil- 
lingsgate ward, and governor of the 
Eastland Company ; Lord Mayor of 
London, 1635-86 ; knighted at Hamp- 
ton Court, January 15, 1636 ; gov- 
ernor of the E. I. Co., 1638-41. Died 
November 11, 1641, and is buried in 
St. Andrew's Undershaft, London. 
He was a benefactor of the Ironmon- 
gers' Company and of Christ Church 



Hospital, of which he was president, 
" where there is a good portrait of him." 

Clifford, George, Earl of Cumber- 
land. Born August 8, 1558; educated 
at Cambridge and at Oxford, where he 
studied mathematics and geography ; 
married Margaret, daughter of Francis 
Russell, second Earl of Bedford, June 
24, 1577; was interested in Frobisher's 
voyages, 1676-78 ; sent a ileet to the 
river Plate, South America, 1586-87 ; 
served against the Armada, 1588 ; his 
second voyage, 1588 ; his celebrated 
voyage to the Azores, 1589 ; succeeds 
old Sir Henry Lee as the queen's 
knight, November 17, 1690. He con- 
tinued to make raids on the commerce 
of Spain, sometimes going in person. 
He sent out his twelfth voyage in 1698. 
His name is first on the list of incor- 
porators of the E. I. Co., December 
31, 1600. Appointed governor of the 
Scottish Marches, June 8, 1603. Died 
at the Savoy in the Strand, October 
30, 1605. " He was by nature what 
the heroes of chivalry were from fash- 
ion." His only daughter, Anne, was 
equally celebrated. She married, first, 
Richard Sackville, second Earl of Dor- 
set, and secondly, Philip Herbert, Earl 
of Montgomery. She lived until 1675, 
and died in her 87th year. 

Clifford. See Russell — Clifford. 

Clinton, Edward, Earl of Lincoln. 
Born in 1612 ; was long lord high 
admiral ; created Earl of Lincoln, 
May 4, 1572. He was interested in 
the voyages of Frobisher, 1576-78, 
and Fenton, 1682-83. Died January 
16, 1586, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Henry. 

Clinton, Henry, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £50. Second Earl of Lincoln. 
The eldest son of Edward, first Earl 
of Lincoln, by his second wife, Ursula, 
daughter of William Lord Stourton ; 
was one of the fifteen knights of the 
Bath, made September 29, 1553, two 
days before the coronation of Queen 
Mary. May 26, in 14 Elizabeth, he 
accompanied his father, the Earl of 
Lincoln, in his embassy to the French 
Court. January 16, 1585, he succeeded 
his father as Earl of Lincoln. " In 
29 Elizabeth he was one of the Peers 
in commission, for the tryal of Mary, 
Queen of Soots ; and was also com- 
missioned for the tryal of Secretary 
Davison." " In 31 Elizabeth, he was 



856 



CLINTON — COLTHUKST 



one of the Peers on the tryal of Philip 
Howard, Earl of Arundel, April 14." 
Ambassador to the Landgrave of 
Hesse in 1596. " In 1601, he was one 
of the commanders of the Forces that 
besieged the Earl of Essex in his 
house, and obliged him to surrender ; 
and was afterwards on his tryal, Feb- 
ruary 10, in Westminster-hall. On 
the decease of Queen Elizabeth, March 
24, 160|, he was one of the Privy 
Council that signed the letter at the 
palace of White-hall on March 28, 
1603, to the Lord Eure, and the rest 
of the commissioners for the treaty of 
Breame, directing thein how to pi'o- 
ceed." M. C. for Va., 1608. He died 
in September, 1615 (not 1616 as gener- 
ally stated). His daughter Eliza- 
beth married Sir Arthur Gorges. A 
granddaughter. Lady Frances Fynes, 
married John, eldest son of Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges; another granddaugh- 
ter. Lady Arabella Johnson, came to 
New England. He was ancestor of 
Sir Henry Clinton, K. B., a command- 
er-in-chief of his majesty's land forces 
in America during the Revolution, and 
of the present Duke of New Castle. 

Cobham, Lord. — Henry Brooke. 

Cockayne, 'Williani, skinner, a 
great merchant of London, first gov- 
ernor of the Irish Company. He was 
not a member of the Va. Co. until 
May 17, 1620 ; knighted in 1616 ; for 
many years an alderman of London ; 
was lord mayor in 1619-20 ; died 
October 20, 1626 ; buried at St. Paul's 
Cathedral. 

Cockes — Cocks — Coxe, Rich- 
ard, 2. Sub. ; pd. £25. Of the 

E. I. and Kus. companies, and chief of 
the iirst English factory in Japan. 

Cockes (etc.), Robert, grocer, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. . A member of 

the Court of Assistants, 1605, and 
warden of the Grocers, 1609. Died 
September 20, 1609, aged 47. 

Codrington, Simon. Probably son 
of Simon Codrington by his wife, 
Mary Kelway (or Callaway), and if 
so, the grandfather of Christopher 
Codrington, Esq., who went to the 
Barbadoes in the time of Charles I., 
from whom I, and many other Ameri- 
cans, descend. 

Coitmore (Coytmore — Cote- 
more, etc.), Rowland, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Served in the Drake-Haw- 



kins voyage to America, 1595. " A 
Fair Gallery was built on the south 
side of the Chappel of St. John's at 
Wappin, with part of the Benevolence 
that was given for the Use of the 
Chapel by the Mariners that went to 
the East Indies in 1616, in the Royal 
James, under the command of Capt. 
Martin Pringe, procured by the care 
of Master Rowland Coetmore then 
Master of the said ship, and now at 
the building hereof Warden of the 
Chapel, 1622." He died in 1626, and 
was a benefactor of the Trinity House. 
His widow and children went to New 
England about 1636. (See "N. E. 
Reg.," 1880, p. 253, and 1886, p. 160.) 

Coke, Sir Edward, "Lo. chief 
justice." " Born 1552 ; called to the 
bar, April 20, 1578 ; solicitor-general, 
June, 1592 ; conducts prosecution of 
Essex and Southampton, February, 
1601 ; knighted May, 1603 ; conducts 
prosecution of Raleigh, 1603 ; chief 
justice of the King's Bench, October, 
1613 ; privy councilor, November, 
1613 ; dismissed from Privy Council, 
June 30, 1616 ; discharged from office 
of chief justice, November 15, 1616 ; 
reinstated as privy councilor, Sep- 
tember, 1617 ; one of the managers 
of the impeachment of Bacon, 1621 ; 
died at Stoke Pogis, Bucks, Septem- 
ber 3, 1633." (Gates.) He was the 
early friend of Roger Williams, the 
father of the Baptists in America. 

Coke — Cooke, Captain John, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £25. Was this the 

secretary of state (born 1563 ; died 
1644) ; knighted September 9, 1624, 
and appointed secretary in 1625 ? 

Coke — Cooke, Sir "William, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £25. M. P. Helston, 

1598-99; Westminster, 1601; Wigan, 
1604-11, and Gloucestershire, 1614 ; 
knighted May 7, 1603 ; was of High- 
ham, County Gloucester ; married 
Lucy, daughter of Sir Thomas Lucy 
of Charlecote. Died in 1618. 

Colby, Edmund. Pd. £12 10s. 
Died ill Virginia before 1621. 

Colepeper. See Culpeper. 

Collins, Henry, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£12 10s. 

Colthurst, Henry, grocer, 2. Sub. 

; pd. . " Admitted to the 

freedom, 1567 ; to the livery, 1578 ; 
sealed the oath of allegiance to Queen 
Elizabeth, November 6, 1584 ; admit- 



COLTHURST — COMPANIES OP LONDON 



857 



ted to Court of Assistants, March 18, 
1585 ; junior warden, 1687 ; died 
about 1610, and his son Thomas was 
admitted by patrimony and sworn to 
freedom. May 23, 1610." (Grocers' 
Records.) His son Thomas held two 
shares in Virginia, possibly by inherit- 
ance. 

Colthurst, Thomas. Pd. £26. 

Columbus, Christopher. Born 
about 1445 ; saw land in the West 
Indies, October |2, 1492 ; died 1506. 

Comock — Conook — Camook, 

etc., Captain Thomas, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £26. Son of Thomas Camoek, 
Esq., and his wife, Frances Rich, aunt 
of Robert Rich, second Earl of War- 
wick. Capt. Thomas Camook after- 
wards emigrated to New England, and 
died there about 1642. He was for a 
time in the Bermudas. 

Companies of Iiondon, 1606- 
1616. — I. The Local Mebchant 
Companies. The first twelve are the 
chief ; they are styled " the Honor- 
able," and the Lord Mayor of London 
is chosen annually from one of them. 
I will give these first companies in the 
order of their rank. The others will 
follow in alphabetical order for more 
convenient reference. See the reports 
of the City Companies' Commission 
published in 1884, which gives most 
ample particulars. 

Mercers, 2. Sub. -; pd. £200. 

Incorporated in 1393. (See Herbert's 
" History of the Twelve Livery Com- 
panies of London.") The Mercers 
bear for their arms " a virgin," and the 
company's song begins ; — 

*' Advance the Virgin, lead the Van, 
Of all that are in London free 
The Mercer is the foremost man 
That founded a society. 
OHORtTS. Of all the trades that London grace 
We are the first iu time and place." 

I have identified ten mercers, who 
contributed about £600 to the Ameri- 
can enterprise. 

Grocers, 2. Sub. ; pd. £487 

10s. " The main stock from which 
the company arose was the Guild of 
Pepperers ; the earliest notice of 
which is found in the Pipe Rolls, A. 
D. 1180, and seem from the first to 
have had to do with the Great Beam, 
" Peso Orosso," the merchant's weight 
of 15 oz. to the pound by which the 
king's import tax was levied. The 
word Qrossarius of Soper Lane is first 



found 1310. In the year 1328 the 
Pepperers appear in city records as 
Grossarii. In 1345 they call them- 
selves in their own Archives "The 
Fraternity of St. Antony of the Com- 
panions of Pepperers of Soper Lane " 
(the disciples of St. Antony of 
Egypt who introduced sterling money 
(1180) and the art of weighing by a 
ilxed standard of value, the sterling 
penny or pennyweight, A. D. 1266). 
In 1365 they appear in the city record 
as " Mestere Grossariorum Pipperari- 
orum et appotecariorium." From the 
year 1376 this association has been 
known as "The Grocers of London." 
The motto of the company is " God 
grant grace." With the assistance of 
Mr. Kingdon I have identified seventy 
grocers as having contributed about 
£2,600 to the American enterprise. 

Drapers, 2. Sub. ; pd. £160. 

Incorporated 1430. Motto: "Unto 
God only be Honour and Glory." I 
have identified twenty drapers as hav- 
ing contributed about £800. 

Fishmongers, 2. Sub. ; pd. 150. 

The salt fishmongers were incorpo- 
rated in 1433, stock in 1509, and the 
two united in 1536. Motto: "All 
worship be to God only." Members 
of this Guild contributed over £1,000. 

Goldsmiths, 2. Sub. ; pd. £200. 

Incorporated 1327. I have identified 
twelve goldsmiths, who contributed 
about £600. Motto : " Justitia, Vir- 
tutum Regina." 

Skinners, 2. Sub. ; pd. . 

Incorporated 1327. They were also 
called Tanners. Motto : " To God 
only be all glory." Ten members of 
this Guild contributed about £700. 

Merchant-Taylors, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £200. Incorporated 1416. Mot- 
to : " Concordia parva res erescunt." 
Twenty members of this Guild contrib- 
uted about £1,200. 

Haberdashers, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. Incorporated 1447. "They 

were also called Milleners, from the 
place Milain in Italy, whence the com- 
modities they dealt iu chiefly came." 
Motto : " Serve and obey." Twelve 
members contributed about £500. 

Salters, 2. Sub. ; qd. £50. 

Incorporated 1558. Motto : " Sal 
Sapit Omnia." Two members contrib- 
uted £130 16s. 

Ironmongers, 2. Sub. j pd. 



858 



COMPANIES OF LONDON 



£133 6d. 8s. Incorporated 1462. 
Motto : " God is our strength." Ten 
members paid £625. 

Vintners, 2. Sub. ; pd. . 

Incorporated in 1436 by the name of 
the " Wine-Tonners." Four members 
paid £220. 

Cloth-workers, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£100. Incorporated 1482. Motto: 
"My trust is in God alone." King 
James I. was a member of this Guild. 
Sixteen members paid £1,000. 

Armourers (1463), 2. Henry V. was 
a member. Sub. ; pd. . 

Barbers - Surgeons (1308), 2. Sub. 
; pd. £25. 

Basket Makers ( ),2. Sub. ; 

pd . 

Blacksmiths (1577), 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . 

Bowyers (1623), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. " In regard that the use of the 

Long Bow hath added no mean Hon- 
our to this Kealm of England, mak- 
ing it famous in far remote Nations ; 
They may well stand on a great 
Privilege of Antiquity, yet their in- 
corporating speaks but of the 21st 
year of the Reign of King James I." 
(Strype.) 

Brewers (1438), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

Brown Bakers (reincorporated 19 
James I.), 2. Sub. ; pd. . 

Butchers (1605), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. A very ancient company, but 

first incorporated 3 James I. 

Carpenters (1344), 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . 

Cooks (1481), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

Coopers (1501), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

Cordwayners or Shoemakers (1410), 

2. Sub. ; pd. . 

Curriers (1605), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

Cutlers (1417), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

Dyers (1469), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£75. 

Fletchers (1536), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£75. 

Founders (1614), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

Fruiterers (1604), 2. Sub. ; pd. 



Girdlers (1448), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£50. 

Glaziers (1637), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. It may be noted that all of 

these companies were certainly in ex- 
istence May 23, 1609 ; yet several ap- 
pear not to have been incorporated at 
that time. 

Imhroyderers (1591), 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £26. 

Innholders (1515), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. Their old motto was, " When 

I was Harbourless, ye lodged me." 

Joiners (1564), 2. Sub. ; pd. . 

Leathersellers (1442), 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £50. 

Masons ( ), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. " Being otherwise termed Free 

Masons, of ancient standing and good 
reckoning, by means of affable and 
kind Meetings divers times, and as a 
loving Brotherhood should use to do, 
did frequent this mutual Assembly in 
the Time of King Henry IV. in the 
12th year of his most gracious Reign." 
(Strype's Stow.) 

Musicians (1604), 2. Sub. 

pd. . 

Paint-stainers or Painters (1580), 2. 
Sub. ; pd. . 

Pewterers (1474), 2. Sub. ; pd. 



Plaisterers (1500), 2. Sub. ■ 

pd. . 

Plumbers (1611), 2. Sub. 



Sub. 



-;pd 



pd. 



Gardiners (1616), 2. Sub. 



Poulterers (1503), 2. 

pd. . 

Saddlers (1280), 2. Sub. ; pd- 

Scriveners (1616), 2. Sub. 
pd. . 

Stationers (1557), 2. Sub. ; pd 

£125. " The Company of Stationers 
of London was of great Antiquity, 
before the famous Art of Printing was 
invented or brought to England, as 
(for the most part) their dwelling in 
Pater-noster-Row, and the adjoining 
parts, can testify." Perhaps the iirst 
work printed in England was " The 
Game and Playe of Chesse ... by 
William Caxton. Fynysshed the last 
daye of Marehe, A. D. 1474." Caxton 
was free of the Mercers' Company. 
Stow says, " The iirst of the Corpora^ 
tion of Stationers, which I have met 
with, who practised the Art of Print- 
ing Books, were Wynkyn de Worde, 



COMPANIES OF LONDON 



859 



and one Pynson, who both flourished 
in the Reign of Henry VII. and in the 
beginning of the Reign of Henry VIII. 
And, also, Thomas Godfrey, who 
printed about the same time." " In 
1533 there were within the Realm of 
England a great Number, cunning and 
expert in the Science and Craft of Print- 
ing." Books and papers were for- 
merly sold only in stalls ; hence the 
dealers were called stationers. The 
company received their first charter of 
incorporation the fourth day of May, 
1557. Sir William Cecil, afterwards 
Lord Burghley, was the great patron 
of this company. They were " Print- 
ers, Booksellers, and such as sell Pa- 
per and Parchment, and Blank Books 
bound up for the use of Tradesmen 
and merchants." " In 1575 there were 
175 Stationers in London, and of these 
140 came to their Freedoms in the com- 
pany since the access of Queen Eliza^ 
beth to the crown. So much did 
Printing and Learning come in re- 
quest under the Reformation." 

The press and the Reformation 
were the leading factors in laying the 
foundation of the English colonies in 
America. 

Three of this Guild were adven- 
turers to the amount of £225 ; but at 
least seventy others contributed in 
small amounts or in other ways, while 
the fruit of the press, without doubt, 
influenced many hundreds to take 
part in advancing the American enter- 
prises. 

Tallow-chandlers (1463), 2. Sub. 

; pd. . Motto: " Delight in 

,God, and he shall give thee thy 
Heart's desire." 

Turners (1604), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

Tylers and Bricklayers (1568), 2. 

Sub. ; pd. . 

Upholsters (1627), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

Wax-chandlers (1484), 2. Sub. 

Weavers (1184), 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. " One of the earliest incor- 
porations whose record has been pre- 
served." 

White Bakers, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£40. They were a company of London 
in the first year of Edward II., 1308. 

Woodmongers or Fuellers (1605), 2. 
Sub. ; pd. . 



Woolmen or Wool-packers ( ), 2. 

Sub. ; pd. . 

(All of the foregoing companies are 
still existing in London, except the 
Brown Bakers, White Bakers (now 
united into the Bakers' Company) 
and Woodmongers, and all of them 
have halls of their own, save the Black- 
smiths, Cooks, Musicians, and Turners, 
which companies transact their busi- 
ness at Guild Hall.) 

II. Using Shipping. There were, 
at least, ten, which may be divided 
into the following classes, viz. : — 

1st. Strictly Commercial, three. 

1. The Old Merchant Adventurers, 
trading to the Netherlands and Ger- 
many. 

2. The Merchants of Elbing or East- 
land Company, trading to the Baltic. 

3. The Merchants of the Levant, 
or Turkey Company, trading in the 
Mediterranean and overland to East 
India. 

2d. Commerce and Discovery, three. 

4. The Merchant Adventurers for 
the Discoverie of Regions unknown 
(1551); afterwards known as the Rus- 
sia or Muscovy Company. " They 
were at vast charges in fitting out 
great Numbers of Ships for the dis- 
covery of New Countries and Isles. 
They discovered (and traded in) the 
Cherry Islands, Greenland, Nova 
Zembla, Davyes's Streights, Groone- 
land, Hudson's Bay, the North of 
America," etc. One of their ships 
was the first English vessel (in 1553) 
to roimd the North Cape of Europe, 
and to enter the Great White Sea of 
Russia. Their ships brought the first 
colonists to Virginia in 1606-07. (See 
Sebastian Cabot.) 

5. The East India Company, trad- 
ing to the East Indies, incorporated 
December 31, 1600. 

6. The North West Passage Com- 
pany, incorporated July 26, 1612, to 
advance a trade through said supposed 
passage along the same and with the 
great kingdoms of Tartary, China, 
Japan, etc. 

3d. Commerce, Discovery, and Colo- 
nization, three. 

7. The Virginia Company of Lon- 
don, 1609. 

8. The Newfoundland Company, 
1610. (Not so especially a London 
company.) 



860 



COMPANIES OF LONDON — CONWAY 



9. The Bermudas or Somers Island 
Company, 1616. 

4th. Commerce and Plantation, one. 

10. The Irish Plantation Society, 
first known as "The Governor and 
Assistants of the new Plantation in 
Ulster, within the realm of Ireland," 
and afterwards as the " Irish Society." 
It was incorporated March 29, 1613, 
but had been under consideration since 
1605, and many emigrants from Scot- 
land and England had settled in Ul- 
ster before this patent was granted. 
Although many of those interested in 
Virginia were also interested in Ire- 
land, yet from the beginning this 
plantation was a hindering rival to the 
Virginia enterprises ; as early as Octo- 
ber 2, 1605, Chichester wrote to Salis- 
bury, " that it was absurd folly to run 
over the world in search of colonies in 
Virginia or Guiana, whilst Ireland was 
lying desolate," and as soon as the 
great city companies of London ac- 
quired their plantations in Ireland 
(1613-14), they ceased to take any 
farther interest in their corporate ca- 
pacity in Virginia. But they were 
still, in a certain sense, planting Vir- 
ginia, for about a century afterwards 
many of the descendants of the Scotch- 
English settlers, bred on Irish soil, 
and known in our annals as Scotch- 
Irish, emigrated to Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, and the Carolinas. 

Note. — Of these companies 4, 5, 6, 
7, and 9 were largely under the man- 
agement of one man. Sir Thomas 
Smythe, who was also a leading mem- 
ber of the Turkey Company (3). The 
motives of these companies were in 
many respects very similar, and we 
cannot readily understand perfectly 
the movements of one unless we have 
a correct idea of the others. The rec- 
ords of 4 were destroyed in the fire 
at the Koyal Exchange, where it then 
had its ofQoes in 1666. The records 
that remain of 6 have been carefully 
calendared by Mr. Sainsbury, as have 
also those which remain of Nos. 6, 7, 
and 9. Many members of the East 
India Company (5) were also of the 
Virginia Company (7), and it was this 
element which was, so naturally, ur- 
gently anxious to find some " ready 
way " through America to East India. 
Evidently many of the Russia Com- 
pany (4) were also interested in the 



American enterprise. In fact, we find 
the same great leaders in all of these 
great companies for commerce, dis- 
covery, and for colonization. 

Compton, ■William Lord, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £100. Succeeded his father 

as Baron Compton in 1585 or 1689 ; 
summoned to Parliament, 1693 ; es- 
corted Queen Anne from Scotland to 
England, May to June, 1603 ; made a 
Kuight of the Bath, January 6, 1605 ; 
attended King James to Oxford, and 
was created a Master of Arts of that 
university, August 30, 1605 ; Lord 
President of Wales, November 16, 
1617 ; Earl of Northampton, August 
2, 1618 ; knight-companion of the 
most noble order of the Garter, April 
11, 1629. Died June 24, 1630, at his 
lodgings in the Savoy, London, and 
was buried at Compton with his an- 
cestors. He married Elizabeth, only 
daughter of the rich Sir John Spencer, 
Lord Mayor of London, and thereby 
hangs many and many a tale. North- 
ampton County, Virginia, was prob- 
ably named for their son Spencer, 
second Earl of Northampton, who 
distinguished himself in the royal 
cause during the civil wars, and fell 
at Hopton Heath, March 19, 164§. 

Compton, William, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. Also of the E. I. Co. 

Conisbie — Connyngsby, Sir 
Thomas, 3. Sub. £60; pd. £50. 
Was of Hampton Court, County Here- 
ford ; son of Humphrey Coningsby, 
Esq. ; knighted by the Earl of Essex, 
October 8, 1591, before Rouen ; M. P. 
for County Hereford, 1593, 1597, and 
1601 ; sheriff, 1598. Died May 30, 
1625. 

Connock, Richard, esquire, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. £20. Of N. W. P. 

Co. ; auditor to Henry, Prince of 
Wales. 

Conryo (Conry), Florence, an 
Irish theologian, was born at Gal- 
way in 1560 ; implicated in a plot for 
a revolt in Ireland, 1607 ; became 
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam 
in 1609, and died at Madrid, Spain, in 
1629. 

Con-way, Sir Ed-ward, 2. Sub. 
£75 ; pd. £100. " Son of Sir John 
Conway, who being a person of great 
skill in military affairs, was made by 
Robert, Earl of Leicester, governor of 
Ostend. His son. Sir Edward Conway, 







MARY SIDNEY 
Countess of Pemb7'oke 



CONWAY — COOPER 



861 



succeeded to his father's martial skill 
and valor, and twisted therewith 
peaceable policy in state affairs ; so 
that the gown and the sword met in 
him in most eminent proportion." Sir 
Edward was knighted by Robert, Earl 
of Essex, at the sacking of Cadiz, 
where he commanded a regiment in 
1696, at which time, Lodge says, " he 
was a lieutenant-governor of the Brill." 
He served with distinction in the Neth- 
erlands, and was one of the govern- 
ors of the Brill, 1606-16. 

M. P. for Peuryn, 1610-11 ; M. C. 
for Va. Co., 1609. July 3, 1622, his 
son (Sir Edward Conway, Jr., who mar- 
ried Frances, daughter of Sir Francis 
Popham) was admitted into the Va. Co. 

In January, 1623, he was made one 
of the secretaries of state. "King 
James recommended him to the lords, 
for his birth, for his soldiery, for his 
languages, for his sufficiency, and for 
his honesty." M. P. for Evesham, 
1624-25. One of the principal sec- 
retaries of state during the troubles 
in the Va. Co. of London, 1623-24, 
he evidently took great interest and 
care in those affairs ; and from April, 
1623, to June, 1624, he wrote over 
twenty letters regarding them, which 
are still preserved, and probably many 
more, which are now lost. He was a 
member of the royal commission, ap- 
pointed July 16, 1624, for winding up 
the Va. Co., and at least fifteen of his 
letters, written July, 1624, to Sep- 
tember, 1625, regarding Virginia af- 
fairs, are still preserved. 

He was created Baron Conway of 
Ragley, County Warwick, March 22, 
1625 ; captain of the Isle of Wight, 
December 8, 1625 ; and was continued 
as a secretary of state by Charles I. 

« April 22, 1625. The Privy Council 
instruct Lord Carew and himself to 
take into consideration what forts and 
places of strength are to be erected 
and maintained in Virginia, and to 
give an estimate of the present charge 
and the annual cost to maintain them. 
April 29, 1625. He wrote to Sir 
Thomas Smythe, 'The committee for 
the Virginia business having referred 
to Lord Carew and myself the consid- 
eration of the state of that planta- 
tion,' 'Smythe is requested to send 
the names of such persons as may be 
of use to them in their proceedings, as 



also, the maps, relations, and papers 
which may be with him.' " 

Quere: What has become of these 
maps, relations, and papers ? I have 
evidence that many Virginia papers 
were preserved by Lord Carew ; but I 
have been unable to find any of them. 

Sir Edward was advanced to the 
Irish Viscountoy of Killultagh, County 
Antrim, March 16, 1627 ; to the Eng- 
lish Viscountoy of Conway of Conway 
Castle, County Carnarvon, June 6, 
1627, and about the same time made 
president of the Privy Council. 

In 1627 and 1628 his wife and him- 
self were interested in the Newfound- 
land Colony, and some time prior to 
March 30, 1628, he subscribed £100 
to the New England Colony. He died 
January 3, 1631, in St. Martin's Lane, 
London. 

He married, first, Dorothy (or 
Anne), daughter of Sir John Tracy, 
of Tedington, Gloucestershire, and 
widow of Edmund Bray. She was 
first cousin to Sir Thomas Dale's wife. 
She died in February, 1613, and Lord 
Conway married, secondly, Katharine, 
daughter of Giles Hambler, of Ghent 
in Flanders, and widow successively 
of Richard Fust, Esq., and John West, 
grocer. She was a member of the 
Va. Co. of London, and her name ap- 
pears in the lists of 1620 as " Mistris 
Kath : West, now Lady Conway." 
She was also interested in Newfound- 
land. A letter writer of London in 
March, 1615, says, " Sir Edward Con- 
way is to marry a grocer's widow in 
London ; she is lame and in years ; but 
is worth about £6,000." 

Con-way, Captain Thomas, es- 
quire, 2. Sub. ; pd. . 

Conway, Captain Thomas, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. . The first named 

was the brother of Sir Edward Con- 
way. The second was Sir Edward's 
son ; one of them paid £37 10s. They 
were both knighted on the same day 
at Theobald's, July 14, 1624. There 
was a relationship between the Con- 
ways and Sir Thomas Dale's wife (see 
Throckmorton pedigree). 

Cooper, John, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£25. 

Cooper, Matthew, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. 

Cooper, Richard, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. 



862 



COOPER — CORNELIUS 



Cooper, Sir Richard, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. . Of Surrey ; knighted at 

Whitehall July 23, 1603. 

Cooper, Robert, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £26. 

Cope, Sir Anthony, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £40. Of Hanwell, Oxfordshire 
(grandson of Sir Anthony Cope, vice- 
chamberlain to Catherine Parr, and 
one of the most learned men of the 
era in which he lived), the eldest 
brother of Sir Walter Cope ; was 
born about 1548. " In 1571 Mr. An- 
thony Cope, a zealous Puritan, was 
chosen member of Parliament for 
Banbury." He also represented Ban- 
bury in the six Parliaments, 1572-83, 
1586, 1588-89, 1592-93, 1597-98, and 
1601 ; sheriff of the county of Oxford 
in 1582, in 1591 (in which year he was 
knighted by Queen Elizabeth), and in 
1603 ; M. P. for Oxfordshire in 1604- 
11 and 1614 ; created a baronet Jane 
29, 1611 ; died in July, 1614, aged 66, 
and was buried in Hanwell Church. 
"He was committed to the Tower 
(February 27 to March 23, 158f ) for 
presenting to the speaker a Puritan 
revision of the Common Prayer Book, 
and a bill abrogating existing eccle- 
siastical law." ("Die. Nat. Bio.," Ste- 
phen.) 

Cope, Sir -Walter, 2. Sub. £75 ; 
pd. £215. " Grandson of Sir Anthony 
Cope, knight (see Sir Anthony Cope), 
and second son of Edward Cope, 
esquire, of Hanwell, Oxfordshire. Sir 
Walter was seated at Kensington 
House, Middlesex. Was member of 
the Elizabethan Society of Antiquaries ; 
M. P. for Weymouth, 1601 ; knighted 
at Worksop, April 21, 1603 ; M. P. 
for Westminster, 1604-11 ; M. C. for 
Va., November 20, 1606, and for Va. 
Co., May 23, 1609 ; one of the cham- 
berlains of the exchequer, 1609 ; mas- 
ter of the wards, November, 1612. 
He was one of the leaders of the time, 
in the efforts to create a foreign com- 
merce for Great Britain, and to estab- 
lish English colonies in America, a 
member of the East India, Mviscovy, 
Newfoundland, North West Passage, 
Somers Island, and Virginia compa^ 
nies. He was buried at Kensington, 
August 1, 1614. 

He was the friend and one of the 
executors of Robert Cecil, Earl of Salis- 
bury, and seems to have been the only 



one who took a prominent part in de- 
fense of that great statesman against 
those who had fawned on him while 
living and abused him when dead. 

** Among the faithless, faithful only he ; 
Among innumerable false, unmov'd, 
His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal." 

Sir Walter Cope married Dorothy 
(born 1562), daughter of Richard 
Grenville, esquire. He erected the 
celebrated Holland House (then called 
"Cope's Castle") at Kensington in 
1607, and left it to Henry Rich, Earl 
of Holland, governor of the company 
for Providence Islands (Bahamas), 
etc., who had espoused his daughter, 
Isabella Cope. 

Coppin, Sir George, 2. Sub £60 ; 
pd. £136. " Of Dunwich in Norfolk; " 
M. P. for New Romnev in 1597-98 ; 
knighted at Whitehall, July 23, 1603 ; 
clerk of the crown in chancery, May 3, 
1604 ; M. C. for Va., March 9, 1607 ; 
M. C. for Va. Co., May 23, 1609. 

On November 17, 1616, Mr. John 
Castle wrote to Mr. James Miller, " A 
thunderbolt hath fallen on the Lord 
Coke, which hath overthrown him from 
the very roots. . . . The supersedeas 
was carried to him the last week by 
Sir George Coppin, ... he received 
it with dejection and tears." 

Sir George Coppin was living July 
30, 1618 ; but probably died soon 
after. " He lies buried in the Church 
of St. Martin's in the Fields, West- 
minster, in the South He, under a very 
handsomely wrought and rich monu- 
ment." 

Coppin, Robert, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. He was on a voyage to 
Virginia, and I think he was the gun- 
ner of the Mayflower in 1620. 

Cordell, Thomas, mercer, 3. Sub. 
£75 ; pd. £50. Of the E. I. Co. He 
was first cousin to William Cordell, of 
Fulham, master cook to Queen Eliz- 
abeth ; " apprenticed to Anthony Hick- 
man ; admitted 1558 ; warden, 1582 
and 1590 ; master, 1596, 1605, and 
1612, when he died. He was an alder- 
man of London." (From Mercers' 
Records.) 

Cordoba (or Cordova), Don 
Louis de, related to the Marquis of 
Guadalcazar, Viceroy of Mexico in 
1620. 

Cornelius, John, goldsmith, 2. 
Sub. ; pd. £62 10s. Of the E. I. Co. 



CORNWALLIS — CORYATE 



863 



August 13, 1601, his wife was buried in 
St. Mary, Colecliurch. " She lieth be- 
fore the great Chest next the Jurie." 
(Parish Register.) He married Eliza- 
beth Butler, full sister to Capt. Na- 
thaniel Butler. 

Cornwallis, Sir Charles. Sir 
Thomas Cornwallis, comptroller of the 
household of Queen Mary, upon the 
accession of Elizabeth, being a Roman 
Catholic, was left out of the Privy 
Council, and removed from the comp- 
trollership. He married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Jerningham, and died 
December 24, 1604, aged 85, leaving 
two sons : " Sir William Cornwallis 
the elder" (of whom hereafter) and 
Sir Charles Cornwallis, of whom I 
write, who was knighted at the Char- 
terhouse, May 11, 1603 ; English am- 
bassador at the Court of Spain, 1605- 
1609 ; treasurer of the household of 
Henry, Prince of Wales, 1610-12; 
member N. W. P. Co., 1612 ; wrote 
" A Discourse of the most Illustrious 
Prince Henry, Late Prince of Wales " 
in 1626, which was published in 1641. 
He died December 21, 1629. He was 
the father of " Sir William Cornwallis 
the younger " (whom see). 

Cornwallis, Sir William the 
Elder, son of Sir Thomas, and 
brother to Sir Charles aforesaid. He 
lived at Highgate, was a near neighbor 
to Zuniga, the Spanish ambassador, 
and was quite certainly the " William 
Cornwallis the elder" of the letter. 
He married, first, Lucy, daughter of 
John Nevill, Lord Latimer (she was 
aunt to Capt. George Percy), and 
secondly, Jane, daughter of Hercules 
Mewtas, esquire. Frederick Cornwal- 
lis, his son by his second wife, was an- 
cestor to Lord Cornwallis of our Revo- 
lution. Sir William the elder died 
November 13, 1611. 

Cornwallis, Sir 'William the 

Younger, 3. Sub. £76; pd. . 

Son of Sir Charles, aforesaid ; prob- 
ably the " William Cornwallis " of the 
letter. He married, August 26, 1595, 
Catharine daughter of Sir Philip 
Parker, of Erwarton, Suffolk, who was 
probably " Madama Catalina " (Span- 
ish). He was the author and essayist ; 
dedicated his " Discourse upon Seneca, 
the Tragedian," to Sir John Popham 
in 1601. The date of his death 
seems uncertain. Some accounts place 



it as late as 1631 ; but Chamberlain 
wrote to Carleton on July 7, 1614, of 
his recent death. His second son, 
Thomas, was the commissioner of 
Maryland, 1638-59. I do not know 
whether it was Sir William the elder 
or the younger, who subscribed £75 
to the Va. enterprise ; but I suppose 
it was the younger, as it is his name 
in the third charter. One or the other 
was M. P. for Lostwithiel, 1597-98 ; 
knighted at Dublin, August 5, 1599 ; 
M. P. for Orford, 1604r-ll. It was, of 
course, " the younger " who was M. P. 
for Orford in 1614. 

Coryate, Thomas. Son of the 
Rev. George Coryate, rector of Od- 
combe, Somersetshire, was born about 
1577 ; entered at Gloucester Hall in 
the university of Oxford in 1596 ; left 
the university without taking a degree ; 
became one of the household of Henry, 
Prince of Wales, and " sweetmeats and 
Coriat made up the last course of all 
court entertainments." From May 14 
to October 3, 1608, he was traveling 
in France, Savoy, Italy, etc. He 
wrote an account of these travels, 
which was published, under the pat- 
ronage of Prince Henry, by W. S., in 
1611, with engravings by W. Hole, 
and mock commendatory verses by 
more than sixty writers of the day. 

In 1612 he again started on his 
travels. In 1613, kneeling upon a 
stone in the midst of the ruins of Troy, 
he was knighted by the name of the 
first English knight of Troy. 

** Coryate no more, but now a knight of Troy, 
Odcombe no more, but henceforth England's Joy. 
Brave Brute of our best English wits commended ; 
True Trojane from ^neaa race descended. 
Rise top of wit, the honour of our Nation, 
And to old Ilium make a new Oration." 

And this he proceeded to do, for he 
was as fond of making orations as was 
Capt. John Smith. 

He continued his travels to the east- 
ward, and in 1616, and after, he was 
with Sir Thomas Roe in East India. 
He died at Surat in December, 1617, 
"leaving enough written to fill the 
world with new relations and to have 
made any printer an alderman." Not 
knowing that he was dead, George 
Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 
his letter to Sir Thomas Roe, of Feb- 
ruary 19, 1619, " Wishes for Thos. Cor- 
yat's return to England, because he 
would report of the furthest eastern 



864 



CORY ATE — COTTINGTON 



countries in a better fashion than any 
Englishman hitherto hath been able. 
Recommends him to get together all 
the papers which Coryat hath written. 
The king blames Coryat for writing 
in his memoirs that he saw men have 
their eyes pulled out and their tongues 
cut off, which before an idol were 
speedily restored again. The king 
says this cannot be done by the power 
of Satan, and he is sure it is not by the 
finger of God." Purchas published 
some of his writings, and speaks well 
of him. His narrative is curious and 
interesting ; but greatly exaggerated. 
He traveled on foot over a large part 
of Europe and Asia, and signed his 
letters, "the Hierosolymit an-Syrian- 
Mesopotamian- Armenian-Median-Par- 
thian-Persian-Indian Legge-stretcher 
of Odcomb in Somerset, Thomas Cor- 
yate." 

Thomas Coryate and Capt. John 
Smith were both characters of the 
time ; both were vain men, and both 
wrote of countries then unknown to 
most Englishmen. One wrote of the 
Old World, the other chiefly of the 
New ; but Coryate's vanity did no 
harm. He was proud of his knowledge 
of Latin, Greek, and the Eastern lan- 
guages ; he had some right to be ; he 
was proud of having traveled far on a 
single pair of shoes, and he ardently 
wished to walk over the world. He 
did not come to America ; but would 
probably have done so, if he could have 
walked here ; and would have ex- 
changed brave orations with the learned 
Indians, as well as Smith. Smith's 
vanity took a more serious turn, and 
has done great harm. It has for over 
200 years destroyed the truth and the 
true idea of our earliest history. He 
was not only vain, but envious ; he 
took to himself the credit which rightly 
belonged to others. He cast a stigma 
on the real founders, and conveyed 
a selfish, narrow-minded idea of the 
founding of this country. 

Coryate wrote of lands and places 
from personal observation. Smith's 
descriptions are generally compilations 
from the writings of others, and fre- 
quently relate to countries and places 
which he never saw. It is his per- 
sonal narrative, however, which is most 
objectionable. 

Coryate's writings were as well sus- 



tained as Smith's. Not only Abbot and 
Purchas thought well of them, but 
many others. Aubrey goes so far as 
to say that " he wrote' faithfully, mat- 
ter of fact." Among the sixty writers 
of verses appended to his " Crudities " 
were Ben Jonson, Sir John Harring- 
ton, John Davis of Hereford, Inigo 
Jones, Chapman, Donne, Drayton, 
Lionel Cranfield, Laurence W hi taker, 
etc., and of the fourteen persons to 
whom he sent his " dutyful respect " 
from the « Court of the Great Mogoll," 
November 8, 1615, the following ten 
will be found in this Dictionary, name- 
ly : Sir Robert Cotton, John Donne, 
Richard Martin (the lawyer), Christo- 
pher Brooke, John Hoskins, George 
Gerrard, William Hackwell, Ben Jon- 
son, "Master Doctor Mocket," and 
Samuel Purchas. 

Cottington, Sir Francis. A 
younger son of Philip Cottington, of 
Godmanston, County Somerset ; born 
in 1576 ; at an early age received into 
the household of Sir Edward Stafford 
as master of the horse. " Stafford 
recommended him to Sir Robert Cecil, 
through whose influence he became 
secretary to Sir Charles Cornwallis in 
his embassy to Spain in 1605, and on 
Cornwallis's return in 1609 he was in- 
trusted, until about April, 1611, with 
the sole management of the affairs of 
England at that Court." Was ap- 
pointed a clerk of the Privy Council in 
1614. On the recall of Digby, in 
1616, he was again dispatched to 
Madrid to represent England at the 
Court of Spain, which he continued to 
do imtil 1621-22, when be obtained 
the office of secretary to Charles, 
Prince of Wales. He was created a 
baronet February 23, 1623 ; and in 
that year went with Prince Charles on 
his noted trip to Madrid, which re- 
sulted in a declaration of war (March 
10, 1624) with Spain, and a personal 
feud between Cottington and Bucking- 
ham, which lasted so long as Bucking- 
ham lived. 

Appointed chancellor and under 
treasurer of the exchequer, April, 
18, 1629. Sent to Spain to nego- 
tiate a peace in 1629 ; he executed 
this commission with the greatest 
credit, and returning to England in the 
spring of 1631, was on the 10th of 
July created Baron Cottington of Han> 



COTTINGTON — COVELL 



865 



worth. King Charles authorized him 
to exercise the functions of lord high 
treasurer during his absence in Scot- 
land, and he was made master of the 
Court of Wards on the king's return. 
Appointed one of the commissioners 
for the plantations in April, 1634. In 
1637, as master of the Court of Wards, 
he had supervision over Benoni Buck, 
the first idiot born in Virginia. 

He was appointed constable of the 
Tower of London in 1640 ; but in 
1641-42 he resigned his oiSces and re- 
tired into private life. In 1644 King 
Charles made him lord high ti-easurer, 
rather an empty honor at that time. 
His estates were confiscated by Parlia- 
ment in 1646, and he had fled to Nor- 
mandy in 1648. Joined Charles II. 
at The Hague in 1649, where he was 
sworn of his Privy Council, and sent 
ambassador to Spain, arriving at Ma- 
drid in November, 1649, and was dis- 
missed, after the news of Cromwell's 
decisive victories in 1650. In 1651, 
"weary of the world," he joined the 
Church of Rome, and retired to Val- 
ladolid, where he died in 1653, aged 
77. (He had been a Catholic at heart 
for many years.) His nephew and 
heir, Charles Cottington, Esq., had his 
remains brought over to England in 
1679, and interred in Westminster 
Abbey, where he erected a stately 
monument to his memory. 

Lord Cottington married Anne, 
daughter of Sir William Meredith, of 
London, and widow of Sir Robert 
Brett, but left no surviving issue. 
His grandnephews, Thomas and Philip 
Ludwell, came to Virginia, and were 
men of distinction there. 

Cotton, AUeine, draper. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £62 10s. Of E. I. and N. W. 
P. companies. Alderman of London ; 
sherifB, 1616 ; lord mayor, 1625-26 ; 
knighted at Whitehall, June 4, 1626. 
Died September 24 (or December 25), 
1628, aged 70 ; buried under a rich 
and very beautiful monument in the 
chancel of St. Martin Orgars, in 
Candlewick ward, London. 

Cotton, Sir Rowland, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Of Alkington, Salop ; 

eldest son of William Cotton, alderman 
of London; was knighted November 
13, 1608 ; M. P. Newcastle-under- 
Lyme, 1609-11 ; Salop, 1626 ; New- 
castle-under-Lyme, 1628-29. Died in 



1634. Fuller speaks "of the valor 
and activity of this most accomplished 
knight ; so strong, as if he had been 
nothing but bones ; so nimble, as if he 
had been nothing but sinews." 

Cotton, Sir Robert. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. Eldest son of Thomas Cotton 
of Connington, Huntingdonshire, was 
born January 22, 1571 ; educated at 
Cambridge ; B. A., 1585 ; began to 
collect manuscripts, coins, etc., in 
1588, a pursuit which he continued to 
follow throughout his life ; joined the 
Antiquarian Society in 1590 ; M. P. for 
Newton (I. W.), 1601 ; knighted at 
Whitehall, July 23, 1603 ; M. P. for 
County Huntingdon, 1604-11 ; one of 
the commissioners on the state of the 
navy, 1608 ; created a baronet, June 
29, 1611 ; induced by Somerset to 
seek a private interview with Gondo- 
mar, 1615 ; he became intimate with 
that ambassador, and this intimacy re- 
sulted in his imprisonment, 1615-16 
(see Gondomar) ; but the friendship 
continued. He was M. P. for Old 
Sarum, 1624-25 ; for Thetford in 

1625, and for Castle Rising in 1627-28. 
He died at Westminster, May 6, 1631, 
and was buried at Connington. 

(See S. R. Gardiner's "History of 
England," 1885, vol. ii. pp. 321-347, 
for an account of Cotton's negotiations 
with Gondomar.) 

Coutts — Cutts, Sir John the 
Younger, 3. Sub. £75; pd. £75. Of 
Childerly, Cambridge, son of Sir John 
Cutts, Sr. ; was knighted at Charter- 
house, May 11, 1603 ; N. W. P. Co., 
1612. M. P. for County Cambridge, 
1604^11, 1614, 1621-22, 1624r-25, 1625, 

1626, and 1640 ; created a baronet 
June 21, 1660. Died in 1679, s. p., 
when he must have been aged. 

Covell, Francis, skinner, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £112 10s. He was 
buried in the parish church of Alhal- 
lows. Barking ; the inscription on his 
monument in the south wall gives a 
brief outline of his life. " In the He 
against this place lyeth the Body of 
Francis Covell, citizen and Skinner of 
London. He lived in this Parish 52 
years, was married to his wife Margery 
42 years, had issue by her, Thomas, 
his only son [see next]. He had borne 
office in his Company and this Ward, 
with good reputation ; was in his life 
religious, peaceable, and charitable, 



866 



COVELL — CRANFIELD 



and at his Death gave Cloathing to the 
poor of this Parish yearly forever. 
He lived 69 years and rendered his 
soul in Peace to God September 7, 
1625." 

Covell, Thomas. Sub. ; pd. 

. Son of the foregoing ; was a 

church- warden of Alhallows, Barking ; 
a member of the N. W. P. Co. He 
still owned lands in Virginia May 12, 
1639, and in a petition to the English 
Privy Council represented "that he 
had been an adventurer to Virginia for 
thirty years past." 

Coventry, Thomas, esquire, 3. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £12 10s. Born at 
Croome d'Abitot, in Worcestershire 




in 1578 ; gentleman commoner at 
Baliol College, 1592-94 ; entered a 
member of the Inner Temple, a stu- 
dent in the laws in November, 1594 ; 
autumn reader of the Inner Temple, 
1616 ; recorder of London, November 
16, 1616 ; solicitor-general, March 14, 
and knighted at Theobald's, March 
16, 1617 ; treasurer of the Inner Tem- 
ple ; ordered to execute the office of 
attorney-general, pending the com- 
plaints against Yelverton, June 28, 
1620 ; appointed attorney - general, 
January 11, 1621. He was consulted 
by the New England Company in re- 
gard to the renewal of their patent in 
May and July, 1622, and in January, 
1623. He had joined the Virginia Com- 
pany of London about 1610 ; but hav- 
ing failed to pay his subscription his 
membership was forfeited ; he again 
joined that company on July 3, 1622 ; 
was continually consulted during the 
factions of 1623-24, both by the king 
and company. Said to have condemned 
the charter as "an unlimited, vast 
patent." Was on the Virginia Com- 
mission of July 15, 1624 ; lord 
keeper, November 1, 1625 ; created 
Lord Coventry of Aylesborough, April 
10, 1628. Ordered the Massachusetts 
charter to issue, 1629 ; on the com- 
mission for plantations, April 28, 1634. 



Died at Durham House, Strand, Lon- 
don, January 14, 1640. He married, 
first, Sarah, daughter of Edward Se- 
bright, Esq., and, secondly, April 10, 
1610, Elizabeth, widow of William 
Pitchford, apothecary, and sister to 
Samuel Aldersey of the Massachusetts 
Company. 

Covert, Sir Walter, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. Knighted 1591; M. P. 
Sussex, 1586-87; Petersiield, 1593; 
Sussex, 1614 and 1626. 

Coxe. See Cocks. 

Coyse, 'William, esquire, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £100 ; of North Oken- 
den. County Essex ; son of Roger 
Coyse, Esq., of London, by Joane, 
daughter of Robert Warren, of London, 
gent. He married Mary, daughter of 
Giles Allen, of Haseleigh, Essex, es- 
quire, and had issue. 

Crakenthorpe, Rev. Richard. 
Born in Westmoreland, 1567 ; fellow 
of Queen's College, Oxford, 1598. In 
1603 went over champlain to the 
Lord Eure, sent ambassador to the 
King of Denmark and Princes of Ger- 
many, and here by use he got an easi- 
ness in the Latin tongue. Became 
champlain in ordinary to King James ; 
rector of Black Notley in Essex, etc. 
Died in 1624. 

Cranborne, Viscount. — Robert 
and William Cecil. 

Cranfield, Lionell, esquire, mer- 
cer, 3. Sub. ;pd. £3710s. Younger 

sou of Thomas Cranfield, mercer, of 
Loudon, by Martha, daughter of Vin- 
cent Randolph ; was baptized at St. 
Michael's Bassishaw, March 13, 1575 ; 
bred to mercantile pursuits, was an 
active and successful man of affairs ; 
appointed receiver of customs of 
Dorset and Somerset April 1, 1605. 
Lodge says his verses prefixed to 
Coryat's " Crudities " of 1611 " entitles 
him to the reputation of a smooth ver- 
sifier." Lieutenant of Dover Castle in 
July, 1613 ; knighted at Oatlands 
July 4, 1613, and made surveyor-gen- 
eral of c;i3toms July 26 ; M. C. Va. 
Co. ; master of the Court of Request, 
November 20, 1616 ; master of the 
wardrobe, September 14, 1618; master 
of the wards, January 15, 1619 ; chief 
commissioner of the navy, February 
12, 1619 ; member Privy Council, 
January 5, 1620; created Baron Cran- 
field of Cranfield, Bedford, July 9, 



CRANFIELD — CROFT 



867 



1621 ; lord treasurer, October 13, 
1621 ; Earl of Middlesex, September 
16, 1622. Much abused by the San- 
dys-Ferrar faction of the Va. Co., 
1623-24. Drew the 13th lot in New 
England, June 29, 1623. Incurred 
the enmity of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham and Prince Charles by murmur- 
ing at the expense of their journey to 
Spain, and the duke proceeded to have 
him impeached by Parliament. King 
James protested, told Stenny that he 
was a fool, and warned Prince Charles 
that " he would live to have his belly 
full of Parliament impeachments; and 
when I shall be dead, you will have 
too much cause to remember how 
much you have contributed to the 
weakening of the crown by the two 
precedents you are now so fond of ; " 
but, says Lodge, "the duke's power, 
supported by the prince's countenance, 
was grown so great in the two houses, 
that it was iu vain for the king to in- 
terpose." The Earl of Middlesex was 
impeached, and fined £50,000, May 
13, 1624; but on May 10, 1625, he 
was released from the fine, and on 
August 20, 1626, he was granted spe- 
cial pardon. (See Sir Abram Dawes.) 
He retired to his fine seat of Copt 
Hall in Essex, where, says Fuller, 
"he enjoyed himself contentedly, en- 
tertained his friends bountifully, his 
neighbors hospitably, and the poor 
charitably." He died August 6, 1645, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Crashaw, Ravsrley, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. He went to Virginia in 
1608 ; was a burgess in 1624, when 
he was living in Elizabeth Cittie and 
owned 500 acres by patent, between 
Fox Hill and Pamunkey River. 




Crasha^w, ■William, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. Sometimes classed as a 
Puritan divine and poet; was baptized 
at Handsworth, October 26, 1572 ; 
educated at Cambridge ; prebend in 
the church of Ripon, 1604; preacher 
at th« Inner Temple, London ; at 



Church of St. Mary Matfellon, or 
Whitechapel, London, November 13, 
1618; died in 1626. A good scholar, 
an eloquent preacher and writer, and 
a strong Protestant. He was the fa- 
ther of Richard Crashaw the poet and 
Roman Catholic. 

Craven, Sir William, merchant- 
tailor, 3. Sub. £75; pd. £75. Of 
E. I. Co. ; born at Appletreewick iu 
Burnsale, parish Craven, Yorkshire, 
about 1548 ; went to London seeking 
his fortune, and found it there ; alder- 
man of Bishopsgate ward, April 2, 
1600, to May 18, 1602 ; of Cord- 
wainer ward, May 18, 1602, to Jan- 
uary 15, 1611; of Lime Street ward, 
from January 15, 1611, to his death, 
July 18, 1618 ; sherifE of London, 
1601-02 ; knighted at Whitehall, July 
26, 1603 ; Lord Mayor of London, 
1610-11 ; president of Christ's Hos- 
pital, 1610-18 ; died July 18, 1618 ; 
buried at St. Andrew's Undershaft. 
(See Strype's Stow for his will and 
numerous charities.) Craven County, 
North Carolina, is named for his son, 
the very celebrated William, Earl of 
Craven. 

Creswell, Robert. Pd. £12 10s. 

Crew, Anthony, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. 

Crew, Sir Randolph (1558-1646). 
M. P. for Saltash in Cornwall, when 
speaker, 1614 ; sergeant at law, July, 
1615; chief justice of the King's 
Bench, January 26, 162 1. 

Crispe, Ellis, Salter. Newfound- 
land Co.; of E. I. and N. W. P. com- 
panies ; sheriff of London in 1625. 
The father of Sir Nicholas Crisp, the 
African trader. 

Croft, Sir Herbert, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Of Croft Castle, Hereford ; 

" grandson of Sir James Croft, who 
suffered severely in the reign of 
Queen Mary ; " educated at Christ 
Church College in Oxford ; M. P. for 
Carmarthenshire in 1588-89; for Here- 
fordshire in 1592-93; for Launoeston, 
1597-98 ; for Herefordshire in 1601 ; 
knighted by James I. at Theobald's, 
May 7, 1603; M. P. for Herefordshire, 
1604-11 ; M. C. for Va., March 9, 
1607 ; M. P. for Herefordshire in 
1614. In February, 1617, he became 
a monk in the College of English 
BenedioHnes at Douay. How long he 
had been a Romanist I do not know. 



868 



CROFT — CEOMWELL 



The letter writers of the period say 
that " he was ruined by the excesses of 
his wife," and Wood says, "that at 
length full weary of the fooleries and 
vanities of this world, he retired to 
Douay in Flanders, and was there re- 
ceived into the College of Benedictines, 
where he spent the remainder of his 
days in strict devotion and religious 
exercise. At length, after he had 
macerated his body with fasting, hard- 
ship, and devotion, he surrendered up 
his pious soul to the Almighty on 
April 10, 1622, aged 56." He was 
the father of Dr. Herbert Croft, 
Bishop of Hereford, a distinguished 
minister of the Church of England. 
Froude says his grandfather, Sir 
James Croft, the controller of the 
household of Elizabeth, was for a 
time in the pay of Spain ; and it may 
be that Sir Herbert Croft was an 
agent for Philip III. in the Virginia 
Council and Company. 

Croftes, Lieutenant, of Captain 
Bigg's company; probably continued 
the account of the voyage (1585-86) 
begun by Biggs. 

Cromwell, Henry, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. Of Upwood, County Hunts, 
third son of Sir Henry Cromwell, of 
Hinehinbroke, and brother of Sir Oli- 
ver. He was M. P. for Huntingdon, 
1604-11; died 1630. 

Croimwell, Henry, esquire, 3. Sxib. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £37 10s. The eldest 
son of Sir Oliver. He was the Colonel 
Henry Cromwell who took a very ac- 
tive part for the king, and had his 
property sequestered; but the Protec- 
tor (who in the worst of times was a 
kind and considerate kinsman) had the 
sequestration discharged July 9, 1649. 
Colonel Henry Cromwell died Sep- 
tember 18, 1657, and was interred in 
the chancel of Ramsey Church. (See 
Burke's " Vicissitudes of Families.") 

Crom-well, Sir Oliver, 2. Sub. 
£76; pd. £76. His grandfather. Sir 
Richard Williams, eldest son of Mor- 
gan Williams by his wife, a sister of 
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, as- 
sumed, at the desire of Henry VIII., 
the surname of his uncle Cromwell, 
and through the influence of that once 
powerful relative himself and his 
family obtained great wealth and sta^ 
tion. Sir Richard married, in 1518, 
Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Mur- 



fln (or Myrfln), then Lord Mayor of 
London (her sister, Alice Murfin, 
married Sir Andrew Judde, and was 
the grandmother of Sir Thomas 
Smythe, the first treasurer of the Vir- 
ginia Company), by whom he was the 
father of Sir Henry Cromwell, called 
"the Golden Knight," one of the 
wealthiest gentlemen of Huntingdon- 
shire, who married Joan, daughter of 
Sir Rafe Warren (twice Lord Mayor 
of London), and had issue, among 
others, Sir Oliver Cromwell (of whom 
I write), Henry Cromwell, Robert (the 
father of the Lord Protector), Eliz- 
abeth (the mother of John Hampden, 
the patriot), Frances (the mother of 
Edward Whalley, the regicide), and 
Joan, wife of Sir Francis Barington. 
Oliver Cromwell, of whom I write, was 
born about 1662-63 ; M. P. for County 
of Huntingdon in 1588-89, 1592-93, 
1697-98, and 1601. April 29, 1699, he 
stood godfather for his nephew, after- 
wards the Protector. He entertained 
King James, on his progress to Lon- 
don, from the evening of April 27 to 
the morning of April 29, 1603, most 
famously, at Hinchinbrooke. " There 
was such plenty and variety of meats, 
such diversity of wines, and those not 
rifE-rufE, but ever the best of the kind, 
and the cellars open at any man's 
pleasure." " Master Cromwell pre- 
sented his maiestie with many rich 
and acceptable gifts, as a very great 
and faire wrought standing Cup of 
golde, goodly horses, deepe mouthed 
houndes, divers Hawkes of excellent 
wing," etc. He was made a Knight 
of the Bath at the coronation of King 
James, July 26, 1603; M. P. for 
Huntingdonshire, 1604-11 ; M. C. for 
for Va., 1607; M. C. for Va. Co., 1609. 
He was master of the game to Henry, 
Prince of Wales ; M. P. for Hunting- 
donshire in 1614, 1623-24, and 1625. 
" At the outbreak of the civil war. 
Sir Oliver remained not an idle spec- 
tator, but enrolling himself under the 
royal banner (against his nephew), 
raised men, and gave large sums of 
money to support the king's cause ; " 
"and when that cause failed he re- 
tired to Ramsey Abbey, and died 
there August 28, 1665, in his 93d year, 
impoverished and broken-hearted, but 
still unshaken in his allegiance." He 
was buried in Ramsey Church. He 



CROMWELL — DALE 



869 



married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Bromley, lord chancel- 
lor, and, secondly, Anne, widow of the 
celebrated Sir Horatio Palavioino, but 
had issue by the first wife only. 

W. Dugdale wrote to John Lang- 
ley, from London, September 8, 1655 : 
..." Admiral Pen is come back 
from Jamaica with part of the Navy 
. . . The Protector hath been very iU 
the last week, but they say he is now 
recovered. His uncle. Sir Oliver Crom- 
well, is very lately dead by an unhappy 
accident ; for I hear that he was out 
in the rain, and after his return, sitting 
by a good fire without any company in 
the room, by some weakness or swoon 
fell into the fire, and was so scorched 
that he died about two days after." 

Crosley, or Crosby, William, 

grocer and apothecary, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £75. 

Crosse, Capt. Robert. Knighted 
at Cadiz, 1596; M. P. Minehead, 1586- 
87; Yarmouth, 1592-93, and Saltash, 
1601; died in 1611. 

Crowe, John, gent., 3. Sub. £37 
10s.; pd. £37 10s. He patented land 
in Virginia. 

Crowe, William. Pd. £12 10s. 

Cullimore — CuUiner — Colmer, 
etc., Abraham. Pd. £12 10s. 

Cullimore (or Collymore), James. 
Pd. £25. Of St. Thomas Apostle, 
London, merchant ; of the E. I. Co. 
His son, John Collymore, mercer, mar- 
ried, in 1604, Mabel Lovelace, of St. 
Bride, London, daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Lovelace, of the city of Canter- 
bury. Mabell Lady Cullamore held 
four shares in Captain Argall's plan- 
tation in Virginia, February 12, 161f. 

Culpeper — Colepepper, Sir Ed- 
ward, 3. Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. Of 

Wakehurst ; knighted at Whitehall, 
July 23, 1603. His second son, Wil- 
liam, was created a baronet by Charles 
I., September 20, 1628. 

Culpeper, John, esquire, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. He was after- 
wards knighted. His grandson, 
Thomas Lord Colepeper, was governor- 
general of Virginia. 

Culpepper, Thomas, of Wigsel, 

esquire, 2. Sub. ; pd. . I 

suppose this to be the Thomas Cole- 
peper who married a daughter of Sir 
Stephen Slaney. His daughter, Eliz- 
abeth Colepeper, was born at Wigsale, 



Surrey, in January, 1601, and mar- 
ried, in 1620, Sir Robert Brooke. 
Lady Elizabeth Brooke was a religious 
writer of note. 

Cumberland, Countess of. — Mar- 
garet Russell. 

Cumberland, Earl of. — George 
Clifford. 

Cunega. See Zuniga. 

Cutler, Thomas, grocer, 2. Sub. 

; pd. . " Thomas Cutler, son 

of Thomas Cutler, deceased, admitted 
and sworn a free Brother by Patri- 
mony, 18 Feb'y, 1604 ; admitted to 
Livery, 1609." (From Grocers' Rec- 
ords.) He was the father of Sir 
John Cutler, the celebrated miser, im- 
mortalized by Pope, who left his gains 
to good purposes ; was a benefactor 
of the Grocers, of the College of 
Physicians, Gresham College, etc. 

Cutts. See Coutts. 

Dabney (Daubeny, etc.), Henry, 
2. Sub. ; pd. £20. He was prob- 
ably the brother of Clement Daubigny 
(the inventor of an engine, to be driven 
by water, for cutting iron into small 
bars, licensed December 11, 1618), as 
the payment to the Va. Co. stands in 
the names of "Clement and Henry 
Daubny. " 

Dabney, Clement. See Henry 
Dabney. 

Dabney (Dawbeney, etc.), Oliver. 
" Of London, gentleman ; married 
Elizabeth Drayner, and left issue." 
He gave Mr. Richard Hakluyt of the 
Middle Temple an account of the voy- 
age of 1536, who related it to his 
cousin, the Rev. Richard Hakluyt, of 
Oxford. 

Dale, Sir Thomas, 3. Sub. £75 ; 
pd. £25. Entered the service of 
the United States of the Low Coun- 
tries with Essex about the year 1588. 
In 1595 he was sent by the Provinces 
into Scotland, where, it seems, he be- 
came one of the retinue of the infant 
Prince Henry, and remained with him 
some years, returning to the Nether- 
lands probably in 1603. 

" August 1, 1603, Resolution of the 
States General on the recommenda- 
tion of the King of France, to com- 
mission Captain Dale provisionally as 
captain of the infantry company of 
Captain Condegrave." 

"March 29, 1604, CecU wrote to 



870 



DALE 



^he English ambassador at The Hague, 
to inform him of the King's gracious 
opinion of the merit of Captain Dale, 
both for having been a valiant and 
long servitor of Prince Henry's, and 
for having, for the most part, resided 
at his own charge." Cecil continues, 
"His Majesty commanded me to ac- 
quaint you so much, to the intent, that 
in the alterations and removes of 
places among the companies, wiiere 
he is one, he may be respected, both 
for his own merit and his Master's 
(Prince Henry's) recommendation, 
who is persuaded of his honesty and 
sufficiency." 

June 19, 1606, while on a visit to 
England, he was knighted at Rich- 
mond by King James as " Sir Thomas 
Dale of Surrey." In November, 1606, 
he was stationed in Oudewater, a small 
city in South Holland, and probably 
remained in the Lov/ Countries until 
about the 1st of February, 1611, when 
he came to England, and entered the 
service of the Va. Co. of London ; was 
M. C. for Va. Co., and his acts from 
that time to June, 1616, belong to the 
history of that enterprise. On his re- 
turn, the celebrated John Eolfe wrote 
both to King James and to Sir Robert 
Rich, that " Sir Thomas Dale's worth 
and name in managing the affairs of 
this Colony, will out last the standing 
of this Plantation." The Rev. Sam- 
uel Purchas writes of Dale as " that 
worthy commander, and best estab- 
lisher of the Virginian Plantation," 
and he is highly spoken of in the 
Broadsides of the Council and Com- 
pany of Virginia. 

Ralph Hamor wrote in the highest 
terms of praise of him in 1614 ; but 
Hamor's name is signed to " A Briefe 
Declaration," etc., of 1624, which is 
not complimentary. 

March 31, 1617, Sir Raphe Winwood 
wrote fi'om St. IBartholomew's, Lon- 
don, to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambas- 
sador in the Netherlands: 

" My Lord. Sir Thomas Daale hav- 
inge for many yeares together resided 
in Virginia, as you know, about the 
service of this kingdome, is now re- 
turninge into those Provinces to his 
charge, from whence, although hee hath 
been longer absent then hee had li- 
cence of the states for his Warrant, 
yet beeiuge a principall man in an em- 



ployment of such consequence as that 
was, I assure myselfe you will labour 
soe effectually for him there, that he 
shall bee noe waye prejudiced thereby. 
If in any other occasions of his, hee 
shall stand in neede of your Lordship's 
favour, I pray you afford it him with 
much readiness, and give him at all 
times such countenance, and good re- 
spect, as you shall tbinck fitt for a man 
of his qualetie and meritt; whereby you 
shall not onelye engage a weldeserv- 
inge gentleman to your service, but 
purchase the thancks of many others 
in this state, whoe hold themselves 
much interested in his future weldoe- 
inge and advancement. Yo' Lp' to 
doe you service. Raphe Winwood. 

" [P. S.] His licence to goe to Vir- 
ginia was procured by myselfe at my 
being there, upon a letter from the late 
Prince Henry." 

The sickness of his wife prevented 
Dale from going over to the Nether- 
lands at this time, and this letter was 
not sent until October. On the 30th 
of September, 1617, Dale was among 
those applying for the command of 
the fleet of the English East India 
Company, and on November 28, 1617, 
he was chosen at a salary of £480 per 
annum. While the aforesaid applica- 
tion was pending, the following three 
letters were written. 

Sir Thomas Dale to Sir Dudley 
Carleton, October 18, 1617: "Right 
honorable. My absenc out of those 
provinces hath left me destytut of ac- 
quantce and frends, which makes me 
loth to truble your lordship with these 
lyens. So yt is that since 6 yeares has 
yt pleased the lord treassurer then to 
Imbark me for the plantation in Ver- 
gynia and used both his power and 
princ Henrys for my leave of the 
lords the states for 5 years. The which 
my lords the states granted, but they 
would deteyne my enterteynment to 
the tyme of my retorne, promising by 
their apostyll. If I retorned I should 
have it. M' Seorytarie that now is 
effected that leave, by order from the 
prince and the lord Treasurer that then 
was. At my departure, I marryed a 
wyfe, expecting my journey shoud 
not have bin so long as yt happened 
to be, and sine my coming home I bor- 
rowed 6 months after my travels for 
her sake, who then was sickly and so 




SIR PHILIP SIDNEY 



DALE 



871 



hath contynued, and since 3 months 
her sioknes hath much encreased and 
now I am afraid to loose her. This is 
the reason of my so long stay here af- 
ter my aryvall, which may passe for 
currant with good and honest hus- 
bands though not with my lords the 
states in matter of servyse. Now 
half a year sins I had a dispach from 
M' Secrytarie to your honer and ex- 
pecting every day a fit wynd to have 
brought me over to have dylyvered the 
letters myself I was stayed by the 
hand of God which hath ever syns 
lade heavye one my wyfe and yet is 
the occasion I come not now, by rea- 
son wherof I mak bould to send these 
letters unto your honer by my brother 
this bearer, and with all thes rude 
lynes to entreat your honors favour 
and assystanee unto my lords the states 
for excuse of my long absence, for I 
am gyven to understand that my lef- 
tenant (who is not the honestest there) 
doth make means for my company un- 
derhand, aleaging that I will com no 
more. Yt is true that at my departure 
my company was much In debt and I 
am given to understand my leftenant 
hath not lessened them but rather 
augmented them, and doth gyve out 
that the Stattes wyll not pay my En- 
terteynment for the tyme of my ab- 
sens, and that the solysiturs have got- 
ten leave of the lords the Stattes to 
arrest me at my aryvall, which is 
straing to me. Now I wou.ld entreat 
your lordship in the Interim of my 
coming (which I hop shall be in 20 
days) your honor would be pleased to 
make the lords the stattes acquaynted 
with my casse and the state of my 
bussynes. The Kings Majestye hath 
promysed me to wryet to your lord- 
ship conserning my bussynes to pro- 
cuer my pay and Mr. Secrytarie wished 
me to send his first letter over to your 
lordship, and withall I would entreat 
your lordship to advyse me of any 
means I may procuer from this state. 
M' Secrytarie tells me yt shall be 
effected before my going over. If 
your lordship please to take my bussi- 
nes into your favorall protextion you 
shall not only bynd a poore Gentyll- 
man unto you, but many honerable 
frends of myen wyll gyve your lord- 
ship thankes and so I commend my 
•ervyce unto your honer and rest. 



Your honers to be commaunded. 
Thomas Dale. 

" [P. S.] If I myght be so bould 
with your lordship, I would entreat 2 
or 3 words from your lordship for my 
better adresse in my bussynes." 

Sir Thomas Dale to Sir Dudley 
Carleton, November 6, 1617 : " Right 
honerable. Syns my last unto your 
Lordship yt hath pleased God to call 
Mr. Secrytarye to his mercie, by whos 
death, my loss is much in pertyculer, 
but the generall loss to all honest men 
is much more, by many he is much 
lamented, and wyll be myst both in 
our state and ther wher your lordship 
lyveth, I have syns his death spoken 
with his Majestye conserning my bussy- 
nes in those partes, who hath gyven 
order to Mr. Secrytarie Lakes to com- 
end my bussynes unto your Lordship, 
but as yet I have not my dispach. 
Now yf yt shall pleas you to geve me 
any advyse for any means els from 
hens, I know mj frends are such as I 
shall procure yt to second your lord- 
ship in my behalf. I must confesse 
my aequayntanoe is but smale with 
your lordship and my desserts lesse, 
yet yf yt shall please your lordship to 
favour me and my cause which is just 
and honest, you shall not only bynd a 
pour gentelman unto you, but noble 
frends of myne here wyll gyve your 
Lordship thankes and so I comend my 
servyse unto your lordship and rest. 
Your honers to be commanded. 
Thomas Dale." 

(The various documents given in 
this sketch of Dale have never been 
printed in full in the United States.) 

November 11, 1617, King James 
to Sir Dudley Carleton. James R: 
"Trusty and welbeloved wee greete 
you well : Sir Thomas Dale some- 
time servant to the Prince Henry our 
Sonne deceased, having a company in 
the Low Countreyes, was by him com- 
manded to attend the plantacion of 
Virginia, and that he might bee at 
Liberty so to doe, at the request of 
our said sonne, the States Generall 
gave him leave to bee absent, and that 
notwithstanding his absence, he should 
enjoy fully his pay, and thereof as he 
inf ormeth us there is an apostell extant. 
Having now left that service he re- 
turneth to his charge, and because hee 
is a Gentleman of good meritt, both 



872 



DALE 



in that service of Virginia whiles hee 
attended it, and before in the service 
of the United Provinces, Wee have 
thought it reasonable to call upon the 
States for the performance of that 
promise which in his favor they made 
to our said Sonne. And do therefor 
do require you to deale therein effect- 
ually, both with the Prince Maurice, 
and with the States Generall, and to 
procure for his satisfaction the arrear- 
ages of the time past, and continuance 
in the said pay and favor with them, 
as he was before his going to Virginia. 
Wherein wee hope the better of sue- 
cesse, because there is so good reason 
for the ground of our request, as is a 
promise made to a person of such qual- 
ity as was the said Prince. 

" Given at Our Court at Theobalds 
the 11th of November in the fifteenth 
yeare of our raigne of Great Brit- 
taine." 

Addressed : " To our trusty and 
welbeloved Sir Dudley Carleton, Knt., 
Our Ambassador with the States Gen- 
erall of the United Provinces." 

Dale was securing strong indorse- 
ments; he was not only afraid of being 
arrested for debt, but the States Gen- 
eral had sold his company to Captain 
Willoughby. He wanted his company 
or his pay, and probably there were 
other " bones of contention," and Dale 
evidently wished to be sure of his 
ground before crossing the narrow seas. 
On December 4, 1617, Sir Henry Sav- 
ile wrote by him to Carleton, "rec- 
ommending to Carleton Sir Thomas 
Dale, a friend of the Earl of South- 
ampton, who has done good service in 
the plantation of Virginia." Dale, who 
went over to the Low Countries him- 
self soon after the date of this let- 
ter, also carried letters from the Earl 
of Southampton (and probably from 
others) which are now lost, and a long 
letter from M. Noel de Caron (the 
Dutch ambassador in England) to the 
States General, which has been pub- 
lished in the first volume of " Docu- 
ments relating to the Colonial History 
of New York." Dale's petition, let- 
ters, etc., were presented to the States 
General by Sir Dudley Carleton Janu- 
ary II, 1618. These, together with the 
resolutions thereon (January 16 to 
January 30) are also published in the 
aforesaid volume. On January 30 the 



States General finally resolved to al- 
low Dale his full wages during his 
absence on condition that he would 
not claim his company of Captain 
Willoughby. Sir Dudley Carleton, in 
his address, presenting Dale's petition 
to the States General, says, " Captain 
Thomas Dale . . . for the space of 
some years having command and au- 
thority for planting a colony of the 
English Nation in the Country of Vir- 
ginia, whereof he hath acquitted him- 
self with reputation and honor to him- 
self, to his Majesty's satisfaction, and 
to the publick advantage, inasmuch 
as by signal patience, diligence, and 
valor, he overcame divers serious diffi- 
culties and dangers and finally estab- 
lished a good and permanent settle- 
ment all along a river navigable for 
seventy leagues into the interior, and 
by that means hath preserved it to 
God, by the exercise of Religion which 
is introduced there, and to man, by the 
augmentation of commerce. 

" Several of the nation, as well 
Lords as other gentlemen of quality 
and honor have considerably contrib- 
uted to this design. But two of our 
Captains (Sir Thomas Gates and this 
one of whom I now speak) have pro- 
moted it more than any other." 

Soon after receiving his full enter- 
tainment, £1,000, for the whole time 
of his seven years absence. Sir Thomas 
Dale returned to England. While he 
was absent, on January 16, 1618, King 
James, to give a more ample authority 
to the intended voyage to the East 
Indies, granted a special commission 
to " Sir Thomas Dale and Capt. Wil- 
liam Parker, authorizing the govern- 
ment of that fleet, as well by common 
as by martial law : also to seize on the 
ships and merchandize of any others 
of his subjects who should be found 
navigating within the company's lim- 
its without their licence," etc. 

On the 20th of February 161 1, he 
made his will, leaving all of his estate 
to his wife Elizabeth, six days after 
his fleet of six ships was in the Downs 
on the way to the East Indies. While 
he is on the voyage, I will mention 
some reflections which were being cast 
upon him at home. February 4, 1618, 
Sir Dudley Carleton wrote to Secre- 
tary (Sir Thomas Lake ?) of his suc- 
cess in obtaining Dale's back pay " in 



DALE 



873 



contemplation of his Majesties recom- 
mendation and of Sir Thomas Dales 
goode service in Virginia (wherein 
there is a comon interest)." Febru- 
ary 12, Carleton wrote to the Earl of 
Southampton that " Sir Thomas Dale 
by whom I receaved your letter, hathe 
fownde better successe and quicker 
expedition in his businesse then is or- 
dinarie with his masters (The States) 
in affaires of that nature ; . . . and 
though goode and due regard was had 
herein of his particular merit yet I can 
assure your Lordship he was not a lit- 
tle assisted by those recommendations 
wherewith he came accompanied." 

March 3, Carleton wrote again from 
The Hague to Secretary (Lake ?), 
" Hears that Sir Thomas Dale left the 
States service the very day of the re- 
ceipt of his money sans dire adieu, it 
being given out that he is employed 
into the East Indies by the King's 
command. Shall gladly receive some 
civil excuse, the King's name being 
interested both in Sir Thomas Dale's 
good treatment by the States, and in 
his ill manner of leaving their ser- 
vice." March 26, Secretary Lake re- 
plied to Carleton : " Your Lordship 
wrote to me of late of a fault of Sir 
Thomas Dale, which his Majesty and 
all men have condemned in him." 
This was evident diplomacy; the Dutch 
did not wish to establish a precedent 
for making such back payments, and 
King James knew that Dale was going 
to the East Indies. 

To return to Dale's fleet. On June 
20, 1618, they entered " The Road of 
Soldania;" November 19, arrived at 
Bantam ; December 23, in conjunction 
with Capt. Martin Pring, made an 
attack on the Dutch fleet, near the isl- 
and of Java ; "a cruel bloody fight," 
each side, it seems, claiming the vic- 
tory. March 15, 1619, Dale wrote 
from Jacatra to the E. I. Co., " should 
be glad to hear how Virginia pros- 
pers and his [Dale's] business goes 
forward there." July 23, 1619, the 
E. I. Co. wrote from London to Sir 
Thomas Dale in the East Indies, " with 
advertisement of the peace with the 
Dutch, and directions to him to take 
the command of the first fleet that shall 
be jointly set forth by the English and 
Dutch of sixteen or twenty good ships 
of war to prosecute trade on the coast 



of Malabar, and endeavour to open and 
enlarge trade with the Chinese by the 
advice of a Council of Defence, himself 
to be one if not employed at sea," etc. 

Sir Thomas Dale, with his fleet, ar- 
rived at Masulipatam July 19, and he 
died there August 9, 1619, " after 
twenty days of languishing sickness 
and many testimonies of good Chris- 
tianity, contempt of death, and singular 
zeal and affection towards the Com- 
pany's service, and his body was en- 
closed and housed in form of a tomb." 
" Whose valor having shined in the 
Westerne, was set in the Easterne 
India." 

In November, 1619 (before his 
death was known in England), Sir Ed- 
win Sandys, at the General Quarter 
Court of the Va. Co., "recalled to 
remembrance, how by the admirable 
care and Diligence of two worthy 
knights. Sir Thomas Gates and Sir 
Thomas Dale, the publick Estate and 
Revenue of the Company had been set 
forward, in a way to great perfection: 
. . . that Sir Thomas Dale building 
upon the Foundation [of Sir Thomas 
Gates] with great care and constant 
severity, had reclaimed almost mirac- 
ulously, those idle and dissolute Per- 
sons, and reduced them to Labour and 
an honest fashion of life : That pro- 
ceeding with great Zeal for the good 
of the Company, he had laid off pub- 
lick lands, to yield them a Standing 
Revenue, placed servants thereon, as 
also upon other publick works, for the 
Company's use; established an annual 
Rent of Corn from the farmers, and of 
Tribute from the Barbarians, together 
with a great stock of Cattle, Goats, 
and other animals." 

Sir Thomas Dale married, in Febru- 
ary, 1611, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Throckmorton and his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard 
Berkeley. Lady Dale was related 
to the wife of Sir Walter Ralegh, 
and also to the Berkeleys ; dying in 
1640 without issue, she gave to Mrs. 
Dorothea Throgmorton her lands in 
Charles Hundred, Virginia, and to the 
son of Richard Hanby (Hanbury ?) 
her lands in Shirley Hundred. One 
half of her estate in England and Vir- 
ginia, after the payment of her debts 
and legacies, she gave to the children 
of her brother, Sir William Throg- 



874 



DALE — DAVIS 



morton, knight and baronet, deceased. 
She gave her nephew (John) the Lord 
Viscount Seudaniore, a ring, valued at 
sixty pounds sterling." (See Throck- 
morton pedigree, and William Dale.) 




Dale, 'William, grocer. Son of 
Robert Dale, of Wingle in Prestbury 
in County Chester, and brother to 
Roger Dale, of the Inner Temple. 
He was a warden of the Grocers' Com- 
pany in 1614, and member of the E. I. 
Co. He married, in May, 1583, Miss 
Elizabeth Elliott, of St. Mary Mag- 
dalen, London, daughter of Thomas 
Elliott of Surrey, esquire. In 1613 
William Dale had a seat at Brigstock 
in County Northampton. I have reason 
to believe that he was related to Sir 
Thomas Dale. 

Danvers — Davers, Sir John, 3. 
Sub, £37 10s. ; pd. £25. He was the 
third son of Sir John Danvers by 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Neville, Lord Latimer (she was sis- 
ter to the wives of Henry, Earl of 
Northumberland, Thomas, Earl of Ex- 
eter, and of Sir William Cornwallis). 
Bom about 1588 ; married, in 1608, 
Magdalen, daughter of Sir Richard 
Newport (widow of Richard Herbert, 
Esq., and mother by him of ten chil- 
dren, including the noted Edward, 
Baron Herbert of Cherbury, and 
George Herbert, the poet), when 
she is said to have been over forty, 
and young Danvers under twenty. He 
was knighted at Whitehall, March 5, 
1609; M. P. for Arundel, 1610-11; 
for Oxford University, 1621-22, 1625, 
1626, 1628-29, and 1640; for Newport 
in 1624-25 ; and for Salisbury, 1646- 
53 ; M. C. for Va. Co., 1612-20. He 
was one of the Sandys faction in the 
Va. Co., 1622-24. His first wife died 
in June, 1627. He married, secondly, 
in July, 1628, and, thirdly, in January, 
1649, in his old age. On the special 
commission for the better plantation 
of Virginia, June 27, 1631. One of the 
judges who passed sentence on Charles 
I. in January, 1649, for which act he 
has been especially condemned because 



he had served in the household of the 
king, and had received many favors 
from him. " The Discovery of New 
Brittaine ... in Virginia " by Edward, 
son of John Bland, was dedicated to 
him in 1650. He was governor of the 
Bermudas Islands Company in 1651, in 
which year " A short collection of the 
Most Remarkable Passages from the 
Originall to the dissolution of the Vir- 
ginia Company " written in his inter- 
est, was published. The account in this 
tract giving to him the credit of having 
had the copies of the Virginia Records 
made is certainly inaccurate. The evi- 
dence that Nicholas Ferrer the young- 
er had this work done is conclusive. 
He died in 1655. It is said that he 
was the first to introduce into England 
the Italian method of horticulture. 

Darell — Darrell, Sir Marma- 
duke, 3. Sub. £76 ; pd. £50. 
Knighted in 1603 ; surveyor-general 
of victuals for the navy, etc. ; built a 
new church at Fulmere in Bucking- 
hamshire, which was consecrated by 
Doctor Barlow, Lord Bishop of Lin- 
coln, November 1, 1610. 

Darnelly, Daniel, grocer and apoth- 
ecary, 3. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £45. 
Buried in St. Mary Woolchurch Haw, 
London, May 24, 1623. 

Dausey, Ralegh. Sub. ; pd. 

£25. 

Davies — Davis, Captain James, 
died at the plantation over against 
James City, Va., in 1624. 

Davies. See Dawes. 

Davis, John, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£25. Possibly the poet of Hereford ; 
writing-master and Roman Catholic. 

Davis — Davys, Captain John. 
The " lovable John Davis " was born at 
Sandridge, near Dartmouth, not far 
from the Gilberts and the Raleghs, 
about 1550 ; he followed the sea from 
boyhood ; appears to have made voyages 
with Adrian Gilbert prior to 1579 ; 
with Gilbert he is in consultation with 
Dr. Dee in 1579-80 and 1583 ; in- 
terested in the Northwest charter of 
February 6, 1584. Davys made his 
first voyage June 7 to September 30, 
1585 ; his second May 7 to October 
6, 1586 ; and his third May 19 to Sep- 
tember 15, 1587. He published « A 
Traverse Booke " prior to March 25, 
1588, and probably served against the 
Armada in that year ; was command- 



DAVIS — DEE 



875 



ing a ship about the Azores, waiting 
for Spanish prizes in 1589 ; in the 
next year, 1590, he captured a Spanish 
prize, about which there was some 
contention ; was on the unfortunate 
voyage of Cavendish from August 26, 
1591, to the summer of 1593 ; pub- 
lished his " Seaman's Secrets " in 
1594, and " The Worldes Hydrographi- 
cal Description," in 1595 ; was prob- 
ably at Cadiz in 1596 and the Azores 
in 1597, in which last voyage Sir 
Arthur Gorges refers to him as " one 
John Davis, a great navigator reputed" 
(see Purchas, iv. p. 1967) ; became a 
retainer of the Earl of Essex, and at 
his suggestion entered the service of 
the Dutch, and " went as chief pilot 
to the Zelanders in their voyage to 
the East Indies," from March 15, 1598, 
to July 29, 1600 ; chief pilot of the 
first voyage sent out by the English 
E. I. Co. from February 13, 1601, to 
September 11, 1603. He sailed with 
Sir Edward Michelborne for the East 
Indies December 5, 1604, and was 
killed by the Japanese in the Straits 
of Malacca December 27, 1605. 

Davis, Sir John, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. Stith gives the name " Sir 
Thomas," but the Kimbolton MS. has 
it " Sir John." I can find no " Sir 
Thomas " at that time. I think it 
was Sir John Davies (1569-1626), the 
poet and attorney-general for Ireland, 
— the same who had the difficulty with 
Richard Martin, the lawyer. 

DaTwes, Abraiu, skinner, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £62 10s. Of the E. I. 
and N. W. P. companies ; one of the 
farmers of the customs to Charles I. ; 
knighted at Whitehall May 8, 1633 
(then described as " of Putney "), in 
which year he was a benefactor of 
Sion College Library and a commis- 
sioner for Va. ; commissioner for Va. 
tobacco in 1634 ; for the Caribbee Isl- 
ands in 1635, and still on the Va. Com- 
mission in 1638. In August, 1637, at 
a dinner given at his house, Mr. Bur- 
lamachi. Sir John Wolstenholme, and 
others being present, it was unani- 
mously agreed that no man ever suf- 
fered for so little as Lionel Cranfield, 
Earl of Middlesex. Dawes died about 
1640 ; his will is dated in 1639. He 
founded an almshouse in Putney, dedi- 
cated to the Holy Trinity, and was a 
benefactor of the Skinners' Company. 



Dawes, Lancelot, 2. Sub ; 

pd. £25. (1580-1654) he published 
several sermons. [This name is given 
as Davis and Davies ; but I believe him 
to be the Rev. Lancelot Dawes, D. D.] 

Da-wkes, Henry, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. 

Deane, Richard, skinner, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £50. Of the E. I. and N. 

W. P. companies ; son of George 
Dean, of Muohdunmowe in Essex. 
He was for many years an alderman 
of London ; sheriff in 1619 ; lord 
mayor in 1628-29 ; knighted at Green- 
wich, May 31, 1629 ; a benefactor of 
the Church of St. James, Duke's Place; 
died in 1635. He was a Puritan, and 
the uncle or great uncle of Major- 
General Richard Deane, the regicide. 

Decree — Dociwra, Benjamin, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. He was a 

member of and an agent for the Mus- 
covy Company, also of E. I. and N. 
W. P. companies. (It was a member 
of his family, I suppose, who first ad- 
justed the penny post for London and 
the suburbs.) 

Dee, Dr. John. Born July 13, 
1627 ; at Cambridge 1542-46. « In 
May, 1547, he went into the Low 
Countries to confer with learned men. 
On his return home he brought with 
him the first astronomer's staff of 
brass, devised by Genmaa Frisius, the 
two great globes constructed by Ge- 
rard Mercator," etc. ; M. A., Cam- 
bridge, 1547 ; on the continent, 1548- 
50, intimate with Gerard Mercator ; 
in England, 1551-62 ; imprisoned by 
Queen Mary, 1564-55 ; taken into the 
service of Queen Elizabeth, 1558 ; on 
the continent, 1562-63 ; in England 
(save brief absences in 1571 and 1578) 
from 1564 to 1583. His " Perfect Art 
of Navigation " was published in 1576 ; 
had a noted consultation with Sir H. 
Gilbert, November 6, 1577 ; was inter- 
ested in Frobisher's voyages, 1576- 
78; was constantly consulted about 
discoveries of unknown things in the 
heavens above and the earth beneath ; 
was interested in Adrian Gilbert's and 
John Davis's N. W. charter February 6, 
1584 ; but had left England privately 
before that date, and was absent on 
his celebrated European trip from 
September, 1583, to December, 1589, 
from which last date he probably re- 
mained in England to his death at 



876 



DELAUN — DEQUESTER 



Mortlake in December, 1608. One 
of the most remarkable characters of 
a very remarkable age. 

Delaun, Gideon, apothecary. Pd. 
£37 10s. Of London, and of Shar- 
sted, Kent, eldest son of William De- 
laune, a French Protestant pastor and 
doctor in phisick ; was born at Rheims 
about 1665 ; accompanied his father 
to England, and was appointed apothe- 
cary to Arnie of Denmark, queen of 
James I.; of the N. W. P. Co. in 1612. 
"March 7, 1613, grant by Wm. Se- 
gar, garter king-at-arms, to Gideon 
Launey, the king's servant, and his 
brothers, sons of Dr. Wm. Launey, 
who died in London in 1610, of the 
arms of the family of Launey, of Bel- 
mesnil, in Normandy, from which they 
are descended." In 1617 the Apothe- 
caries were first incorporated as a sep- 
arate and distinct company from the 
Grocers, it is said, at the special suit 
of Gideon Delaune, who was a member 
of the first court of assistants of the 
company ; junior warden in 1624 ; 
senior warden in 1627 ; and master of 
the company in 1637. He may not 
have been the first pill-maker, but he 
was the originator of a long famous 
pill. February 19, 1623, he transferred 
two shares of his lands in Virginia to 
his son Abraham. He was also a 
member of the E. I. and S. I. com- 
panies ; died in 1659, aged 94. He 
married Judith, daughter of Henry 
Chamberleine, of London, gent., and 
his son Abraham married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Richard Sandys, of 
Northbourne Court, Kent. 

De la Warr, Lord. — Thomas 
West. 

Delbridge, John, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. Merchant of Barnstaple ; 
member of the E. I. Co., N. W. P. 
Co., etc. ; was M. P. for Barnstaple, 
1614, 1621-22, 1624-25, 1625, 1626, 
and 1628-29. We find his ships making 
trading and fishing voyages to Vir- 
ginia, the Bermudas, and New England. 
He was called " The Free Trader." 
In 1619 he patented lands in Virginia, 
and petitioned the Virginia Company 
" that for the defraying somewhat of 
his charges in settling his plantation, 
that he might be admitted to fish at 
Cape Cod," which request was opposed 
by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, " aleaginge 
that he always favored Mr. Delbridge, 



but in this he thought himself some- 
thing touched that he should sue to 
this company, and not rather to him, 
as proplie belonging to the North 
Colony," etc. He received a patent 
for lands in New England November 
26, 1632. 




Denmark. See Christian IV. 

Dennis, Sir Thomas, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £105. Of Bicton and Holcombe, 
Devon, grandson of Sir Thomas Den- 
nys (M. P. for Devon, 1629, with whom 
he is often confused) ; was born about 
1659 ; knighted by Robert, Earl of 
Leicester, in Holland in 1586 ; M. P. 
for Devon, 1593 ; died in 1613. He 
married Anne, daughter of William 
Powlet, Marquis of Winchester, and 
left two daughters, co-heirs, Anne, who 
married Sir Henry RoUe, to whom he 
gave Biston, and Margaret, who mar- 
ried Sir Arthur Manwaring, to whom 
lie gave Holcombe. 

Denny, Edward Lord, 3. Sub. 

; pd. £13 6s. 8d. Born August 

14, 1669 ; M. P. Liskeard, 1586-87 ; 
knighted in 1687 ; M. P. for Tregony, 
1697-98 ; sheriff of Hertfordshire, 1603 ; 
M. P. Essex, March 19 to October 27, 
1604 ; created Baron Denny of Wal- 
tham, October 27, 1604 ; Earl of Nor- 
wich, October 17, 1626 ; died in 1630 
without male issue. He married Mary, 
daughter of the first Earl of Exeter. 

Denton, Sir Thomas, 3. Sub. 
£75 ; pd. £37 10s. Only son of Alex- 
ander Denton, Esq. ; was of Hillers- 
down or Hillesdon, County Bucks; born 
about 1556 ; sheriff of Bucks, 1599 ; 
knighted, 1603 ; M. P. for Bucking- 
ham town, 1604-11, 1614, 1621-22, 
1624-26, and 1628-29 ; for County 
Bucks, 1625 ; died in September, 1633. 

Dequester — de Quester, Mat- 
thew, 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £87 
10s. Born about 1559. "October 29, 
1604, grant to Matt, de Quester, on 
surrender of Silvester Brooke, of the 
office of one of the King's post, for be- 
yond seas, for life." January 21, 1608, 
grant to "Matt, de Quester of the office 
of a Post, for life." There was a long 



DEKMER — DIGBY 



877 



law plea between this postmaster of 
England for foreign parts and Lord 
Stanhope, the English chief postmas- 
ter, which was settled in 1632. In 
1633 Dequester was an esquire to 
King Charles I., being then aged 74. 

Dermer — Darmer — Dormer, 
Master. JVIade a voyage to New 
England in 1615. I think that he was 
the Capt. Thomas Dormer who was in 
Newfoundland in 1616, where he prob- 
ably remained until late in 1618. He 
was confident that there was a passage 
to the South Sea through America. In 
1619 he made another voyage to the 
New England coast, and in 1620 he 
was in Virginia. July 10, 1621, there 
was read before the Virginia Company 
of London a relation of "Mr. Dim- 
mer's discoveries from Cape Charles 
to Cape Cod, up Delaware river and 
Hudson's river, being but twenty or 
thirty leagues from our plantation, 
and within our limits, within which 
rivers were found divers ships of 
Amsterdam and Home," etc. 

D'Evereux, Robert, Earl of Es- 
sex. Born in November, 1567 ; serv- 
ing in the Netherlands, 1587 ; in Por- 
tugal, 1689 ; with Henry of Navarre, 
1591 ; at Cadiz, 1596 ; at the Azores, 
1597 ; lord lieutenant of Ireland, 1599; 
troubles with the queen, 1598-1600 ; 
"The Rising," February 8, 1601; 
tried 19, and executed February 25, 
1601; "the incomparable Essex." 
He was the son of Walter, Earl of 
Essex, by his wife, Lettice Knolles ; 
he married, in 1590, Frances, daughter 
of Walsingham and widow of Sir 
Philip Sidney. 

Devonshire, Earl of. — William 
Cavendish. 

Dester, Captain, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. (Capt. Ralph Dexter, engineer 

at the Siege of Ostend in 1601 ?) 

Dichfield, Edivard, Salter, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £68 15s. On the 
Va. Commission of July 15, 1624 ; in 
the same year on the commission for 
searching and sealing tobacco, and 
also in 1634. He resided in the parish 
of St. Mary Woolchurch, London, 
where the births and deaths of his 
children are registered. His daughter 
Sara, born April 26, 1612, married 
Francis Meade, of London, Salter. 

Dichfield, Richard. Pd. £25. 

Digby, Sir John, 2. Sub. ; 



pd. £25. Son of Sir George Digby 
by his wife, Abigail, daughter of Sir 
Arthur Henningham, of Ketteringham; 
was born at Coleshill, Warwickshire, 
in February, 1580, and entered Oxford 
University in 1595. " Being sent by 
the Lord Harrington to intimate to 
the king the designed insurrection of 
the gunpowder conspirators, he was 
admitted a gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber and one of the king's carvers 
in 1605." Knighted at Whitehall, 
May 14, 1606; M. P. for Heydon, 
1610-11 ; ambassador to the Court of 
Spain, April, 1611, to January, 1616. 
(However he was in England Jan- 
uary to September, 1614.) While in 
Spain, he guarded faithfully the inter- 
ests of the English colonies in Amer- 
ica. He was a member of the N. W. 
P. Co., July 26, 1612, and was ad- 
mitted free into the E. I. Co. in Sep- 
tember, 1614 ; appointed vice-cham- 
berlain of the household, and sworn 
of the Privy Council, April 3, 1616. 
Sherborne was bestowed on him about 
October, 1616. Commissioned to treat 
of a marriage between Prince Charles 
and the Infanta Maria of Spain, April 
16, 1617 ; went to Spain in July, 1617, 
and upon his return was created Baron 
Digby of Sherborne in the county of 
Dorset, November 25, 1618 ; ambas- 
sador to the Archduke Albert in 
March, 1621, and in May, 1621, to the 
Emperor Ferdinand, and the Duke of 
Bavaria on the business of the Palati- 
nate. In March, 1622, he was again 
sent ambassador extraordinary to Spain 
to treat of the marriage and an alli- 
ance, and on September 15, 1622, was 
created Earl of Bristol. He finally 
left the Spanish Court, after the mar- 
riage negotiation had come to grief, in 
January, 1624. His differences with 
the Duke of Buckingham may be seen 
in the history of the times. Not 
summoned to second Parliament of 
Charles I., February, 1626 ; com- 
plained, was summoned, but ordered to 
keep on his estates, March ; appealed 
again ; impeached by the king. May 
1 ; impeached Buckingham, May ; 
committed to the Tower, June 15, 
1626. One of the commissioners to 
treat with the Scots, September, 1640; 
member of the Long Parliament, No- 
vember, 1640 ; committed to the Tow- 
er, March 28, 1642 ; released in a few 



878 



DIGBY— DIGGES 



days; went to the king at York, April; 
attended the king at Edgehill and 
Oxford in October, 1642 ; retired to 
France at the close of the civil war ; 
died at Paris, January 16, 1653-54. 

" The Earl of Bristol was one of 
the most accomplished ministers, as 
well as one of the most estimable 
characters of his time. A very hand- 
some man ; of a grave aspect ; of a 
presence that drew respect, and of 
long experience in afEairs of great 
importance." 

Old Fuller says, " The worst I wish 
such who causelessly suspect him of 
Popish inclinations is, that I may hear 
from them but half so many strong 
arguments for the Protestant religion, 
as I have heard from him, who was, to 
his commendation, a cordial champion 
for the Church of England." 

Digges, Sir Dudley, 2. Sub. £75; 
pd. £37 10s. Son of Thomas Diggs 
and his wife, Anne St. Leger (see St. 
Leger pedigree) ; born in 1583 ; en- 
tered Oxford University in 1598. His 
tutor was George Abbot, afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury. Took his 
degree in 1601 ; wrote a treatise " Of 
the worthinesse of Warre and war- 
riors," published in 1604 ; licensed to 
travel for three years, April 6, 1604 ; 
knighted at Whitehall, April 29, 1607; 
M. C. for Va. Co., May 23, 1609. 

He aided in sending Henry Hudson 
to the Northwest (April 17, 1610), 
and Cape Digges and Digges Hand 
were named for him ; was M. P. for 
Tewkesbury, 1610-11. On the 4th of 
December, 1611, Chamberlain wrote 
to Carleton : " Sir Dudley Diggs, a 
great undertaker of this new discov- 
ery of the North West Passage, thinks 
of nothing else : they are preparing 
ships against spring as if there were 
no doubt nor difficulty in the matter, 
and the Prince of Wales is become a 
partner and Protector." Chamberlain 
again wrote to Carleton, March 11, 
1612 : " There is a little treatise of 
the North West Passage, written by 
Sir Dudley Digges ; but I may say 
beatus qui intelligit, especially the first 
period, which is but a bad beginning 
to stumble at the threshold. Some of 
his good friends say he had better have 
given five hundred pounds than pub- 
lished such a pamphlet ; but he is 
wonderfully possessed with the opinion 



and hopes of that passage." Sir Dud- 
ley's sons, Thomas and John Digges, 
were both members of the Va. Co. of 
London in March, 1612. In April, 
1612, the ships for the Northwest 
discovery sailed under Capt. Thomas 
Button, Master Francis Nelson, etc. 
July 26, 1612, the North West Passage 
Company was incorporated with Sir 
Dudley Digges as one of the first di- 
rectors. He was one of those who 
purchased the Bermudas Islands from 
the Va. Co., November 25, 1612 ; was 
a member of the Rus. or Mus. Co., 
and a leading member of the E. I. 
Co. ; was one of those who sent out 
Capt. Benjamin Joseph with seven 
vessels to Spitzbergen in May, 1613. 
Digges his hundred was planted in 
Virginia about 1613 ; July 6, 1614, 
was one of the nominees for governor 
of the E. I. Co., but Sir Thomas 
Smythe was elected. 

M. P. for Tewkesbury in 1614; 
Joined his copartners in resigning the 
Bermudas to the crown, November 23, 
1614. Early in 1615 appeared a tract 
called " The Trade's Increase," " some 
points in which were very near trea- 
son and all the rest verjf dangerous." 
February 22, 1615, at a meeting of the 
E. I. Co., Sir Dudley said a book should 
be set forth in defense of the East 
India trade, which had been attacked 
in the said tract. And afterwards 
Sir Dudley " replied in a masterly 
manner, in the same year, in a trea- 
tise entitled ' The Defense of Trade,' 
inscribed to his kinsman Sir Thomas 
Smythe, the governor of the East 
India Company." He aided in send- 
ing the voyage for the discovery of 
the Northwest passage which sailed 
in March, 1615. (William Baffin 
wrote an account of this voyage.) 
Was a member of the Bermudas Com- 
pany, June 29, 1615. In 1616 he 
aided in sending out another voyage 
on Northwest discoveries, in which 
another cape was named for him in 
"Latitude 76 degrees, 35 minutes." 
"He acquired the manor and castle 
of Chilham in Kent, by marriage and 
purchase, where about the year 1616 
he erected a magnificent edifice for his 
residence." We find him constantly in- 
terested in Virginia, willing to advance 
the enterprise by lotteries or by reli- 
gion. He was ambassador to Bussia, 



DIGGES 



879 



April to October, 1618 ; one of the 
commissioners in settling a treaty be- 
tween the English and Dutch concern- 
ing the trade into the East Indies, 
January to June, 1619 ; one of the 
committee of the Va. Co. of London 
for compiling and reducing the stand- 
ing rules and orders for the govern- 
ment of the Va. Co. into one entire 
body, as more especially for constitut- 
ing laws, etc. (The result of their 
labor is reprinted in Force, iii.) He 
was also in 1619 one of the committee 
" concerning the colledge in Virginia, 
being a waighty busines, and so greate 
that an Account of their proceedings 
therein must be given to the State." 

Sir Dudley Carleton, writing to 
Chamberlain from " The Hague, Jan- 
uary 29, 1620," "prays him to show 
Sir Dudley Diggs the writer's Vir- 
ginia Papers, then return them to 
Carleton, letting him know when there 
is a passage to Virginia, for he has com- 
passion of poor Porie being hunger- 
starved for news and wishes to send 
him a letter." 

{Qaere : Where are Carleton's Vir- 
ginia papers now ?) 

Sir Dudley Digges patented lands 
in Virginia in 1620 ; was a M. C. for 
the N. E. Co., November 3, 1620. He 
was in Holland with Morris Abbot, 
settling differences between the Eng- 
lish and Dutch East India companies, 
November, 1620, to February, 1621 ; 
M. P. for Tewkesbury, 1621-22 ; one 
of commissioners in Ireland, March to 
October, 1622. In December, 1622, 
he was " following the court hard, and 
was in hope somewhat would fall to 
his lot ; but for aught we see yet, the 
poor gentleman seems in the sand." 
M. P. for Tewkesbury in 1624-25, 
in 1625, and in 1626 ; one of the com- 
missioners to conduct the impeach- 
ment of Buckingham, May 3, 1626 ; 
was sent to the Tower, May 10 or 11, 
1626, but was released within a few 
days ; was again imprisoned for a few 
weeks in 1627 ; M. P. for the county 
of Kent, 1628-29. In 1629 he was 
mentioned as a " late commissioner for 
Virginia ; " granted the reversion of 
master of the rolls, November 17, 
1630 ; entered Gray's Inn bencher, 
1630 ; master in chancery, January 
22, 1631. May 24, 1631, Attorney- 
general Heath was instructed to pre- 



pare a bill appointing many, including 
Sir Dudley Digges, commissioners for 
advising upon some course for estab- 
lishing the advancement of the planta- 
tion of Virginia. This bill was pre- 
pared, and was signed by King Charles 
on June 27, 1631. 

He was appointed one of the com- 
missioners for Virginia tobacco, June 
19, 1634 ; was master of the rolls, 
April 18, 1636 ; spoken of as one of 
the committee in organizing the pro- 
posed English West India Company in 
1637. He died March 18, 1639, and 
was buried at Chilham near Canterbury. 

" An accomplished scholar, traveler, 
statesman, and author, a patriotic 
member of Parliament, and a princely 
merchant; his understanding fewcouM 
equal ; his virtues fewer would ^ and 
the wisest men reckoned his death 
among the public calamities of those 
times." 

He married Mary, youngest daugh- 
ter and co-heir of Sir Thomas Kempe 
of Olantigh, by whom he left eight 
sons and three daughters. The oldest 
son, Thomas, succeeded to Chilham, 
and married Mary, daughter of Sir 
Maurice Abbot. Edward, another son, 
settled in Virginia ; was a member of 
the council ; governor of the colony in 
1656 ; died March 15, 1676, and was 
buried in the old churchyard at Bell- 
field about eight miles from Williams- 
burg on James River. 

Digges, John, 3. Sub. ; pd. 

. of Faversham, second son of 

Sir Dudley. 

Digges, Thomas, 3. Sub. ; pd. 

. Of Chilham Castle, eldest son 

of Sir Dudley. His son, Sir Maurice, 
was created a baronet March 6, 1666. 

Digges, Thomas. The celebrated 
mathematician ; born in Kent ; entered 
Cambridge, 1546 ; B. A., 1551 ; M. A., 
1557 ; intimate with Dr. John Dee ; 
M. P. for Wallingford, 1572-83, and 
for the town of Southampton, 1584-85. 
Muster-master-general of the English 
forces in the Netherlands, 1586-94. 
Interested in Antarctic discoveries 
about 1590. " Died in London August 
24, 1595, and was buried in the chan- 
cel of the church of St. Mary, Alder- 
manbury, where a monument was 
erected to his memory, with an inscrip- 
tion which describes him as 'a man 
zealously affected to true religion, 



880 



DIKE — DRAKE 



wise, discreete, courteous, faithful! to 
his friends, and of rare knowledge in 
geometrie, astrologie, and other math- 
ematical sciences.' " He married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Warham St. Leger 
(see pedigree), who, surviving him, 
died in 1636, aged 81. They had issue, 
two sons and two daughters, namely. 
Sir Dudley (aforesaid), Leonard (1588- 
1635), the poet, Margaret, the wife of 
Sir Anthony Palmer, and Ursula. 

Dike. See Dyke. 

Dingley, John, grocer, 2. Sub. 

; pd. . Died 1626. (See 

will in "New England Register," 
January, 1888, p. 73.) 

Dobson, William, esquire, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. Born 1572; of 
St. Andrew, Holborn ; married, sec- 
ondly, in 1605, Alice, daughter of Ed- 
ward Barnes, mercer, of St. Mary 
Magdalen, Milk Street, London, He 
was " Clerk of the Statutes and Recog- 
nizances taken before the chief jus- 
tices, the Mayor of the Staple, and the 
Recorder of London." 

Doderidge, John, esquire, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £25. An eminent law- 
yer, a member of the Society of the 
Middle Temple, author of various pro- 
fessional works, etc. He was probably 
born at Barnstaple in 1555 ; entered 
Exeter College, Oxford, 1572 ; Bach- 
elor of Arts, February 15, 1677 ; en- 
tered the Middle Temple ; member of 
the Society of Antiquaries ; sergeant 
at law, January, 1604 ; Prince Henry's 
sergeant; solicitor -general, October 
28, 1604 ; M. P. for Horsham, Sus- 
sex, 1604^11 ; M. C. for Va., 1606 ; 
principal Serjeant at law to the king, 
June, 1607 ; knighted at Whitehall, 
July 5, 1607 ; member of the New- 
foundland Company, 1610 ; justice of 
the King's Bench, November 25, 1612 ; 
Master of Arts, Oxford, February 4, 
1614. Died near Egham, Surrey, 
September 13, 1628, in the seventy- 
third year of his age, and " was in- 
terred under a stately tomb in Our 
Lady's Chapel in Exeter Cathedral." 
He was married three times, but left 
no issue. Among his published works 
are, "The Compleat Parson," "The 
Lawyer's Light," " The English Law- 
yer," " Law of Nobility and Peerage," 
etc. Fuller says, "he was commonly 
called, ' the sleeping judge,' because he 
would sit on the bench with his eyes 



shut, which was only a posture of at- 
tention, to sequester his sight from 
distracting objects, the better to listen 
to what was alleged and proved." 
" His soul consisted of two essentials, 
ability and integrity, holding the Scale 
of Justice with so steady an hand, that 
neither love nor lucre, fear or flattery, 
could bow him on either side." 

Doncaster, Viscount. — James 
Hay. 

Donne, John. Born in 1573 ; with 
Essex at Cadiz, 1596, and the Azores, 
1597 ; married Anne, daughter of Sir 
George More, about Christmas, 1600 ; 
persuaded to enter the church by King 
James in 1614 ; in February, 1615, 
Lord Carew writes, " Mr. John Dun is 
a Minister, the King's Chaplaiue, and 
a Doctor of Divinite." Li 1621 dean 
of St. Paul's ; joined the Virginia 
Company of London May 22, 1622, 
and preached the sermon before the 
company on the 13th of November 
following, on the text. Acts i. 8. He 
died on March 31, 1631, and was buried 
in St. Paul's Cathedral. An eminent 
wit, poet, author, and divine. His son, 
George Donne, was marshal of Vir- 
ginia, 1637-40, and wrote " Virginia 
Reviewed," addressed to King Charles 
1. He descended from Judge Rastall, 
whose brother came to America in 
1536. 

Dorchester, Viscount. — Dudley 
Carleton. 

Dorset, Barl of. — Edward, Rich- 
ard, and Thomas Sackville. 

Downes, John, 3. Sub. ; pd. 

£37 10s. 

Drake, Sir Bernard. Naval com- 
mander ; eldest son of John Drake, of 
Ashe (whose sister Johanna was first 
wife to Walter Ralegh, of Fardell),by 
his wife Amy, daughter of Sir Roger 
Grenville, of Stowe. On his return 
from Newfoundland, for his services 
there, he was knighted by Queen 
Elizabeth January 9, 1586, at Green- 
wich. While on this voyage he prob- 
ably visited Monhegan (N. E.). He 
died April 10, 1686. 

Drake, Sir Francis. Probably the 
son of Robert, third son of the last 
John Drake of Otterton, by his wife, 
Agnes Kelloway. The date of his birth 
is variously given from 1639 to 1545 
inclusive. Probably born at Crown- 
dale, near Tavistock, Devonshire ; 




ROBERT SIDNEY 
Fir^t E.irl nt Lei<:,-^t, , 



DRAKE — DRAYTON 



881 



named for Us godfather, Francis Rus- 
seU, afterwards second Earl of Bed- 
ford. " He took to the sea " at an early- 
age ; " at eighteene yeares of age he 
was made a pursei of a ship to Biscay ; 
at twenty yeares of age he went to 
Guynea ; " made a voyage to the 
West Indies in 1565 ; with Hawkins in 
1567-68. In 1570 he registered as a 
Plymouth freeman, and made his third 
voyage to the West Indies ; made his 
fourth voyage in 1571 ; and his fifth in 
1572-73, when he " the first of known 
Englishmen " saw the great " South 
Sea." Served in Ireland under Wal- 
ter, Earl of Essex, 1573-76. Under 
the patronage of Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton ; on his famous voyage around 
the world, December, 1577-Septem- 
ber, 1580 ; knighted by Queen Eliza- 
beth on Ijoard his ship the Golden 
Hind, April 4, 1581 ; mayor of Plym- 
outh, 1582 ; interested in Eenton's 
voyage, 1582-83 ; M. P. for Bossiney, 
1584-85, and served on the committee 
for confirming Ralegh's patent; on 
the celebrated voyage to America, 
September, 1585, to July, 1586 ; went 
to the Netherlands in November, 1586 ; 
on the voyage " to synge the King of 
Spaine hys beard," April-June, 1587. 
He was a friend to Rev. John Fox, the 
martyrologist ; served against the 
Armada, 1588 ; in the Portugal expe- 
dition, 1589 ; brought water to Plym- 
outh from the River Measy, under 
contract, from December, 1590, to 
April, 1591 ; builded six mills, 1591 ; 
M. P. for Plymouth, 1593 ; sailed oa 
his last and fatal voyage to the West 
Indies, August 27, 1595. Died near 
Porto Bello, January 28, 1596, "and 
being coffined was cast into the Sea " 
(the Gulf of Mexico). 
"The Starres aboTO will make thee knowne, IJ 

men here silent: were, 
The Sunne himselfe cannot forget his fellow 

travailler." 

He was twice married, " yet he him- 
self and ten of his brethren died with- 
out issue." 

"He made his youngest brother, 
Thomas, his heir, who was with him in 
most and chief est of his imployments." 




'^- jDnr<i4^ 



Drake, George. This may be 
George Drake, of Spratshays in Little- 
ham, Devonshire, whose daughter mar- 
ried Sir John Popham's nephew, Henry 
Ford, brother to John Ford, the drama- 
tist, and father of Sir Henry Ford. 

Drake, John, esquire, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 IDs. Of Mount Drake and 
Ashe, Devon ; son of Sir Bernard 
Drake (whom see) ; is thought to be 
the person of that name who sailed 
around the world with his kinsman 
(1577-80), and won the chain of gold 
for first sighting the " Cacafuego," on 
March 1, 1579, off Cape Francisco, 
South America, and who commanded 
the Francis, in Fenton's voyage of 
1582, when the vessel was oast away 
near the River of Plate, South Amer- 
ica ; but he escaped, lived with the 
Spaniards in those parts, and finally 
returned to England. No. 724 of the 
Sale Catalogue of the late James Car- 
son Brevoort is the report of his ex- 
amination before the tribunal of the 
Inquisition in Lima, Pern. M. P. De- 
von, 1614, 1621-22, and 1624r-25 ; of 
the N. E. Council, November 3, 1620; 
died in 1628. 

Drake, Captain Thomas. The 
only one of Sir Francis Drake's broth- 
ers who left issue. He married Eliz- 
abeth , and died April 4, 1606, 

leaving a daughter Elizabeth, wife of 
John Bamfield, Esq., and a son Francis 
(named for his uncle and godfather), 
who was created a baronet August 2, 
1622. 

Draper, Thomas, 2. Sub. £37 10s.; 
pd. £87 10s. Of Lincoln's Inn, gent.; 
he died in 1611, and was buried in the 
old church at Islington. He married 
Sarah, daughter of Roger James of 
Holland ; she married, secondly. Sir 
Nicholas Kempe, and died in 1650. 

Draper, Sara. Pd.£1210s. (See 
Thomas Draper.) 

Drawfield — Drausfield, Avery, 
grocer, 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £25. 
Also of the E. I. and N. W. P. com- 
panies. He died in 1014. 

Drayton, Michael, 1563-1631. 
The poet of " The Virginian Voyage " 
was born within a few miles of Wil- 
liam Shakespeare, and buried within 
fewer paces of Geoffrey Chaucer and 
Edmund Spenser. His brow is crowned 
with laurel, "Apollo's sacred tree," 
in his portrait and on his monument. 



882 



DREWRY — DUDLEY 



Dre'wry — Drury, Sir Drew, the 

Elder, 2. Sub. ; pd. £75. Of 

Riddlesworth, Norfolk ; born about 
1532 ; gentleman usher of the privy 
chamber to Queen Elizabeth ; sheriff 
of Norfolk in 1576 ; was knighted at 
Wanstead in Essex in September, 
1579. Fuller says, " He was joined in 
commission with Sir Amias Paulet to 
keep Mary, Queen of Scots ; and dis- 
charged his dangerous trust therein. 
It moveth me not, that I find both 
these knights branded for puritans ; 
being confident that nickname, in rela- 
tion to them both, was first pronounced 
through a popish mouth, causelessly 
offended at their religion." He died 
in the spring of 1617. He married, 
first, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Philip 
Calthorpe, by Amata Boleyn, his wife, 
aunt to Queen Anne Boleyn, and, sec- 
ondly, Catherine, only daughter and 
heir of William Pinch, Esq., of 
Lynsted in Kent. By the latter he had 
issue. 

Drewry — Drury, Sir Robert, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £10. Born about 1675 ; 

knighted at Whitehall, July 23, 1603 ; 
M. P. for Suffolk, 1604-11. He 
spent a part of the summer of 1605 in 
Flanders. 

M. C. for Va. Co., 1609. He was a 
patron of Rev. Joseph Hall, rector of 
Halstead in Suffolk, in 1607, and also 
of the celebrated Dr. John Doime, to 
whom he gave apartments at his own 
house in Drury Lane. July 2, 1611, 
he obtained license to travel for three 
years with his wife and family, and on 
December 4, 1611, Chamberlain writes, 
that "they are already settled at 
Amiens and with them John Donne." 
At the end of three years he returned 
to England. Was M. P. for Eye in 
1614 ; died April 2, 1615, leaving his 
three sisters his heirs ; " only he gave 
away his land in Drury Lane to Sir 
Henry Drury," etc. His three sisters 
were, Frances, married, first. Sir 
Nicholas Clifford, and, secondly. Sir 
William Wray ; Elizabeth, married 
William Cecil, son and heir of Thomas, 
Earl of Exeter (she died February 26, 
1654, aged about 80) ; and Diana, who 
married Sir Edward Cecil, Viscount 
Wimbledon, etc. 

Druerdent — Durdent, Philip, 2. 
Sub. ; pd. £25. 

Dudley, Robert, Earl of Leicester, 



etc. Born in 1532 or 1633 ; mar- 
ried Amy Robsart June 4, 1550 ; pro- 
claimed Lady Jane Grey Queen of 
England in July, 1553 ; condemned to 
death as a traitor, January, 1664 ; 
pardoned, Easter, 1655 ; served at 
battle of St. Quentin, 1557 ; master of 
the horse to Queen Elizabeth, 1658 ; 
Knight of the Garter and sworn of the 
Privy Council, 1569 ; the great favorite 
of Queen Elizabeth ; a patron of the 
trade with Russia ; sudden death of 
his wife at Cumnor, 1660 ; created 
Baron Denbigh, Earl of Leicester, and 
elected a chancellor of Oxford Uni- 
versity in 1664 ; interested in the 
voyages of Capt. John Hawkins, 
1564-68 ; secretly married Lady 
Douglas Howard in 1573 ; received 
Queen Elizabeth at Kenilworth in 
July, 1575 ; married Lettice, widow of 
Walter, Earl of Essex, 1678 ; inter- 
ested in the voyages of Forbisher, 
1576-78, and of Fenton, 1682-83 ; 
captain -general of the expedition to 
the Netherlands, December, 1585 ; 
sent again, 1587 ; generalissimo of 
army raised against Spaniards, 1588 ; 
died at Cornbury Park, Oxfordshire, 
September 4, 1688. He was greatly 
interested in pushing abroad the com- 
merce of England. 

Dudley, Sir Robert, son of the 
Earl of Leicester, by Lady Douglas 
Howard, was born in 1673 ; made a 
voyage to the West Indies, November, 
1594, to May, 1595. The voyage of 
Master Benjamin Wood to the East 
Indies in 1596 was set forth chiefly at 
his charges ; knighted by Essex at 
Cadiz in 1696. Failing to establish 
his legitimacy he left England in 1605, 
and "took up his abode in the terri- 
tories of the Grand Duke of Tuscany," 
and died near Florence in 1639. His 
first wife was a sister to Thomas Cav- 
endish, the circumnavigator ; his sec- 
ond, Alice, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Leigh, Bart., of Stoneleigh. He was 
" the first of all that taught a dog to 
sit in order to catch partridges." 
" He spent forty years of his life, and 
the treasures of a vast income, upon 
the accumulation of authentic material 
for the illustration of his cherished 
subjects, 'Hydrography and Naviga- 
tion,' " and at least a part of the fruit 
of this labor is given in his " Arcano 
del Mare," first published in 1646. 



DUNBAR — EDMONDS 



883 



Dunbar, Earl of. — George Hume. 

Buncombe, Mr. (Edward). Of 
Battlesden, Bedfordshire ; M. P. for 
Tavistock, 1604-11 and 1614. 

Dunn, Sir Daniel, draper, 2. Sub. 

; pd. . Son of Robert Dunne, 

citizen and draper of London ; was 
educated at Oxford, where he took 
the degree of D. C. L., July 20, 1580 ; 
M. P. Taunton, 1601 ; knighted July 
23, 1603 ; M. P. Oxford University, 
1604-11 and 1614 ; was master of the 
Requests, dean of the Arches, and 
judge of the Admiralty Court ; died 
September 15, 1617. 

Dunn, 'William, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£25. Probably William Dunn, Doctor 
of Phisiok, brother of Sir Daniel. 

Duppa, James, brewer, 2. Sub. 

; pd. : " Dwelling in Saint 

Catharine's, near the Tower of Lon- 
don." He sent out a voyage to Cherry 
Island in 1607. He married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Roger Jones, and one 
of his daughters was named Lucretia. 

Duppa, Jeffery, brewer, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £50. " The King's 
Brewer of Holdenby." (The cele- 
brated Bishop Duppa was the son of 
JefEery and Lucretia Duppa. Was he 
a brother to the brewers of the Vir- 
ginia Company ?) 

Durette — Durant, Philip, 2. Sub. 

; pd. . Huguenot ; buried 

in the Parish of St. Mary Woolchurch 
Haw, April 15, 1619. 

Dye, Roger, haberdasher, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Also of the 
E. I. and N. W. P. companies. 

Dyer, Edw^ard. Interested in Fro- 
bisher's voyages, 1576-78 ; knighted 
(1596) and appointed chancellor of 
the Order of tlie Garter ; a friend of 
Essex ; a poet. He was buried at 
St. Saviour's, Southwark, May 11, 
1607. 

Dyke — Dike, John, fishmonger, 

2. Sub. ; pd. £50. Third son 

of Thomas Dyke, of Yorkshire ; a 
member of the E. I. Co. ; on the Va. 
Commission of July 15, 1624. 




Dyke, Thomas. Sub. £37 10s. 
Elder brother of the foregoing John. 



He died in 1615, leaving his adven- 
tures in the East Indies, Virginia, and 
Somers Islands to his five sons. In 
1620 his sons John and Thomas held 
£50 and £25, respectively, of paid-up 
stock in the Virginia Company. 

Dyot, Anthony, esquire, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £25. Of Lichfield, 
barrister at law ; recorder of Tam- 
worth ; M. P. Lichfield, 1601 and 
1604-11. 

Dyot, Richard, esquire, son of the 
above Anthony ; was born in 1590 ; 
M. P. Stafford, 1621-22 and 1624-26 ; 
Lichfield, 1627-28, and 1640 ; recorder 
of Stafford and of the Privy Council to 
Charles I. at York ; was knighted at 
Dublin, September 13, 1635; died 
March 8, 1659, aged 69. 

Eden, Richard. Born about 1521 ; 
at Cambridge, 1635-44 ; was private 
secretary to Sir William Cecil, 1552 ; 
published a translation of " Munster's 
Cosmography" in 1653, "The De- 
cades of the Newe Worlde, or West 
India," in 1555. He published sev- 
eral other translations of travels, works 
on navigation, etc. ; was on the conti- 
nent mostly from 1562 to 1673. He 
died in 1676. 

Edgecombe, Piers. " Eldest son of 
Sir Richard ; was born in 1536 ; sheriff 
of Devon in 1566 ; M. P. for Cornwall, 
1562-63, 1572, 1588, and 1592 ; and for 
Liskeard borough, 1584 and 1586. He 
died in 1607." His son, Sir Richard 
Edgecombe, was a member of the 
King's Council for New England in 
1620. Ancestor of the present Earl 
of Mount-Edgcumbe. 

Edmonds, Sir Thomas. Son of 
Thomas Edmonds, customer of Plym- 
outh ; born at Plymouth about 1562; 
envoy to the Court of France, 1688 ; 
agent for Elizabeth at the Court of 
France, 1592 ; " Secretary to the 
Queen for the French tongue," May, 
1596 ; envoy to the Archduke at 
Brussels in December, 1599 ; clerk to 
the Privy Council in 1600 ; M. P. for 
Liskeard in Cornwall, 1601 ; knighted 
May 20, 1603. He is the "little Ed- 
monds " of Sully's "Memoirs ; " M. P. 
for Wilton, 1604-11; ambassador 
resident at the Court of Brussels from 
August, 1604, to August, 1609; ambas- 
sador to France, May, 1610, to 1616; 
sworn a privy councilor and oomp- 



884 



EDMONDS — ELDRED 



troller of the household, December 
22, 1616. In January, 1617, Winwood 
and Edmonds arranged with Scarna- 
flssi for Ralegh to attack Genoa in the 
interest of Savoy; and Ralegh after- 
wards " charged Edmondes and others 
with having instigated him to attack 
Spain on bis last voyage." He was 
appointed treasurer of the household, 
January, 1618 ; clerk of the crown in 
the King's Bench, 1620 ; M. P. for 
Bewdley, 1621-22 ; commissioner for 
Virginia affairs, July 15, 1624 ; M. P. 
Chichester, 1624-25 ; Oxford Univer- 
sity, 1625 ; Penryn, 1628-29 ; ambas- 
sador to Prance, June 1629 ; commis- 
sioner of plantations, April 1634 ; died 
September 20, 1639, aged 77. "He 
had been practised in the arts of for- 
eign negotiation, especially in France, 
almost from childhood, and was a min- 
ister of great abilities and integrity." 
It is said that " the enemies of Eng- 
land never concealed their fear of 
him." He married, first, Magdalen, 
daughter of Sir John Wood ; their 
eldest daughter, Isabella, married 
Henry, fourth Lord De la Warr, the 
eldest son of the first governor-gen- 
eral of Virginia. Edmonds married, 
secondly, in 1626, " the Right Honor- 
able Sara Lady Hastings late wife to 
Lord Zouoh deceased." 

Edolph — Bdolfe, Sir Robert, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. Of Hinxhill, 

Kent ; knighted July 23, 1603 ; 
sherifE of Kent, 1609 ; married, in 
1590, Emeline, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Scott (see Scott pedigree). 

Edwards, Richard. Of N. W. P. 
Co. He afterwards joined the Vir- 
ginia Company, and was on the com- 
mission of July 15, 1624. He was 
alderman's deputy for Bishopsgate 
ward, married Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Still, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. He was also of the E. I. Co., 
and his younger brother, William, was 
sometime president for that company 
in the East Indies. Mr. Edwards, a 
Turkey merchant, i. e. member of the 
Turkey Company, is said to have been 
the first Englishman to introduce the 
use of coffee in England about the 
year 1652. The Dutch East India 
Company conveyed coffee-trees from 
Mocha to Holland in 1616, and the 
coffee-berry, I suppose, before that 
date. It is highly probable that the 



English E. I. Co., brought coffee to 
England, about the same time, as a 
curiosity possibly, and not for the 
trade. 




Egerton, Sir Thomas, an illegiti- 
mate son of Sir Richard Egerton of 
Ridley ; was born in Cheshire, 1540; 
entered Brasenose College, Oxford, 
1556 ; Lincoln's Inn, October 31, 
1560 ; called to the bar, February 2, 
1572 ; solicitor-general, June 28, 
1581 ; Lent reader, 1582 ; attorney- 
general, June 2, 1592 ; knighted 
1593 ; master of the rolls, April 10, 
1594 ; Lord Keeper of the Great 
Seal and member of the Privy Coun- 
cil, May 6, 1596. (His son Thomas 
was knighted by Essex on the Island 
voyage, 1597.) He was charged with 
the custody of Essex, 1599 ; I5aron of 
EUesmere by James I., July 19, 1603; 
lord chancellor, July 24, 1603 ; 
Chancellor of Oxford University, No- 
vember 3, 1610 ; member of the N. 
W. P. Co., 1612 ; Viscount Brackley, 
November 7, 1616; resigned the Great 
Seal, March 3, 1617. Died at York 
House, in the Strand, London, on 
March 15, 1617, and was buried at 
Doddleston, in Cheshire, the place of 
his birth. Lodge says, " It may not 
be too much to say that for purity of 
reputation this great man's character 
stands distinguished from those of all 
other public ministers of this country 
in all ages ; while for wisdom in 
council, profound knowledge of the 
laws, and general learning, he has sel- 
dom been excelled." 

Egiock, Sir Francis, 3. Sub. 

; pd. £37 10s. Appointed a teller 

of the exchequer for life. May 28, 
1603 ; knighted at Whitehall, July 
23, 1603 ; M. C. for Va. Co., 1612-20. 
He was seated at Egiocke and Sher- 
nock, County Worcester ; married 
Eleanor, daughter of Francis Dinely, 
of Charlton. He died November 21, 
1622, and was buried in the Church 
of St. Margaret, city of Westminster, 
under a fair monument at the upper 
end of the chancel. 

Eldred, John, merchant, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £137 10s. Was born 



ELDRED — ELFRITH 



885 



in 1552 at New Buokenham in Nor- 
folk ; went to London, devoted him- 
self to business, and prospered. He 
was one of " the honest English mer- 
chants " who made the first effort to 
open an overland trade with East 
India. They departed out of Lon- 
don upon Shrove Monday, 1583, in 
the ship called the Tiger, "wherein 
they went for Tripolis in Syria, and 
from thence took the way for Aleppo." 
" Her husband 's to Aleppo gone, mas- 
ter of the Tiger." (Shakespeare's 
" Macbeth," act i. 3.) He remained in 
the East, the Holy Land, Asiatic Tur- 
key, etc., traveling and trading, about 
five years, and returning reached 
London, March 26, 1588, a wealthy 
man. He bought the manor of Great 
Saxham in Suffolk in 1597, and built a 
large house there. He was a member 
of the Levant Company ; adventured 
£400 in the voyage to East India, 
September 22, 1599 ; one of the di- 
rectors for setting forth a voyage for 
the discovery of the trade of the East 
Indies, September 23, 1600 ; an in- 
corporator of the E. I. Co., December 
31, 1600, of which company he was 
one of the first directors, remaining 
in that office for many years and ad- 
venturing large sums of money in that 
enterprise for the advancement of 
English commerce ; M. C. for Va., 
1606 ; M. C. for Va. Co., 1609. His 
name is frequently met with in the 
state papers in connection with ad- 
vances of money to Queen Elizabeth 
and James I. He was a leading busi- 
ness man of the period ; an importer 
of tobacco ; a farmer of the preemp- 
tion of tin ; a contractor for lands ; 
contractor for the customs, etc. ; one 
of those who set forth Henry Hudson 
in April, 1610, for the discovery of 
the Northwest passage ; an incorpo- 
rator and director of the N. W. P. 
Co., July 26, 1612. Purchas, writing 
about 1621, says, " Master Eldred yet 
liveth a grave, rich, and prinoipall 
Citizen." "He died at Great Sax- 
ham in 1632, and was buried there in 
the church on Deo. 8." He married 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Kevett, 
of Eishangles in Suffolk. His son, 
Revett Eldred, was created a baronet 
in 1642. 

Sldred, Walter, merchant-tailor. 
Pd. 2s. 6d. March 18, 1620, Thomas 



Hodges left by will three shares of 
land in Virginia to Walter Eldred. 

Elfrith — Elfred — Blfree — El- 
fre y — Elfrye, Captain Daniel. He 
first appears as an officer serving un- 
der Captain Fisher, on board of a ship 
" sent out upon a discovery into the 
river of the Amazones," probably 
under Haroourt's charter of August 
28, 1613. "As they went, a Spanish 
frigate comeinge in their waye their 
catehinge fingers layd fast hold on her, 
and this Elfrye (being in good trust 
vrith Fisher) was putt into her as 
master, who takeinge his opportunitie, 
requited him so well as sone after he 
gave him the slyp, and then shaped his 
course to the Bermudas ; " where he 
arrived about February, 1614, and suc- 
coured the hungry colony, with his 
cargo of meal. " Yet with the meal 
came a number of rats (the first that 
the islands ever saw), which multiply- 
ing themselves by an infinite increase," 
a few years after placed the colony in 
jeopardy. 

Elfrith went to England, on one of 
the returning vessels, in the spring of 
1614, leaving his Spanish frigate at 
the Bermudas, and I find nothing 
more of him until April, 1618, when 
he sailed from England in command 
of that celebrated ship, the Treasurer, 
" licensed by a commission from the 
Duke of Savoye (obtained by Robert 
Lord Rich from Count Seamafissi) to 
take Spaniards as lawfull prize." He 
arrived in Virginia late in the sum- 
mer ; where Governor Argall refitted 
his vessel and "sent him with the 
same commission to raunge the West 
Indies." He arrived in the Bermudas 
in the winter of 1618-19, and after 
some six weeks' stay, set out on his 
roving voyage. He returned to Vir- 
ginia, in eonsortship with a man-of- 
war of Flushing, late in the summer 
of 1619, " with a part of one hundred 
negroes which he had captured from a 
Spanish vessel ; " leaving some (20 ?) 
of these negroes in Virginia, he soon 
sailed from there, taking the remainder 
(29) to the Bermudas. The Dutch 
man-of-war may have had negroes on 
board, but Captain Elfrith, "under 
cover of a commission" from Charles 
Emmanuel I. the Great, Duke of 
Savoy, is responsible for bringing the 
first negroes to the colony of Vir- 



886 



ELFRITH — ERIZO 



ginia. " The proceeding of the Treas- 
urer was esteemed not only a mani- 
fest act of piracy, but also a thing of 
great danger to the colony, consider- 
ing its weak condition and the great 
strength of the Spaniards in the West 
Indies," and " the evente thereof (we 
may misdoubte) will prove some at- 
tempte of the Spaniard upon us, either 
by way of revenge, or by way of pre- 
vention ; least we may in time make this 
place [Virginia] sedem belli against the 
West Indies." For these reasons the 
reports of the said proceeding, given 
out at that time, are incomplete and 
guarded ; but I have copies of several 
documents in the premises (which 
have never been printed) giving ample 
information. To show how perfect 
the Spanish system of obtaining news 
then was, it may be mentioned that 
Fray Diego de Lafuente (" Padre 
Mffistro") Gondomar's confessor in 
England, knew of the acts of the Treas- 
urer in the West Indies prior to May, 
1619. (See Captain Argall.) 

Captain Elfrith remained in the 
Bermudas for nearly ten years ; was 
for a time a member of the council 
there, and probably made more than 
one voyage from there to the West 
Indies. His daughter married Capt. 
Philip Bell, governor of the Bermudas, 
1626-29, and brother to Sir Kobert 
Bell. 

Elfrith sailed for England on the 
Earl Warwick late in March, 1629, 
and arrived late in April. He came 
to reveal to the Earl of Warwick 
and Sir Nathaniel Rich his discovery 
(while on one of his roving voyages) 
of the island of St. Catalina, and he 
possibly commanded the successful 
voyage of discovery sent out by those 
gentlemen in that year to the West 
Indies. 

In 1630 he was appointed by the 
company to act as governor of Provi- 
dence Islands (Bahamas) until the 
arrival of his son-in-law, Capt. Philip 
Bell, the governor. " He was then to 
be admiral, and next in precedence to 
the governor." Bell arrived in 1631, 
and Admiral Elfrith soon went to 
roving in the West Indies and to Cape 
Gracias-d-Dios. May 10, 1632, the 
company wrote to him "condemning 
his indiscretion in too freely enter- 
taining a MuUetto, as you call him, in 



the island, and in taking a Spanish 
frigate." July 3, 1633, they conferred 
upon him the command of the fort at 
Black Rock (Nassau ?) as an evidence 
of "our love and opinion of your 
fidelity," and March 28, 1636, they 
wrote him that " they were willing to 
employ his son in a ship for taking 
prizes. Having procured liberty to 
right themselves of the Spaniard." 

In 1636 and 1637 there were dissen- 
sions among the officers in the Islands, 
and in July, 1637, he wrote to the 
company asking liberty to come home, 
which was granted in March, 1638, 
and he was allowed to bring his ne- 
groes away with him ; but he sold them 
in 1639 to his successor, Capt. Na- 
thaniel Butler, for the company's use. 
Among the leading members of the 
company were Henry Rich, Earl of 
Holland, Robert Rich, Earl of War- 
wick, William Lord Say and Sele, 
Robert Lord Brooke, Sir Edward 
Harwood, Sir Nathaniel Rich, and 
John Pym. 

Soon after Elfrith's return to Eng- 
land, he petitioned the company for 
satisfaction for his services in the 
Bahamas, to which they replied May 
9, 1640, that " they conceive nothing 
justly due him." And this is the last 
entry which I find regarding the man 
who carried the first rats to the Ber- 
mudas and the first negroes to Vir- 
ginia, — that is, to the English colony ; 
the Spaniards carried negroes there in 
1526. 

Elizabeth, Princess. — Elizabeth 
Stuart. 

Elizabeth, Queen. See Tudor. 

Elkin, John, merchant, 2. Sub. 
; pd. £75. 

Ellesmere, Lord. Thomas Egerton. 

Ellis, John, grocer, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Entered and sworn to free- 
dom in the Grocers' Company Au- 
fust 6, 1606 ; of St. Lawrence, Old 
ewry ; married, in 1608, Cecily, 
daughter of Richard Wood. 

Erizo, Captain James. Son of 
Richard Erisey, of Erisey in Cornwall. 
He died February 3, 1601, aged 45. 
(James Erisey, of Erisey in Cornwall, 
esquire, of the same family as Rich- 
ard aforesaid had a daughter Honor, 
who married William Tucker, and 
their son William is said to have been 
the William Tucker of the Va. Co.) 



ERONDELLE — EVELIN 



887 



Eroudelle — Aruudell, Peter, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. . " A Declaration 

and Catholick exhortation to all Chris- 
tian Princes to succour the Church of 
of God and Realme of France. Writ- 
ten by Peter Erondelle, natife of 
Normandie. Faithfully translated out 
of the French. At London, Imprinted 
by Edward Aggas, 1586." "The 
French Garden : for English Ladyes 
and Gentlewomen to walke in. . . . 
By Peter Erondel, Professor of the 
same Language. London, Printed for 
Edward White. . . . 1605." "The 
French Schoole-Maister. . . . P. Eron- 
delle, London, 1612." He reassigned 
to Sir Thomas Roe three shares of 
land in Virginia, February 16, 16|§. 
He went to Virginia on the Abigail in 
1621, and in February, 162|, Peter, 
John, Elizabeth, and Margaret Arun- 
dell were living at Buck Roe, Eliza^ 
beth City. He was granted, in 1624, 
200 acres by patent on Back River in 
Elizabeth City in right of a bill of 
adventure of £287 4s. dated in 1617. 
He died prior to 23 January, 162|, 
leaving a son, John (born in 1602), as 
heir to his rights in Virginia. 

Essex, Earl of. — Robert Devereux. 

Bssington, William, merchant of 
London. Son of John Essington, of 
Cowley near Essington, Gloucester- 
shire. He married, first, Martha, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Hays, lord 
mayor ; secondly, Hester, daughter of 
Sir Roger Jones, and niece of Thomas 
Jones, Archbishop of Dublin and lord 
chancellor of Ireland. Was of the 
E. I. Co., and one of the auditors of 
the Va. Co. of London. He was still 
living in 1634. 

Etheridge (or Etherege), George, 
gent., 2. Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £62 10s. 
(Of Maydenhed, in County Berks, 
whose daughter married William Can- 
ning, of Elsenham, Essex, eldest son 
of William Canning (whom see) ?) 

Evans, Hugh, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£50. 

Evans, Richard, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £50. 

Evans, "William, 2. Sub. £37 10s.; 
pd. £87 10s. 

(They were from Wales, evidently 
merchants of London, and members 
of the E. I. Co. At least ten men of 
the surname Evans emigrated to Vir- 
ginia before 1625.) 



Evelin, . Lawyer for the de- 
fendant. Probably the following John 
Evelin, Esq. 

Evelin, John, Esquire., 3. Sub. 

; pd. . Of Godstone, brother 

of Rolsert (see below) ; was born 
about 1554; married, about 1582, Eliz- 
abeth, daughter of William Stevens. 
Queen Elizabeth visited him in 1690 
at Kingston. He died April 17, 1627. 
He was not a knight. 

Evelin, John, 3. Sub. • ■ ; pd. 

. Son of the preceding John. 

He was M. P. for Bletchingley in 
1628-29 and 1640 till secluded ; was 
knighted in 1641 ; died January 18, 
1664 ; father of the first baronet. 

Evelin, Richard. Father of John 
Evelyn, Esq., the elegant author, and 
half brother to the following. 

Evelin, Robert, armorer 2. Sub. 
; pd. £17. 

Extract from the Evelin pedigree : 
George Evelin, " who first brought the 
art of making gunpowder to perfection 
in England," was born in 1526 ; mar- 
ried, first, Rose, daughter of Thomas 
Williams, brother and heir of Sir John 
Williams, knight ; she was buried at 
Long Ditton July 21, 1577. He mar- 
ried, second, Joane Stint, to whom the 
letter is addressed. He died May 29, 
1603. By his two wives he had 24 
children, of whom John and Robert 
were by his first wife, and Richard 
by the second wife. Robert's brother 
John, and his (John's) son John were 
both members of the Va. Co. of Lon- 
don in 1612. 

Robert Evelin was probably born 
at Long Ditton in Surrey about 1570 ; 
married, October 19, 1590, at St. 
Peter's, Cornhill, London, Susannah, 
daughter of Gregory Young. (Her 
brother, Capt. Thomas Young, came 
to Virginia, and his son, Capt. Thomas 
Young, of Chiokahominy, was executed 
in January, 167^ for taking part in 
Bacon's rebellion.) Robert Evelyn, 
his brother John, and others had a li- 
cense granted to them August 24, 
1599, for the sole making of saltpetre 
and gunpowder for ten years. He was 
a member of the Va. Co. of London in 
1609 ; came to Virginia about 1610. 
In 1620 there was still to his credit on 
the Va. Co.'s books the sum of £17. 
He died before 1639. Two of his 
sous came to Virginia, viz.: Robert 



888 



EVELIN — FANSHAWE 



(who died there) and George (see 
"The Evelyns in America," by G. D. 
Scull, 1881). Of George (the eldest 
son) I will add the following : He 
was born in London January 31, 159| ; 
married Jane, daughter of Richard 
Crane of Dorset ; emigrated to Mary- 
land, 1636 ; was governor of Kent 
Island, Maryland ; returned to Eng- 
land, and died there. At least two of 
his children settled in Virginia, viz.: 
Mountjoy and Rebecca. Mountjoy 
married November 29, 1653, Dorothy, 
daughter of Obedience Robins, of 
Northampton County, Virginia (see 
Edward Waters). Rebecca married, 
secondly, " y* Hon"" Daniel Parke, 
sometime Secretary of the Colony of 
Virginia," by whom she had an only 
son. Col. Daniel Parke, who married 
Lucy Ludwell, and had by her two 
daughters, Lucy, who married Col. 
William Byrd, and Frances, who mar- 
ried John Custis, and their son, John 
Parke Custis, married Martha Dan- 
dridge (she married, secondly, Gen. 
George Washington), and their great 
granddaughter, Mary Custis, married 
Gen. Robert E. Lee. 

Everard, Capt. Michael, 2. Sub. 
; pd. . Knighted at Roys- 
ton, January 18, 1614. Chamberlain 
to Carleton, May 12, 1614: "There 
hath been a brawl fallen out lately at 
Flushing among our captains, wherein 
Sir Michael Everard, sergeant-major, 
struck Sir John Throckmorton, lieu- 
tenant-governor, and, being convented, 
would not come till he was fetched 
with five hundred men. He married 
an heir, one Meg Stewart, a fair, ill- 
favored piece, who is come over to 
solicit his cause, and finds so great 
friends that he is like to be delivered 
and sent for home." 

Bversfieia, Sir Thomas, 3. Sub. 

; pd. £12 10s. Knighted at Sir 

William Fleetwood's in July, 1603. 
He was seated at Den in Sussex ; 
married Christian, daughter of Sir 
Robert Sandy, alias Napier. 

Evington, Francis, merchant-tail- 
or. Pd. £1. Of the E. I. and N. W. 
P. companies. 

Eweas, Ralph, esquire, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £3T 10s. Of Gray's 
Inn ; was born about 1569. Married, 
in 1603 or 1604, Mrs. Margaret Hotoft, 
of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, widow. 



Auditor of Queen Anne. Died before 
September, 1611. 

Ewre — Eure, Ralph Lord, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. . Succeeded his 

father in 1594 as third Baron Eure. 
One of the commissioners at Bremen 
1602-03 ; lord president of Wales in 
1607. Crashaw dedicated CCXXX. 
to him in 1613. Died April 1, 1617. 

Exeter, Earl of. — Thomas and 
William Cecil. 

Exton, John. Sub. ; pd. 

£12 10s. 

Exton, Nicholas, draper, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £75. Of St. Mary Ab- 
churoh ; married, in 1585, Miss Judith 
Westwray. 

Facet. See Fawcett. 

Fajardo — Fazardo, Don luys. 

Admiral of the Spanish royal navy. 
Noted for hanging and drowning his 
prisoners. I suppose Lymbry was his 
pilot when he was operating against 
the pirates in the summer of 1609, 
and that Clark saw him at that time. 

Faldoe (Volday ?) William, fish- 
monger, 3. Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. 

This may be<the person who came to 
Virginia in 1608. Smith, who gener- 
ally gives the wrong name, called him 
"Volday;" Dale calls him "Faldoe, 
the Helvetian." (Robert Faldo, Esq., 
married Sir George Yardley's niece, 
Anne Palmer.) 

Falkland, Viscount. — Henry 
Carey. 

Falmouth, Earl of. — Charles 
Berkeley. 

Fanshawe, Sir Henry, 2. Sub. 
£60 ; pd. £70. Of Ware Park ; son 
of Thomas Fanshawe, Esq., remem- 
brancer of the exchequer to Queen 
Elizabeth, by his first wife, Mary, 
daughter of Anthony Bourchier, Esq.; 
was baptized at Christ Church in Lon- 
don, August 13, 1569. M. P. for West- 
bury, 1588-89 and 1592-93, and for 
Boroughbridge in 1597-98. His father 
died in 1601, and he succeeded him 
as remembrancer of the exchequer; 
was knighted May 7, 1603 ; M. C. for 
Va. Co., May 23, 1609. He was an in- 
corporator of the N. W. P. Co., July 
26, 1612. He died March 10, 1616, 
aged 48, and was buried at Ware. 

Chamberlain wrote to Carleton, 
March 27, 1616 : " Since you went, we 
have lost Sir Henry Fanshawe, who, 



FANSHAWE — FENTON 



889 



being at dinner the 9th of this present, 
at the assizes at Hertford, was sud- 
denly stricken with a dead palsy, that 
took him away in forty hours. He is 
much lamented, and so generally well 
spoken of, as I have not known any 
man, which is no small comfort to 
them that loved him, as it was like- 
wise a great happiness to himself that 
his memory continued till the very 
end, and his speech did not quite fail 
him till some three or four hours be- 
fore his departure. He hath left all 
in good order, and had made his will 
above two years agone ; but the rever- 
sion of his office was in great hazard 
by reason of his son lacking almost 
two years of twenty-one, was said to 
be Unfit or rather incapable to execute 
it. But by Mr. Secretary's good 
means, it is now settled in Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton and Sir Arthur Harris 
for his use till he come of age, and 
they have appointed John West for 
his deputy." 

Sir Henry Fanshawe married Eliza- 
beth Smythe, the youngest sister of 
Sir Thomas Smythe, the first treasurer 
of the Va. Co., by whom he was the 
father of five sons and five daughters. 
The oldest son, Thomas, who suc- 
ceeded his father as remembrancer 
and in the Va. Co., was afterwards 
created Viscount Fanshawe. The 
fourth son, Richard Fanshaw, knight 
and baronet, the celebrated diploma- 
tist, translator, etc., married Anne 
Harrison, niece of George Harrison, 
the early Virginia duelist. The sec- 
ond daughter, Mary, married, in 1616, 
William Newoe, of Hadham, possibly 
the same person, who died in Virginia 
about December, 1621. 

Fanshawe, Lady. Sir Henry's 
wife (see Smythe pedigree). Her 
daughter-in-law, Anne, Lady Fan- 
shawe, wrote in terms of the highest 
praise of her. 

Farmer, George, gent., 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Probably George 

Fermor. 

Farmer, John, grocer, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £100. 

Farrington, Richard, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. His brother George 

was " a priest ; " sheriil of London, 
1608 ; alderman, 1609. 

Fawcett — Faucett — Forsett, 
Edward, 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £75. 



Of Tyburn, Middlesex. " As a jus- 
tice of peace he showed himself very 
active in the examination of those con- 
cerned in the Gunpowder Plot." An 
officer of the Tower, " he occasionally 
took charge during the absence of the 
lieutenant. Sir WilUam Waad." The 
manor of Marylebone was granted to 
him by James in 1611. Of the S. I. 
Co. He sold three shares in Virginia 
to Mr. Nicholas Ferrar, February 27, 

1621. He died about 1630. The au- 
thor "of two ably written pamphlets: 
1. ' A Comparative Discourse of the 
Bodies Natural and Politique,' 1606, 
and 2. ' A Defence of the Right of 
Kings,' 1624." (See "Die. of Nat. 
Bio." vol. XX. p. 10.) 

Pearne — Ferne, Sir John. Sub. 
; pd. £25. With Ralegh in Gui- 
ana in 1617. 

Fearne — Ferne, John. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. Of the S. I. Co. 

Felgate, William, merchant, 2. 
Sub. £37' 10s.; pd. £62 10s. Of the 
S. I. Co. Patented lands in Virginia, 

1622, and on May 20 passed one hun- 
dred acres to Capt. Tobias Felgate ; a 
commissioner for Virginia in 1633. 
He was still trading with Virginia in 
1639. 

Pennor, John. Sub. ; pd. £50. 

Fenner — Fennor — Vennor, 
Captain Thomas. The four men 
wliom Lord Howard chose as his 
advisers in the attack on the Armada 
(1588), and of whom he wrote, " The 
Worlde dothe judge to be men of the 
greatest experience that the realme 
hathe," were Sir Francis Drake, Capt. 
John Hawkins, Capt. Martin Frobi- 
sher, and Capt. Thomas Fenner. 

Fenton, Captain Edward. Son of 
Henry Fenton of Fenton in the parish 
of Sturton, and " brother to Sir Geof- 
frey Fenton ; was born in Notting- 
hamshire ; " served in Ireland under 
Sir Henry Sidney in 1566 ; an officer 
in Frobisher's voyages to the North- 
west in 1576-78 ; again in Ireland in 
1580 ; one of those mentioned by 
Hakluyt as having written about his 
travels prior to 1582. The project to 
attempt a fourth voyage to the East 
Indies via the Northwest finally re- 
sulted in Fenton's voyage of 1582. A 
large stock company was formed, and 
there was much difference of opinion. 
The Frobisher party wished to make 



890 



PENTON — FERRAR 



another attempt by the Northwest ; 
the Carlisle party, it seems, wished to 
try America to the southwest of Cape 
Breton, while the Fenton party wished 
to work the rich fields of the South 
Sea, which had so recently afforded 
such a rich harvest to Sir Francis 
Drake ; and this idea prevailed. Fro- 
bisher and Carleill declined to go. 
Fenton sailed for the Moluccas in 
June, 1582, and returned to England 
in May, 1583 ; failed in the object 
of his voyage, but defeated a Spanish 
squadron ; was a captain in the Ar- 
mada fight, 1588 ; was buried in St. 
Nicholas' Church, Deptford, August 
31, 1603, where a monument to his 
memory relates his achievements. He 
married Thomazin, daughter of Ben- 
jamin Gonson. She married, secondly, 
Christopher, son of Sir R. Browne, of 
Deptford. His niece married Richard 
Boyle, first Earl of Cork, and their 
son, the Hon. Robert Boyle, was a 
benefactor of William and Mary Col- 
lege, Virginia. (See G onson pedigree.) 

Perdinando, Simon. A Portuguese 
pilot in Walsingham's service ; sailed 
with Drake in 1577 on a vessel which 
returned ; made a voyage to our coast 
to the southwest of Cape Breton in 
1579 ; a pilot of Fenton's voyage in 
1582-83, of Amidas and Barlow in 
1584, of Greenville in 1585, and of 
White in 1587. He was interested in 
the Roanoke colony, and possibly re- 
mained and died there. 

Perne. See Feame. 

Perrar, Nicholas, Sr., skinner, 
2. Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £50. Born 
about 1546 ; " brought up in the pro- 
fession of a Merchant Adventurer, 
and traded very extensively to the 
East and West Indies and to all the 
celebrated seats of commerce ; " died 
in April, 1620, and was buried in the 
Church of St. Bennet Sherhog, Lon- 
don. He gave by will " £300 to the 
College in Virginia, to be paid when 
there shall be ten of the Infidels chil- 
dren placed in it, and in the meane 
time 24 pounds by the yeare to be dis- 
bursed unto three discreete and godly 
men in the Colonic, which shall hon- 
estly bring up three of the Infidels 
children in Christian Religion, and 
some good course to live by." (His 
son Nicholas finally transferred this 
bequest to the Bermudas, where there 



were no "Infidels children.") He 
married Mary, daughter of Laurence 
Wodeuoth, Esq., and had issue : Su- 
sanna (married John Collet, of Bourne 
Bridge in Cambridgeshire), John, 
Erasmus ("abarristerof law"), Nich- 
olas, William, and Richard (a mer- 
chant of London). 

Perrar, John, merchant. Sub. 
— — ; pd. £12 10s. Son of the fore- 
going. He married, first, Anne, 
daughter of William Shepherd, Esq., 
of Great Rowlwright, Oxfordshire. 
She died, without issue, July 12, 1613, 
aged about 21, and was buried in St. 
Bennet Sherhog. (Stow preserves her 
curious epitaph.) John Ferrar joined 
the Va. Co. after 1612 ; was after- 
wards added to His Majesty's Coun- 
cil for that company, and was the 
deputy treasurer from April 28, 1619, 
to May 22, 1622. He was M. P. for 
Tamworth in 1621-22 ; wrote the 
memoirs of his brother Nicholas (pub- 
lished by P. Peckard, D. D., Cam- 
bridge, England, 1790), and of his 
own son Nicholas, who died in 1640. 
He married, secondly, Bathsheba, 
daughter of Israel Owen, of London, 
and had issue by her : Nicholas, John, 
and Virginia. He was buried at Lit- 
tle Gidding, September 28, 1657. 

Perrar, Nicholas, the Younger. 
Sub. ; pd. . Son of Nich- 
olas, Sr. ; was born February 22, 
1593 ; from his earliest years was re- 
garded by his family as a prodigy in- 
deed ; had a revelation when but six 
years of age, they said ; M. A., Cam- 
bridge, 1613 ; traveled on the conti- 
nent, 1613-18, and when he returned, 
his brother John said, " His accom- 
plishments surpassed all report and all 
expectation." He bought two shares 
in the Va. Co. from Sir William Smith, 
March 17, 161 1 ; M. C. for Va. Co., 
1619 ; deputy treasurer from May 22, 
1622, to July, 1624, during which time 
(from December, 1623, to June, 1624) 
he was having the copies of tlie Vir- 
ginia records made, which are now 
preserved in the library of Congress ; 
M. P. for Lymington, 1624-25. In 
1625 he gave up his attempt to reg- 
ulate worldly affairs, settled at Little 
Gidding in Huntingdonshire, and es- 
tablished the Arminan Nunnery there; 
ordained a deacon by Bishop Laud on 
Trinity Sunday, 1626 ; vicar of Little 




CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH 



FERRAR — FITZJAMES 



891 



Gidding, 1626, to his death, December 
2, 1637. He was known as " the Prot- 
estant Saint Nicholas," and was some- 
times called " the useless enthusiast." 

Perrar, William, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. Son of Nicholas, Sr. ; 
born in 1594^-95 ; educated for the 
law ; came to Virginia in the Neptune 
in 1618 ; married the widow of Sam- 
uel Jordan ; M. C. in Virginia from 
1625 to 1633. The date of his death 
is not known to me. His wife was a 
party to the first breach of promise 
ease in this country. As he was a 
lawyer, he was probably her legal 
adviser in the matter. Several inter- 
esting particulars of the case have 
been preserved. Her suitors were a 
preacher, Rev. Greville Pooley, and a 
lawyer. The preaolier got the start ; 
but the lawyer won. 

Petherstone, Henrie, stationer. 
In 1625 " Purchas his Pilgrimes in 
Five Bookes " was " Printed by Wil- 
liam Stansby for Henrie Fetherstone, 
and are to be sold at his shop in Pauls 
church-yard at the signe of the Rose." 
Henrie Fetherstone died March 18, 
1647. 

Field, Mr. ■Warden (Richard), 
stationer. Son of Henry Field, of 
Stratford-upon-Avon, who was one of 
the assessors of the estate of John 
Shakespeare, the father of the poet. 
Richard Field was apprenticed to 
George Bishop, stationer, of London, 
in 1579 ; printed the iirst edition of 
Shakespeare's " Venus and Adonis " in 
1693, and transferred his copyright 
to Mr. John Harrison, Sr., July 25, 
1594. He died about 1624. 
Field, 'William, merchant-tailor, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £26 6s. 

Finch, Sir Moyle, 3. Sub. £75 ; 
pd. £50. Of Eastwell, Kent; born 
about 1553 ; M. P. Weymouth, 1575- 
83 ; knighted at Greenwich, May 7, 
1584 ; M. P. Kent, 1593, and for Win- 
ohelsea, 1601 ; created a baronet, July 
29, 1611. Died December 18, 1614. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Heneage, and had issue 
seven sons and four daughters. 

Sir Moyle' s sister Jane married, 
October 8, 1582, George Wyatt, Esq., 
of Boxley, brother of Jane Wyatt 
who married Charles Scott (see Scott 
pedigree), and his brother. Sir Henry 
Finch, was the father of Sir John 



Finch, one of the counsel for Sir F. 
Gorges in the dispute over the N. E. 
charter in 1621, which Sir John was 
the speaker, who was forced back into 
the chair by Holies and others on the 
memorable, February 25, 162^. 

Finch, Sir Heneage. Of Eastwell, 
Kent ; son of Sir Moyle ; was an at- 
torney at law; M. P. for Rye, 1607-11; 
recorder of London, February 16, 1620, 
to December 5, 1631 ; M. P. West 
Looe, 1621-22 ; again admitted into 
the Va. Co. of London, Jul;^ 3, 1622. 
(His first cousin, Sir Francis Wyatt, 
had married the niece of Sir Edwin 
Sandys.) Knighted at Wanstead, 
Juno 22, 1623; created sergeant at 
law, 1623 ; M. P. London, 1624r-25, 
1625, and 1626 ; speaker of the first 
House of Commons of Charles I. in 
1625. Died December 6, 1631, and 
was buried at Raunston, Bucks. He 
was the father of tne first Earl of 
Nottingham. 
Fishborne, Richard, mercer, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. Old Fuller 

gives a sketch of him among his 
Worthies of Huntingdonshire. He 
began life an apprentice to Sir Baptist 
Hicks ; became a leading Mercer him- 
self, and was a great benefactor to 
his company and to mankind. Puller 
says, " Nor must it be forgotten how 
tliis gentleman, lying on his deathbed 
(when men are presumed to speak 
with unmasked consciences), did pro- 
fess that, to his knowledge, he had got 
no part of his goods unjustly. No 
man of his quality won more love in 
health, prayers in sickness, and lam- 
entation at his funeral ; dying a single 
man, and buried in Mercers' Chapel, 
May 10, 1625." The whole sum of 
his benefactions amounted to nearly 
£11,000, equivalent to nearly $276,000 
present values. 

Fitch, Master Matthe-w. In the 
first voyage to Virginia, 1606-07 ; in 
the first company to the Falls in May, 
1607. Lost at sea in July, 1609. 

Fitzhardinge, Viscount. — Charles 
Berkeley. 

Fitzjames, Master John, esquire, 
etc. Of Leweston, Dorset; born about 
1548 ; knighted at LuUworth, August 
15, 1616 ; died May 16, 1625, and was 
buried in the chancel aisle of the 
church at Long Burton, Dorset. 

Extract from his will, dated May 3, 



892 



FITZWILLIAM — FKEAKE 



1621, and approved July 7, 1625. . . . 
" Item. I give to Alfred [or Aldred] 
Fitzjames, my son, my bill of adven- 
ture of £25 which I delivered in readie 
money to Captain Sommers when my 
said son Alfred [or Aldred] went into 
Virginia with him." 
Fitzwilliam, Walter, esquire, 3. 

Sub. £37 10s.; pd. . M. P. 

Peterborough, 1621-22 ; brother of 
first Lord Fitzwilliam ; died s. p. 
He was related to the Mildmays and 
Sidneys. 

Fleet, ■William, gent., 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Of Chart- 
ham, Kent ; married Deborah Scott, 
daughter of Charles Scott of Egerton, 
Kent, by his wife, Jane Wyatt (see 
Scott pedigree). He had issue : seven 
sons and one daughter, viz. : George, 
William, Henry, Brian, Edward, Rey- 
nold, John, and Catherine. On July 
3, 1622, he transferred to his daugh- 
ter his three shares in Virginia. At 
least four of his sons (Henry, Edward, 
Reynold, and John) were among the 
early emigrants to Virginia and Mary- 
land. All four of them were mem- 
bers of the Maryland legislature of 
1638, the first Assembly whose records 
have been preserved. Capt. Henry 
Fleet was the most noted of this 
brotherhood in our annals. He came 
to Virginia at an early date ; was cap- 
tured by the Indians on the Potomac 
in 1623 ; remained a captive until 
1627 ; became familiar with the In- 
dian tongue ; an interpreter, trader, 
and legislator in Maryland ; finally 
settled at Fleet's Bay in Lancaster 
County, Virginia, and represented the 
county in the House of Burgesses, 
1652. His daughter Sarah married 
Edwin Conway of Lancaster County, 
Virginia. Capt. Henry Fleet was first 
cousin to the noted Dorothy Scott who 
married, first. Major Daniel Gotherson 
of Cromwell's army, and about 1655 
became a Quaker preacher. She mar- 
ried, secondly, Joseph Hogben, and 
about 1680 settled on Long Island, 
New York. 

Fleetwood, Edward, esquire, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £62 10s. 

Fleetwood, Sir William, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Of Missen- 
den, Bucks ; eldest son of Sir William 
Fleetwood, recorder of London. He 
was knighted at Charterhouse, May 



11, 1603 ; M. P. for Bucks, 1604-11, 
1621-22, 1624-25, and 1628-29. Died 
in 1630. 

Fletcher, John, fishmonger, 2. 
Sub. £75. He paid £62 10s., and 
John Fletcher and Company paid £76 
= £137 10s. Died in 1635. A bene- 
factor of the Fishmongers; also a mem- 
ber of E. I. and N. W. P. companies. 
Flores, Marquis de le. See Zu- 
fiiga. 
Floyd (or Lloyd), David, £12 10s. 
Forest, Sir Anthony, 2. Sub. 

; pd. . Of Huntingdonshire ; 

knighted at Whitehall, August 20, 
1604. 

Forest, Thomas, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£50. Came to Virginia in 1608. 

Fotherby, Henry, secretary. Af- 
ter of the N. E. Company. 

Fox, Thomas, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

. (Luke Lodge and Thomas Fox 

paid £25.) Probably the Thomas Fox 
who came to Virginia in 1608. I sup- 
pose there was some relationship be- 
tween Luke Lodge and himself, and 
that Captain Luke Fox (Northwest 
Fox, 1631) was of the same family, 
and possibly related to John Foxe, the 
martyrologist. 

Foxall, Thomas, grocer, 3. Sub. 

; £37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. Married 

Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William 
Garaway (" Gargany " on her tomb) of 
London. Died in 1647, buried in the 
Churchyard at Lee. 

Francis, Giles, gent., 2. Sub. 

£37 10s.; pd. £50. 
Francis, Thomas. Pd. £12 10s. 
Frank, Peter, esquire, 3. Sub. 

; pd. £12 10s. " Gentleman Usher 

and dayly waiter to Queen Anne — the 
which Peter dyed the 24. day of Oc- 
tober, 1612." (Strype.) 

Franklin, John, haberdasher, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £25. (The Franklins 

of the Va. Co. were probably of the 
family of that name seated at Willes- 
don in Middlesex.) 

Freake, Sir Thomas, 2. Sub. — — 
£75; pd. £25. " Son of Robert Freke 
of Shroton, Dorset, esquire, who was 
for many years auditor of the Treas- 
ury in the reigns of Henry VIII. and 
Queen Elizabeth, and died worth a 
plum, (£100,000) an immense fortune 
in those times. His son Thomas, of 
whom I write, of Ewern Courtney in 
Dorsetshire, was " a person of consid- 



FREEMAN — FROBISHER 



893 



erable note, great trust, and authority 
in the County of Dorset in the times of 
Elizabeth and James I." M. P. for 
Dorchester in 1584-85 ; knighted at 
WHtehall July 23, 1603 ; M. P. for 
County of Dorset in 1604-11; M. C. 
for Va., March 9, 1607; M. C. for Va. 
Co., 1612 ; M. P. for the County of 
Dorset in 1614 and also in 1627-28. 

Sir Thomas was born in 1663, and 
died in 1633; married Elizabeth, widow 
of Francis Smith, Esq., and only daugh- 
ter and sole heir of John Taylor, alder- 
man of London, by whom he was the 
father of five or more children. 

Freeman, Martin, fishmonger, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £75. One of 
the wardens of the Fishmongers in 
1606 ; interested in the Irish planta- 
tion ; married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Mathew Laurence, son of Sir Oliver 
Laurence; she bore in her arms, 2 and 
3, the arms of Washington (vide Visi- 
tation of London, 1668). He was a 
member of the E. I. Co. 

Freeman, Ralphe, 3. Sub. • ; 

pd. . Son of Martin aforesaid ; 

was baptized as "Randolpe" at St. 
Mary-at-Hill, London, July 6, 1589; 
knighted at Windsor September 15, 
1617 ; sworn a master of requests, 
January 11, 1618. The king's pleas- 
ure to grant the Massachusetts charter 
was signified to the lord keeper by Sir 
Ralpe, as "Auditor of Imprests" in 
1628-29; a commissioner of the Mint 
to Charles I.; lord of the manor of 
Beech worth in Surrey; living in 1663. 
Author of " Imperiale," a tragedy. 

Freeman, Ralphe, clothworker, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £62 10s. Son of 
William Freeman, of Northampton; 
born in 1560 ; member Muscovy, N. W. 
P., and E. I. companies; master of the 
Clothworkers in 1620 ; " farmed the 
killing of whales in Greenland, etc.; 
set forth 8 ships in 1621." Sheriff of 
London, 1622-23 ; alderman of Bish- 
opsgate ward, 1622-32, and of Corn- 
hill ward, 1632-34 ; lord mayor in 
1633. Died in office, before knight- 
hood, March 16, 1634 ; was buried in 
St. Michael's, Cornhill, and after- 
wards removed to Aspeden, County 
Herts. He was on the Virginia Com- 
mission of July 15, 1624. 

Freeman, ^?S7■illiam. Probably the 
younger brother of Sir Ralphe afore- 
said. " William and Raphe Freeman " 



contributed £25 to the American en- 
terprise ; but the elder brother of 
Ralphe the clothworker was also named 
William. 

Fretchville, Sir Peter, 3. Sub. 

; pd. £37 10s. Of Stavely, 

County Derby; sheriff of Derby, 1601; 
knighted at Worksop, A^ril 21, 1603; 
M. P. for Derbyshire in 1601 and 
1621-22. 

Frith, Richard, gent., 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. Came to Virginia in 

1606-07. 

Frobisher, Sir Martin. Son of Ber- 
nard Frobisher by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Richard Yorke, and 
sister of Sir John Yorke (a member of 
the Merchant Adventurers); bom at 
Altofts, Normanton, Yorkshire, about 
1535 ; on a voyage to Guinea, 1554 ; 
probably made other voyages there ; 
plundered the Flying Spirit from An- 
dalusia in 1563 ; probably with Haw- 
kins at Vera Cruz in 1567 ; served 
with Gilbert in Ireland; preparing for a 
Northwest, voyage of discovery, 1674 ; 
the voyage " stayed " for lack of money 
in 1576; made the first voyage in 1576, 
the second in 1577, and the third in 
1578; projected a fourth voyage to the 
Northwest in 1581, which resulted in 
Fenton's voyage of 1582-83 ; with 
CarleUl proposed another voyage to 
America in April, 1584; vice-admiral 
of the Drake-Sidney voyage, 1585- 
86; served against the Armada and 
knighted in 1588; commanded vessels 
employed against Spanish commerce, 
1589-92. In 1594 he commanded 
the squadron sent to aid Henry IV. 
of France ; wounded at the attack 
on Brest, November 7 ; returned to 
Plymouth, and died there, where his en- 
trails were interred; his body was sent 
to London and interred in St. Giles's 
Church, Cripplegate, in February, 1596. 
He married twice, but seems to have 
left no issue. Peter Frobisher, his heir 
and executor, sold Frobisher Hall to 
Lionel Lord Cranfield. Frobisher's 
second wife (whom he married in 
1591) was Dorothy, daughter of 
Thomas, first Lord Wentworth, and 
widow of Paul Withypoole, Esq. 



894: 



FULLER — GATES 



Puller, Nicholas, esquire. Pd. 
£20. Barrister, of Gray's Inn ; cham- 
pion for the Puritans; son of Nicholas 
Fuller, of London, merchant ; born 
about 1545; M. P. for St. Mawe's 
1592-93; M. P. for London, 1604-11. 
Spoke against the union with Scot- 
land, February 14, 160 f. His argu- 
ment for his clients, Thomas Lad and 
Richard Maunsell, was published in 
1607. In November, 1607, he was 
fined £200 by the commissioners for 
causes ecclesiastical. He paid his fine, 
but submissions being expected which 
he could not digest, he was imprisoned; 
but was released on January 6, 1608. 
(See " Lord Bacon's Letters and Life," 
by Spedding, vol. iv. p. 51, note.) M. P. 
for London, 1614 ; admitted into the 
E. I. Co. gratis. May 6, 1618 ; died 
February 23, 1620, aged 76. He 
married Sarah, daughter of alderman 
Nicholas Backhouse. 

Fulwood, William. (I take this 
to be the author of "The Castel of 
Memorie," " The Enimie of Idenesse," 
etc., who was a merchant and member 
of the Merchant-Taylors' Company.) 

Gallen-Ridgeway, Lord. — Thomas 
Ridge way. 

Galthrope (Calthrope), Stephen. 
Probably the head of the "entended 
and confessed mutiny by Galthropp " 
at the Canaries, March, 1607, in which 
mutiny, Capt. John Smith was in some 
way implicated. 

Garaway — Garraway — Gar- 
Tway, William, draper. Sub. £50; 
pd. £100. Born 1537; married, about 
1570, Elizabeth, sister of Sir Henry 
Anderson, of London, was a leading 
merchant ; member of the Muscovy, 
E. I., and N. W. P. companies ; chief 
treasurer of the customs ; knighted 
at Theobald's, July 16, 1615; died Sep- 
tember 26, 1625, aged 88 ; buried in 
St. Peter the Poor, London. His son, 
Sir Henry, was the celebrated Royalist 
Lord Mayor of London, 1640. 

Gardiner, John, merchant 2. Sub. 
; pd. £75. Of the E. I. Co. 

Gardiner, Richard. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. 

Garrard. See Gerrard. 

Garraway. See Garaway. 

Garsett, Robert, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. 

Gate, Peter, grocer, 2. Sub. £37 



10s.; pd. £12 10s. "Late apprentice 
to George Bone, sworn to freedom 
January 16, 1603. Takes Paul Gate as 
his apprentice March 26, 1604. Still 
on Books, 1618." He married Mary, 
daughter of Edward Josslyn, Esq. 

Gates, Lady. Died on her way to 
Virginia in 1611. 

Gates, Sir Thomas, 1. Sub. ; 

pd. £100. Said to have been born at 
Colyford, in Colyton parish, Devon- 
shire (Worth's " Hist, of Devonshire," 
p. 70). Saw service in the wars. 
Was lieutenant of Capt. Christopher 
Carleill's own company in the cele- 
brated Drake-Sidney voyage to Amer- 
ica, 1585-86 ; published the Briggs- 
Croftes account of this voyage in 1689, 
which he dedicated to the Earl of 
Essex ; distinguished himself at the 
taking of Cadiz, and was knighted by 
Essex in June, 1596. July 20, 1597, 
Essex sent him to Sir Robert Cecil 
with an important message regarding 
the Island voyage, in which voyage he 
served, August-October, 1597 ; en- 
tered Gray's Inn, March 14, 1598 ; in 
public service at Plymouth, 1599. 
Early in the reign of James I. sol- 
diers were being enlisted in England, 
both to serve the States and the Arch- 
duke ; he enlisted with the States, 
and in July, 1604, Sir Henry Wotton 
wrote by him to Sir Ralph Winwood, 
saying, "I entreat you to love him 
[Gates] and to love me too, and to 
assure yourself that you cannot love 
two honester men." One of the first 
petitioners for royal license to colonize 
America ; an incorporator of the first 
charter, April 10, 1606 ; was in the 
garrison at Oudewater in South Hol- 
land with Dale in November, 1606 ; 
petitioned the States for leave of ab- 
sence to go to Virginia, which was 
granted April ||, 1608 ; was selected 
to command the large expedition then 
being fitted out ; appointed the first 
sole and absolute governor of the col- 
ony ; added to His Majesty's Council 
for the Va. Co. ; sailed in June j 
wrecked on the Bermudas July 28, 
1609, and remained there until May 
10, 1610, when he sailed to Virginia, 
reaching there May 21 ; left Virginia 
late in July, and reached England 
early in September, 1610, giving the 
first news of his own survival of the 
tempest. Aided in preparing a con- 



GATES 



895 



futation of the scandalous reports 
(CXL. ). Again sailed for Virginia in 
May, 1611, taking his wife and daugh- 
ters ; but his wife dying on the way, 
he sent his daughters back with New- 
port in December following. He re- 
mained in Virginia nearly three years, 
and returned to England in April, 
1614. He had brought his company 
from the Netherlands, and had carried 
it to Virginia with him in 1609, under 
the command of Capt. George Yeard- 
ley ; whether he brought it away from 
Virginia or not I cannot say; but after 
aiding in answering the French com- 
plaints, he returned to his post in 
Holland, and was promptly paid all 
past dues. 

During 1619 he was serving on one 
of the committees of the Va. Co. in 
London. In November, 1619, Sir 
Edwin Sandys, in a speech before the 
Quarter Court of that company, said 
that " Sir Thomas Gates had the 
Honour to all Posterity of being the 
first named in his Majesty's Patent 
and Grant of Virginia, and was also 
the first that, by his Wisdom, Industry, 
and Valour, accompanied with exceed- 
ing Pains and Patience, in the Midst 
of Many Dif&oulties, had laid the 
foundation of the present prosperous 
State of the Colony." 

About this time the governor and 
council in Virginia asked that " Skilful 
Engineers be sent over to raise fortifi- 
cations," " and Sir Thomas Gates was 
entreated by the Company, as well in 
Regard of his military Skill as of his 
knowledge of the country, to write 
them his Private Letters of Advice and 
Direction." Early in 1620 Gates was 
one of the " Ancient adventurers," 
who "petioioned y° Right Hon"" the 
Lords and the rest of ye Cownsayle 
and bodye politique, for ye State of 
his Majesties Collonye in Virginia to 
have some man of qualitye sent Gov- 
ernor unto Virginia." They were, 
quite evidently, unwilling to serve 
under Gates's old subordinate. Sir 
George Yeardley. They "humblye 
besech this Honorable Court to take 
into consideration this our only Re- 
quest (who otherwise finding them- 
selves much disparagied and wronged 
are resolved to abandon, and quitt the 
Countrye & Action forevar) that some 
eythar Noble, or little lesse in Honor 



or Power may be maturelye advised 
upon to maintayne and hold up ye 
dignitye of so Great and Good a 
Cawse." 

From March to June (inclusive), 
1620, Gates transferred to sundry per- 
sons sixty shares of 100 acres of land 
each, in Virginia. November 3, 1620, 
he was appointed by James I. one of 
" the first moderne and present Coun- 
cill established at Plymouth, in the 
County of Devon, for the planting, 
ruling, ordering, and governing of 
New England in America." January 
13, 1621, Sir Dudley Digges, writing 
from Amsterdam to Sir Dudley Carle- 
ton at the Hague, " sends his love to 
the honest Sir Thomas Gates," from 
which it may be inferred that he was 
then in Holland. April 12, 1621, he 
is alluded to in the records of the Va. 
Co. as (hen dead. In 1623 fifty great 
shares of land were still remaining in 
his name in Virginia. 

He had at least two sons, Thomas 
and Anthony, and three daughters, 
Margaret, Mary, and Elizabeth. On 
April 24, 1626, Edmund Dawber, 
gentleman, of " East Inynham," in 
County Norfolk, and Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Gates, of " Hold- 
inge " in County Kent, were married 
in the Church of St. Mildred the Vir- 
gin, Poultry, London. 

Capt. Thomas Gates, the son of 
Sir Thomas, served in the expedition 
of 1626 against Cadiz, and in 1627 at 
the Isle of R^ and Roohelle, where 
he was killed by a cannon shot. An- 
thony, the other son, died before 1637; 
his widow was then living. In 1637 
the daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, 
petitioned the Privy Council to order 
payment to them of the arrears due 
on their brother's (Capt. Thomas 
Gates's) account ; and the lord treas- 
urer was instructed by order of the 
council to sign an order to that effect. 
They alleged that they were " destitute 
of means to relieve their wants, or to 
convey themselves to Virginia, where 
their father, Sir Thomas Gates, gov- 
ernor of that Isle, died, and left his 
estate in the hands of persons, who 
had ever since detained the same." It 
would seem from this that he died in 
Virginia, and I have found no other 
evidence of the place of his death. 
" July 30, 1639. Report of the Sub- 



896 



GATES — GILBERT 



Committee for Foreign Plantations to 
the Privy Council. ' Upon Petition of 
Edmund Dawber, administrator of the 
Estate of Sir Thomas Gates, deceased 
— that a similar letter to that written 
to the Earl of Dorset and Danby, 
bearing date November 30, 1632, be 
addressed to the Governor and Coun- 
cil of Virginia, on behalf of the peti- 
tioner, for the full recovery of the 
Estate in that Colony, belonging to Sir 
Thomas Gates, deceased.'" 

I have, as yet, been unable to lo- 
cate with any certainty the family of 
Gates ; but as we find him (when he 
must have been quite a young man) 
in service with Carleill and Essex, the 
sons-in-law of Walsingham, I think we 
may infer that he was not without 
position and influence. He was prob- 
ably about 60 years of age when he 
sailed to Virginia in 1609. 



^--^/f . J^)-r-^ 




Gee, Sir William, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. Born 1540; an outer-bar- 
rister of Lincoln's Inn ; M. P. for 
Hull, 1588-89; Beverley, 1604-11; 
knighted May 30, 1604 ; secretary to 
Council of the North. 

Greeringe — Gearinge — Green- 
ings — Geringe, John, grocer, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £112 10s. Of the 
E. I. Co. Married Phebe, daughter 
of Jo. Reeve, of London, goldsmith. 

Gerrard — Garrett, George, es- 
quire, 3. Sub. ; pd. . M. P. 

for Wigan, 1621-22; Newton (I. W.), 
1624-25 ; Preston, 1626 and 1628-29. 

Gerrard — Garrard, John. Son of 
Sir William, whom see. Born 1546; 
sheriff, 1692 ; lord mayor and knight, 
1601-02 ; died May 7, 1626, aged 79. 
His son. Sir John, was created a bar- 
onet February 16, 162|. 

Gerrard, Sir Thomas, 3. Sub. 

; pd. . Probably the eldest 

son of Sir Thomas Gerrard, of Bryn ; 
M. P. Liverpool, 1597 ; Lancashire, 
1614 ; Wigan, 1621 ; created a bar- 
onet. May 22, 1611 ; died in 1621. 

Gerrard — Garrard, Sir William. 
Son of John Garrard, citizen and gro- 
cer, of London ; born in 1507 ; alder- 
man, April 26, 1547 ; sheriil, August 



1, 1652 ; lord mayor, September 29, 
1556; knight, 1556. " A grave, sober, 
wise, and discreet citizen equal with 
the best and inferior to none of our 
time." Died September 27, 1571, in 
the " Parish of St. Christopher, but 
was buried in the Church of St. Mag- 
nus, as the parish where he was born 
and a faire monument is there raised 
on him." 

He married Isabel, daughter and 
co-heir of Julius Nethermill, Esq., 
and had issue : 1. William (Sir) who 
died in 1607; 2. George, whose daugh- 
ter married Sir Dudley Carleton ; 3. 
John (Sir), (whom see); 4. Anne, who 
married Sir George Barnes. 

Gibbs, Thomas, esquire. Sub. 

; pd. £12 10s. M. C. for Va. 

Co. prior to 1618. On « May 6, 1618, 
Sir Eustace Hart surrendered imto 
him a Bill of Adven. of £25, and for 
that he paid in £12 10s. more had 
allowed him 3 shares " in the Va. Co. 
March 18, 1620, he transferred two 
shares in Virginia " to his two sonnes 
Edmond & Thomas Gibbs." He was 
active in the company aifairs, 1620-22; 
also of the S. I. Co. ; on the Virginia 
Commission, July 15, 1624; one of the 
Council for Virginia, November 16, 
1624, and after ; a commissioner for 
the advancement of Virginia in 1631. 
I think he married Isabella, daughter 
of Rev. William Wilson, D. D. 

Gilbert, Adrian. Of Sandridge; 
son of Otho of Compton ; made a 
voyage to the Northwest prior to 1583; 
interested in the Northwest patent of 
1584, in the Davis voyages, 1585-87, 
and in the voyage of Cavendish, 
1591 ; was constable of Sherborne 
Castle, 1596-1603 ; M. P. for Brid- 
port, 1597-98. 

(An Adrian Gilbert married Mary 
Johnson, spinster, at All Hallows' 
Barking in 1577.) 

Gilbert, Bartholome'w. Son of Sir 
Humphrey. On the voyage to our 
New England coast, March 26 to July 
23, 1602 ; sailed on a voyage to the 
Chesepian Bay, May 10, 1603, and was 
killed by the Indians on the eastern 
shore of Virginia in July. 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey. Of Comp- 
ton ; son of Otho Gilbert and his wife, 
Katherine Champernoun, was " borne 
in Devon at his father's house called 
Greeneway upon Dart river about 



GILBERT 



897 



1539 ; educated at Eton and Oxford ; 
destined by his father to the law, but 
followed ms own bent for more active 
enterprises." Devoted himself to the 
study of navigation and the art of 
war ; got his first reputation at Havre 
in Normandy, where he was wounded 
in fighting against the French Cath- 
olics, September 26, 1563 ; petitioned 
the queen for privileges for making 
Northeast discoveries in April, 1666 ; 
serving as captain under Sir Henry 
Sidney in Ireland in July, 1566. 
While in Ireland, Salva-terra tells 
him of the Northwest passage. Peti- 
tioned the queen for the privilege of 
making Northwest discoveries in No- 
vember, 1566 ; enlisting soldiers in 
England for service in Ireland in 
April, 1567, and soon went over ; re- 
turned to England in the summer of 
1568, and to Ireland again the next 
year, where, after defeating the cele- 
brated McCarthy More, he was made 
governor of Munster in October, 1569; 
knighted at Drogheda by Sir Henry 
Sidney, January 1, 1570 ; returned to 
England in the same year, and mar- 
ried Joan, only daughter and heiress of 
John Aucher of Otterden (see An- 
thony Aucher, EsqO by his wife, Ann, 
daughter of Sir William Kelleway. 
(Sir Humphrey afterwards sold the 
manor of Otterden to William Lewin, 
LL. D.) He was M. P. for Plymouth 
in 1571 ; resided at Limehouse, 1571- 
72 ; commanded the squadron sent to 
reinforce Flushing in the autumn of 
1572 ; returned to England in the fall 
of 1573 ; living at Limehouse, 1573- 
78 ; was still desirous of making new 
discoveries in 1574. Visited by George 
Gascoigne in the winter of 1574, he 
showed him "sundrj' profitable and 
very commendable exercises which he 
had perfected plainly with his own 
pen." One of these exercises was 
probably "The Erection of (Queen 
Elizabethe's) Achademy in London " 
(printed by Dr. Furnivall in London, 
1869) ; another was Gilbert's " Dis- 
course of a Discovery for a New Pas- 
sage to Cataia." Lock says that Gil- 
bert printed a book regarding new 
discoveries in May, 1575. Gascoigne 
published, probably without Gilbert's 
authority, his " Discourse of a Discov- 
ery " in April, 1576. Gilbert was in- 
terested in Frobisher's voyages of 



1576-78 ; consulted Dr. John Dee, 
November 6, 1577, and the same day 
proposed to Elizabeth to attack the 
shipping of Spain under color of a 
patent for colonization in America ; 
obtained a patent for planting an Eng- 
lish colony in America, June 11, 1578 ; 
sailed in the fall of that year, but was 
soon forced to return; prepared to sail 
in 1579, but was stayed ; returned to 
Ireland in the summer of 1579 ; sent 
John Walker to our coast in 1580, and 
probably made other ventures, but the 
data for these enterprises from May, 

1579, to August, 1582, is very defi- 
cient; consulting Dr. Dee in the fall of 

1580, and in the same year made an 
assignment for colonization to Sir 
Thomas Gerrard and Sir George Peck- 
ham ; examined sundry persons re- 
garding America to the southwest of 
Cape Breton, 1582 ; sailed on his voy- 
age, June 11, 1583 ; landed in New- 
foundland, August 4; sailed to the 
southward, August 20 ; went down at 
sea, September 9-10, 1583. He was 
the father of one daughter and nine 
(or five) sons, among whom were John 
(the eldest), Bartholomew, and Ealegh 
Gilbert. 

Gilbert, John, of Greenway ; eld- 
est son of Otho Gilbert. Knighted by 
Queen Elizabeth at Westminster, 1571 ; 
vice-admiral of Devon, 1585 ; mayor 
of Plymouth, 1589; married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Richard Chudleigh, of 
Ashton, but died without issue. " This 
eminent and learned man was interred 
in St. Peter's Cathedral, Exeter, where 
a sumptuous monument remains to his 
memory." 

Gilbert, Sir John. Eldest son of 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert ; with Ralegh 
in Guiana, in 1595 ; knighted by Es- 
sex at Cadiz, 1596 ; governor of the 
fort at Plymouth, 1597. Ralegh was 
proposing to send an expedition under 
his command to Guiana in November, 
1598. M. C. for Va., March 9, 1607. 
He was an officer of reputation ; mar- 
ried a daughter of Sir Richard Moly- 
neux, of Sefton, but died without is- 
sue, July 5, 1608, of the small-pox, 
and was buried at Marldon Church. 

His brother, Ralegh Gilbert, who 
was then (July, 1608) in North Vir- 
ginia, was his heir, and returned to 
England to take charge of his estate. 

Several letters from Sir Walter 



898 



GILBERT — GODOLFINE 



Kalegh " to my nephew, Sir John Gil- 
bert, knight," are still preserved. 

GUbert, John, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£62 10s. The inventor of a dredging 
machine, called a water plough, and a 
pump for draining mines ; licensed 
July 16, 1618. 

Gilbert, Otes or Otho. Of Comp- 
ton (who was related to Sir Eiohard 
Greenville) married Katherine Cham- 
pernoun (who was first cousin to 
George Carew, Earl of Totness), and 
had by her three sons: John Gilbert 
of Greenway, Humphrey Gilbert of 
Compton, and Adrian Gilbert of Sand- 
ridge. Otho Gilbert died probably 
before 1560, and his wife married, 
secondly, Walter Kalegh of Fardell, 
and bore him three children, name- 
ly, Carew, Waiter, and Margaret 
Kalegh. 

Gilbert, Ralegh, 1. Son of Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert, brother of Sir John 
Gilbert, aforesaid, and nephew of Sir 
Walter Kalegh; an incorporator in the 
first charter, April 10, 1606 ; presi- 
dent of the Council in North Virginia, 
1608 ; married Elizabeth, daughter and 
heir of John Kelley, Esq., of Devon, 
and was living in 1620, having then 
five sons, the eldest of whom was five 
years old; M. C. for New England in 
1620. He died in 1625, leaving seven 
children. His descendants, many of 
them, are now living in Cornwall, 
England. 

Giles, Sir Edward. Of the North 
Virginia Company ; born at Totnes 
about 1680, one of Prince's Worthies, 
and a prominent Devonian throughout 
a long career. A soldier in the Low 
Countries, under Elizabeth ; a cour- 
tier, knighted by James I., July 23, 
1603 ; constantly chosen M. P. for 
Totnes during the reigns of James I. 
and Charles I. ; was a member of the 
Kew England Council in 1620 ; was 
one of the five members called to 
court for remonstrating against ship- 
money in 1634, but excused himself 
on the score of ill health. Died in 
1637, and was buried in Dean Prior 
Church. The epitaph on his monu- 
ment was written by Robert Herrick, 
who was for many years vicar of 
Dean. (Worth's "Devonshire.") 

Gipps — Gypes, Thomas, cloth- 
worker, 2. Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. 

" Son of Thomas Gipps, of St. Edmonds 



Bury in Com. Suflolte." He was mas- 
ter of the Clothworkers in 1636. 

Glanville, Francis, esquire, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. Of KU- 

worthy, Devon ; eldest son of Sir John 
Glanville, justice Common Pleas. M. 
P. for Tavistock, 1614, 1621-22, 1626, 
and 1628-29 ; knighted at Greenwich, 
May 16, 1621. Died in 1638. His 
younger brother. Sir John, was speaker 
of the Short Parliament of 1640. 

Glanville, Richard, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. . Probably a party to the 

celebrated case in chancery, 1616. 

Glover, Rev. Mr. "An ancient 
Master of Arts in Cambridge, an ap- 
proved Preacher in Bedford and Hunt- 
ingtoushire, reverenced and respected, 
and never wanting a competent sti- 
pend ; " sailed for Virginia with Sir 
Thomas Gates in June, 1611, " but be- 
ing in yeares, and of a weake consti- 
tution, and so after zealous and faith- 
ful performance of his Ministerial! 
dutie whilst he was able, he gave his 
soul to Christ Jesus, not long after 
reaching Virginia." 

Goddard, Richard, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. 

GodolEne, Sir William, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £37 10s. " Eldest son and 

heir of Sir Francis Godolphin of Go- 
dolphin, Cornwall, by his wife, Mar- 
garet Killigrew ; was one of those 
gentlemen of quality who accompa- 
nied Robert, Earl of Essex, in his ex- 
pedition to Ireland against the rebels 
in 1699 ; and for his valour at Arclo, 
was knighted by the said Earl on his 
return to Dublin, July 13, 1699. He 
set out with great reputation, having, 
besides a very liberal education, trav- 
eled into most parts of Europe, and at- 
tained several languages. Mr. Carew 
makes this honourable mention of him : 
' That he had so enriched himself with 
suiBciency for matters of Policy, by 
his long travels ; and for martial af- 
fairs, by his present carriage in Ire- 
land, that it is better known how far 
he outgoeth most others in both, than 
easily to be discerned ; for which he 
deserveth principal commendation.' 
He had so far signalized himself by 
his valour and conduct, that on the 
Spanish invasion in 1600, he was in 
such esteem with the Lord Montjoy, 
Lord Deputy of Ireland, that he in- 
trusted him with the command of his 



GODOLFINE — GONDOMAK 



899 



own brigade of horse, in the decisive 
battle of Kiusale, December 24, 1601, 
wliich victory was principally owing 
to his gallant service, having broke 
through the whole body of Spaniards, 
entirely routed them, taking their 
chief commander prisoner, whereupon 
the Irish immediately threw away 
their arms and fled. And when Don 
John d'Aquila, commander of the 
Spaniards in the town of Kinsale, 
oifered a parley desiring the lord-dep- 
uty to send some gentleman of spe- 
cial trust to confer with him and to 
receive his proposals, he was employed 
in the negotiation [related verbatim 
by Stow in his Annals] which was 
brought to a conclusion on January 2, 
1602, the Spaniards agreeing to quit 
all places in that kingdom. He af- 
terwards performed divers services 
against the rebels, and on March 20, 
1602, for the great trust reposed in 
him, he was specially appointed to con- 
fer with the Earl of Tyrone and re- 
ceive (according to his request) his 
humble submission to her majesty. 
In the year 1603 he commanded in 
the Province of Leinster ; and the 
Irish rebels being subdued, he returned 
into England soon after the death of 
Queen Elizabeth, and in the first Par- 
liament called by King James, he was 
unanimously elected one of the knights 
for the county of Cornwall." 

M. P. for the county of Cornwall, 
1605-11 ; M. C. for Va. Co., May 23, 
1609. He was buried at Breage, Sep- 
tember 5, 1613. His sister, Thomasin, 
married Sir George Carew, afterwards 
Earl of Totness. He married Thoma- 
sin, daughter and heir of Thomas Sid- 
ney, Esq., and had issue : three sons 
and a daughter, Francis, Sidney, Wil- 
liam, and Penelope. The eldest son, 
Francis, was the father of Sidney, Earl 
of Godolphin, the celebrated prime 
minister ; the second son, Sidney, was 
a poet of some celebrity, and the third 
son, William, was a colonel of a regi- 
ment in the service of Charles I. 
The daughter, Penelope, married Sir 
Charles Berkeley, the oldest brother 
of Sir William Berkeley, so long gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

Gondomar, " Don Diego Sarmi- 
ento de Aouna, Count de Gondomar." 
Spanish ambassador to England. Ed- 
ward Edwards in his " Life of Ralegh," 



vol. i. pp. 569-572, gives his pedigree, 
also a biography of him, from wliich I 
will extract : " He was born on All 
Saints' Day in 1567 ; was serving 
(though not actually in arms) against 
Francis Drake in 1584. He served 
against Portugal in 1589. He was 
made civil and military governor of 
Tuy in 1696, when the news came to 
the Eseurial of the sailing of the ex- 
pedition under Essex and Ralegh. In 
Galicia, he acquitted himself so much 
to his master's satisfaction, that Philip 
the Second soon afterwards made him 
a knight of the order of Calatrava 
and governor and alcalde of Bayonne; 
with which he retained his important 
command at Tuy. He also became 
corregidor of Valladolid, and, event- 
ually, a member of the Spanish Coun- 
cil of State." 

" In the first days of 1613 the Eng- 
lish government was in expectation of 
a Spanish invasion," and on January 
10 the Council ordered the sheriffs to 
search the houses of recusants for 
arms ; but the Spaniards persuaded 
themselves that the colony of Virginia, 
which was the " bone of contention," 
would certainly die out of itself, and 
they, resolving to leave the matter to 
diplomacy rather than to arms, re- 
placed their ambassador in England 
by one of the ablest diplomatists in 
their service, Don Diego Sarmiento de 
Acuna (see Gardiner's " Hist, of Eng- 
land," ii. pp 164,165). He arrived at 
Portsmouth late in July, and at Lon- 
don in August, 1613. He found only 
four survivors of the original pen- 
sioners of Spain, " the Earl of North- 
ampton, and Lady Suffolk, Sir William 
Mouson, the admiral of the narrow 
seas, and Mrs Drummond, the first 
lady of the bedchamber to the 
queen." To these Sir Thomas Lake 
was added within a few years, and 
Gondomar became very intimate with 
Sir Robert Cotton. 

The following is a copy of one of 
the last letters that I have from Gon- 
domar relating to the American en- 
terprise : — 

General Archives of Simancas. De- 
partment of State, vol. 2596, folio 7. 
November 28, 1616. Copy of an orig- 
inal letter from Don Diego Sarmiento 
de Acuna to the King of Spain, dated 
London, December 7, 1616. 



900 



GONDOMAE 



" Sire, — I have told Y. M. of the 
Colonies of Virginia and Bermuda 
what is found in different dispatches ; 
there is no news of importance, except 
that here altho' they consider that of 
Bermuda as of great importance ; on 
the other hand, it is reported that the 
mice have multiplied to such an extent 
as to eat their wheat and any other 

f rains which they sow, so that the 
Inglish who have gone there have en- 
dured such suffering that five men 
took a boat with four oars, with a sack 
of bisquits and a barrel of water and 
came to this place. It took them 
nearly twenty days, having made the 
voyage in a very short time and meet- 
ing no storms, which has excited great 
admiration at their happy escape, and 
on this account they have been par- 
doned. They speak now of sending 
large supplies of provisions to Ber- 
muda. I have heard that the people 
on the island have sent some vessels 
to plunder and provide themselves 
with victuals in the countries nearest 
to Y. M.'s subjects. 

" In Virginia matters are said to go 
on better since they have made peace 
with the Indians ; but in spite of all 
that they complain very much of the 
misery endured there by the English, 
who are there, and it must be so, for 
the President of the Company of these 
Colonies, having authority here to 
take for their benefit any piisoners he 
may choose among those who have been 
condemned for criminal causes, has 
had some who have preferred hanging 
to going to Virginia. A few days ago, 
when they were about to hang some 
thieves, three of them, the soundest 
and strongest, were chosen to go to 
Virginia ; two of them accepted, but 
the third would not, and seeing the 
two returning to gaol, he said ; Let 
them go there, and they will remem- 
ber me ! Then he urged the hangman 
to shorten his work, as if he was thus 
relieved of a greater evil, and thus it 
was done. Here, however, they pre- 
serve these places very carefully, as it 
appears to them that they will be very 
useful to England, if there should be 
war with Spain. And I feel sure that 
for this reason and for honour's sake 
they will never give them up. May God 
preserve the Catholic person of Y. M. 
as Christendom needeth it. London, 



December, 7, 1616. Don Diego 

Sakmibnto de Acuna." 

He was created Count of Gondomar 
in AprU, 1617 ; but remained in Eng- 
until July, 1618. Lorkin to Pucker- 
ing, from Greenwich, June 16, 1618 : 
"The Spanish ambassador [Gondo- 
mar] took his leave here at court on 
Sunday was sennight" (June 8th). 
The same letter mentions the arrival 
in London of Sir Walter Kalegh. 

During his absence the Spanish sec- 
retary, Julian Sanchez de UUoa, was 
the acting Spanish ambassador, and on 
September 26, 1618, Philip III. wrote 
to him that " the English king assured 
Gondomar that he would either punish 
Ealeigh and his associates for the mis- 
chief they had done in the Indies, or 
send them to Spain for punishment." 
Fray Diego de Lafuente ("Padre 
Msestro "), Gondomar's confessor, was 
also representing Spain in England 
during the autumn of 1618. 

Sanchez wrote to Philip III. from 
London October 1 1, 1618: "The Eng- 
lish are very hastily settling and forti- 
fying Bermuda and Virginia, sending 
every year a number of men there, 
and this year more than 700 persons 
have already gone, taking with them 
samples of various fruits to plant, and 
a variety of fowls and cattle to raise 
there, and a supply of artillery, am- 
munition, and arms, and many tools to 
erect earthworks and fortifications." 

Gondomar returned to England in 
March, 161 § (Philip III. died March 
31, 1621, and was succeeded by Philip 
IV.). I have a long letter written by 
Gondomar, on January 23, 162 1, to 
Secretary Juan de Ciriza regarding 
the taking of the Spanish ship, Sanoto 
Antonio, at the Bermudas ; but Vir- 
ginia is not mentioned. The new 
Spanish ambassador, Don Carolo de 
Columbo (Don Carlos Coloma), ar- 
rived in England about the last of 
April, 1622 ; Gondomar returned to 
Spain in May, 1622, and was never in 
England again. He was made a coun- 
cilor of state at Madrid in March, 
162 1 . The assertion that James I. 
annulled the Va. charter at the in- 
stance of Gondomar is incorrect. 
When the charter was declared null 
and void by Chief Justice Lee, Gon- 
domar had been absent from England 
for more than two years. Spain's de- 




SIR THOMAS SMITH 



GONDOMAR — GORGES 



901 



mands were really against the colony, 
not the company. Spain's strongest 
point had been that her territory was 
being settled by a mere company of 
English adventurers. The annulling 
of the charter, and taking the colony 
more immediately and publicly under 
the protection of the crown of Eng- 
land was the conclusive answer to this 
point ; and the act was rendered nec- 
essary at this time, as well by the war 
then existing with Spain as by the 
factions which existed in the Va. Co. 
In fact, every member of the Council 
of War (April 21, 1624) was in- 
terested in Virginia, namely : Lord 
Grandison, Lord Carew, Lord Brooke, 
Lord Chichester, Sir Edward Conway, 
Sir Edward Cecil, Sir Horace Vere, 
Sir John Ogle, Sir Robert Mansell, 
and Sir Thomas Button. 

Gondomar died at Bommel in Flan- 
ders in 1625. " He told a merry tale; 
read Shakespeare's plays, subscribed 
for a First Folio; liked English wines; 
assured Sir John Digby that he was 
an Englishman at heart ; was very 
gallant to the ladies ; " and " became 
all things to all men." Granger says, 
" Perhaps there never was a man who 
had so much art as Gondomar, with so 
little appearance of it." 

Gonson, Benjamin. Of Much 
Badow in Essex. Treasurer of the 
marine causes. Elizabeth writes of him 
as " our well-beloved cousin, Benjamin 
Gunson, Treasurer of our Admiralty." 
He married " Ursula, daughter of An. 
Hussey, judge of the admiralty, and 
agent at Anvers to Queen Mary," by 
whom four sons and ten daughters. 
(See "Visitation of Essex," Harl. 
Soo. Pub.) Of the daughters, Avioe 
(or Katherine ?) married Sir John 
Hawkins, and Thomazine married, 
first, Capt. Edward Fenton, and, sec- 
ondly, Christopher Browne, of Sayes 
Court, whose granddaughter, Mary, 
married John Evelyn (1620-1706), the 
virtuoso. 

Ooodere — Goodyear, Sir Hen- 
ry, 3. Sub. £37 10s.; pd. . 

(There were two knights of this name: 
one knighted at Dublin August 6, 
1599, the other at Lamore in June, 
1608.) 

Goodwin, Sir Francis, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. Of Upper 
Winchenden, Bucks. M. P. Bucks 



County, 1586-87; Wycombe, 1588-89; 
Bucks again, 1597-98, and 1604 till 
he resigned in 1606, when elected 
for Buckingham town, 1606-11 ; for 
the county again in 1614, 1625, and 
1626. 

Gore, Robert, merchant-tailor, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. Also of N. 

W. P. Co. Robert and Ralph Gore 
were brothers, sons of Gerrard Gore 
of London, alderman, who died De- 
cember 11, 1607. Ralph joined the 
Va. Co. soon after 1612, and was one 
of the directors of the company in 
1618. His brothers William and John 
were also members prior to 1620, and 
Thomas Gore, who died in Virginia 
August 16, 1607, was probably another 
brother. John Gore was Lord Mayor 
of London in 1624. The four broth- 
ers, Robert, Ralph, William, and John, 
were also of the E. I. Co. 

Bztract from the Gorges Pedi- 
gree. — Sir Edward Gorges, who died 
in February, 155f, married Mary, 
daughter of Sir Anthony Poyntz, and 
had by her, with others : (1) Sir Wil- 
liam, (2) Sir Thomas, and (3) Ed- 
mund. 

(1.) Sir William Gorges, who died 
in 1584, married Winifred Budocks- 
head, first cousin to Sir Walter Ra^ 
legh, and they were the parents of Sir 
Edward Gorges, buried in Westminster 
Abbey, 1625. 

(2.) Sir Thomas Gorges, who died 
in 1610, married Helena Shackenburg, 
a Swede (widow of William Parr, 
Marquis of Northampton), (see West 
pedigree), and had by her, with others, 
Edward Lord Gorges, Elizabeth (who 
married, first. Sir Hugh Smythe, sec- 
ondly. Sir Ferdinando Gorges), and 
Bridget, who married Sir Robert Phil- 
ips of Montacute, Somerset. 

(3.) Edmund Gorges, Esq., who died 
in 1657, was the father of Edward, 
who married, in 1559, Cicely Lygon, 
and had by her two sons. Sir Ferdi- 
nando and Sir Edward (born 1564, 
died 1624), who married Dorothy, 
daughter of Sir G. Speke. 

Gorges, Edward. I take this to 
be either the son of Sir William or the 
brother of Sir Ferdinando (see pedi- 
gree), both of whom were knighted 
m 1603. (See p. 14.) 

Gorges, Edward Lord. Of the 
North Va. Co. Eldest son and heir of 



902 



GORGES 



Sir Thomas Gorges (see pedigree). 
He was born in 1582 ; knighted April 
9, 1603 ; created a baronet of England 
November 25, 1612, and advanced to 
the peerage of Ireland July 13, 1620, 
as Baron Gorges of Dundalk, County 
Louth. Was a member of the New 
England Council, November 3, 1620, 
and continued to take an active inter- 
est in that council and colony. He was 
chosen president of the council, and 
held that office in April, 1635, at the 
time of the resignation to the crown 
of the Great Charter of New England. 
He was still living and still interested 
in colonization in November, 1638. 
The date of his death is not known to 
me. He was succeeded by his son 
Kichard, second Lord Gorges, who was 
for a time one of the council for for- 
eign plantations. He died in 1712 in 
his 93d year. Married Bridget, daugh- 
ter of Sir R. KingsmUl, but left no 
surviving issue. 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando. Son of 
Edward Gorges (1537-68) and his 
wife, Cicely Lygon, of Madresfield, 
Worcestershire (see pedigree) ; born 
about 1566 ; served at Sluys in 1587 ; 
knighted by Essex before Rouen in 
October, 1591 ; M. P. for Cardigan, 
1692-93 ; " Governor of the Forts of 
Plimouth" prior to 1597, in which 
year he was sergeant-major in the 
fleet sent to the lies of Azores, under 
Essex, in which voyage he was very 
sick ; in some way implicated in the 
so-called "Rising of the Earl of Es- 
sex," February 8, 1601, and was for 
a time confined as a prisoner in the 
Gatehouse. He is said to have re- 
vealed the plot to Cecil and Ralegh, 
for which act he is blamed by some 
and commended by others. It was 
in connection with this fracas that 
Ralegh had his quarrels with Gorges 
and Preston. He was deprived of 
the command of the New Fort at 
Plymouth about July, 1603 ; but on 
" Sept. 15, 1603, he was restored to his 
former post," etc., and he continued in 
this office for many years. He aided 
in sending out the Weymouth expedi- 
tion of May-July, 1605 ; and continued 
to take an active and earnest interest 
in America as long as he lived. He 
was a member of his Majesty's Coun- 
cil for Virginia from the first. Was a 
member of Lord Rich's African Com- 



pany, November 16, 1618 ; member 
of the South Va. Co. prior to Novem- 
ber 17, 1619. In December, 1619, 
he had some decided differences with 
Mr. Delbridge and the Va. Co. of 
London, regarding the fisheries about 
Cape Cod, within the bounds of the 
Northern Company, and on March 
3, 1620, the North Colony asked for 
a separate or special charter with ad- 
ditional privileges, etc., as the South 
Colony had done eleven years before. 
March 31, 1620, Sir Ferdinando Gorges 
was one of the arbitrators chosen by the 
Earl of Warwick, in settling the dif- 
ferences between the said earl and the 
E. I. Co., regarding the taking of the 
Lion, Capt. Thomas Jones (a ship be- 
longing to the earl), in the East Indies; 
attended the quarter court of South 
Va. Co., June 28, 1620. The warrant 
for preparing the new charter for the 
Northern Company was issued July 23, 
1620. The Mayflower, Capt. Thomas 
Jones, was sent out by the Southern 
Company in August, 1620, with a pa- 
tent for lands within the bounds of 
that colony, which did not extend 
north of 40° north latitude. The new 
charter for the North Colony passed 
the seals and was issued November 3, 
1620, granting to that company the 
lands north of the Southern Colony, 
that is, from 40° to 48° north latitude. 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges was a member 
of His Majesty's first Council for New 
England, named in the said charter of 
November 3, 1620. Although the 
Northern Company had strengthened 
their rights to the Cape Cod fisheries, 
by planting a colony as near there as 
convenient as well as by the new char- 
ter, the question was not settled ; but 
was taken before Parliament in 1621, 
where the rights of the Northern 
Company were defended by Gorges. 
June 1, 1621, he was one of the 
signers of the first Plymouth patent. 
July 27, 1621, he requested the E. I. 
Co. to loan him " certain stores for a 
ship he is building of a new fashion, 
such as the East India Company might 
make use of, and that he hoped to find 
a way to out-sail the Dutch." "Au- 
gust 29, 1621, the East India Company 
lent 2,000 trenails to Sir F. Gorges, 
captain of His Majesties Castle at 
Plymouth." In this year 1621, Capt. 
Samuel ArgaU, Gorges, and others 



GORGES 



903 



protested against the Dutch settling 
m certain parts of America. 

In 1622 he sent his son Robert, with 
a large patent for lands, to " Messa- 
chuset" in New England. 

In June, 1624, he was intending to 
send his son on an expedition fitted 
out in New England, to annoy the 
Spaniards, in their possessions in the 
West Indies. 

He was a regular attendant at the 
meetings of the Council of New Eng- 
land, serving as governor and as treas- 
urer. In 1624 he answered the French 
claim to New England. 

July 15, 1624, he was one of the 
commissioners for winding up the Va. 
Co. of London, and was afterwards a 
member of the Council for His Ma- 
jesty's Colony of Virginia. 

" In 1625 he commanded a ship-of- 
war in a squadron under orders from 
the Duke of Buckingham, which was 
sent to the assistance of France, under 
pretense of being employed against 
the Genoese. But a suspicion having 
arisen that they were destined to assist 
Louis against his Protestant subjects 
at Rochelle, as soon as they were ar- 
rived at Dieppe, and found that they 
had been deceived, Gorges was the 
first to break his orders, and return 
with his ship to England. The others 
followed his example, and their zeal 
for the Protestant religion was much 
applauded." 

November 17, 1629, the Council for 
New England granted, by indenture, 
to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Capt. 
John Mason certain lands upon the 
rivers of the Irroquois, which they 
intended naming the Province of La^ 
conia. 

During 1632 began some differences 
in the N. E. Council and Colony, 
which I cannot discuss ; as a final 
result, on April 25, 1635, the Great 
Charter was surrendered to the king, 
and the next day the king appointed 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges governor of His 
Majesty's Colony of New England. He 
was a member of the Church of Eng- 
land, and many leading men in the 
colony were Puritans ; naturally there 
were differences of opinion between 
them, which I cannot attempt to de- 
cide. 

April 3, 1639, certain lands in New 
England were granted to Sir Ferdi- 



nando, "to be hereafter called the 
Province of Maine ; " and to this prov- 
ince he chiefly devoted his remaining 
years. 

" When the civil dissensions in Eng- 
land broke out into a war, Gorges took 
the royal side ; and, though then far 
advanced in years, engaged personally 
in the service of the crown. He was 
in Prince Rupert's army at the siege 
of Bristol in 1643 ; and when that 
city was retaken in 1645 by the Parlia- 
ment forces, he was plundered and 
imprisoned. His political principles 
rendered him obnoxious to the ruling 
powers, and, when it was necessary for 
him to appear before the Commission- 
ers for Foreign Plantations, he was 
severely frowned upon, and conse- 
quently discouraged." 

He died at Long Ashton, Somerset, 
and was buried there, May 14, 1647. 

I have only attempted a mere out- 
line of the services of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges in the matter of our genesis. 
He is said to have expended £20,000 
(#500,000) in tlie Northern Colonies, 
being a principal agent, and chiefly 
interested in them for forty odd 
years, and from the beginning. 

He married, first, February 24, 1590, 
Ann, daughter of Edward Bell, of 
Writtle, Essex. She died August 6, 
1620, and was buried in St. Sepulchre's, 
London. He had issue by her four 
sons and two daughters. Married, sec- 
ondly, December 21, 1621, Mary, 
daughter of Thomas Fulf ord, Esq. ; she 
died in 1623, without issue. Married, 
thirdly, December 6, 1627, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Tristram Gorges, and 
widow, first, of Edward Courtney, 
secondly, of William Blythe ; she died 
in March, 1629, without issue. Mar- 
ried, fourthly, September 23, 1629, 
"Madame Elizabeth Smyth de Long 
Ashton." She was the daughter of 
Sir Thomas Gorges (see pedigree). 
Sir Ferdinando's fourth " venture " 
survived him, but had no issue by 
him. He had children by his first 
wife only, namely : John, born 1593 ; 
married, first. Lady Frances Clinton ; 
secondly, Mary, daughter of Sir John 
Meade. Robert, sometime governor 
of New England. Ellen and Honoria. 
Both daughters died young ; the other 
two sons, both named George, died 
young, I believe. 



904 



GORING— GREENE 



Goring, Sir George, Sub. ; 

pd. £25. Knighted at Greenwich, 
May 29, 1608 ; M. P. Lewes, 1621-22, 
1624-25, 1625, 1626, and 1627-28; 
created Baron Goring in 1628, and Earl 
of Norwich, 1646. Distinguished roy- 
alist, and father of the celebrated Gen. 
George Goring. He married Mary, 
daughter of Edward Neville, Baron 
Abergavenney ; died in 1662 or 1663. 

Gosnold, Anthony, Sr. (see next), 
brother of Capt. Bartholomew Gos- 
nold, was drowned in James River, Vir- 
ginia, in January, 1609. 

Gosnold, Anthony, the Younger, 

2. Sub. ; pd. . Son of An- 
thony, Sr. (Mem. — There was a fam- 
ily of the name at " Swyland in Com. 
Suffolk." See " Vis. of London," Harl. 
Soc, 1883, vol. ii. p. 176.) He went 
to Virginia in 1606 with his uncle and 
father ; October 30, 1621, the company 
granted him three shares of land in 
Virginia for his adventures, and on the 
same day he transferred one share to 
Robert Gosnold, and another to Roger 
Castle. In February, 1601, a Robert 
Gosnold was implicated in the Essex 
rising, and confined for a time in the 
" Marshalsey," the same, probably, 
who was afterwards captain of St. 
Andrew's Castle, County Hants. 

Gosnold, Captain Bartholome'wr. 
He served Sir Walter Kalegh in one 
or more expeditions to America. In 
1602 he made a direct voyage to our 
New England coast. In December, 
1606, he sailed for the South Virginia 
Colony, where he died August 22, 1607. 
The solicitor-general in the reign of 
Edward VI. was a Mr. Gosnold, prob- 
ably of the same family. 

Gouge — Goughe, Thomas, gent., 

3. Sub. £37 10s. ; £37 10s. 
Gouge, William, D. D., Puritan 

divine. Born December 25, 1578; 
educated at King's College in Cam- 
bridge ; minister of St. Anne's, Black- 
friars, in London, 1608-53; a cousin of 
Rev. Alexander Whitaker of Virginia; 
he took an especial interest in, and 
care of, the Virginia Indians sent to 
London. He was a member of the 
celebrated Westminster Assembly of 
divines, 1643. Died December 12, 
1653. " He came to his grave in a 
full age, like as a shock of com com- 
eth in his season." (See Dr. William 
Whitaker.) 



Gourges, Dominic de. Died in 
1593, on his way to London. 

Gower. See Gore. 

Grantham, Sir Thomas, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Of St. Cath- 
erines, Lincolnshire ; knighted April 
23, 1603 ; M. P. Lincoln, 1604-11 and 
1614 ; Lincolnshire, 1624r-25 ; Lincoln 
again, 1625, 1626, and 1628-29. 

Graves, Thomas, gent., 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25 ; went to Virginia in 

the Mary and Margaret in 1608 ; a 
member of the first House of Burgesses 
in America (for Smythe's Hundred), 
July 30, 1619 ; living on the Eastern 
Shore in 1620 ; a burgess for Accow- 
macke (Northampton) in 1629-32 ; 
a commissioner in 1621-32 ; and a 
member of the first regular vestry 
of the parish, September 14, 1635. 
He was possibly the father of John 
Graves, who wrote " A Song of Sion, 
by a Citizen thereof whose outward 
habitation is in Virginia. 1662." 

Gray — Grey, Lady Elizabeth, 3. 

Sub. ; pd. £25. Second daughter 

and sole heir of Gilbert, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, and wife of Henry Grey 
de Ruthyn, son and successor of 
Charles, the seventh Earl of Kent. 
She married, secondly, John Selden. 

Gray, Sir John, 3. Sub. £37 10s. ; 
pd. £12 10s. Knighted by Essex at 
Gales in 1696 ; M. P. Grampound, 
160], and Aldborough, 1610-11. 

Grey, John, 2. Sub. ; pd. 

£25. Transferred his two shares in 
Virginia to Richard Baynam on June 
28, 1620. 

Gray, Robert, author. (Probably 
the author of " An AUarum for Eng- 
land." Licensed to John Budge, Jan- 
uary 26, 1609. A person of this name 
was the schoolmaster at the Charter- 
house, 1624-26.) 

Greene, Laurence, grocer, 2. Sub. 
£37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. "Late ap- 
prentice with Mr. Alderman Brooke ; 
sworn to freedom January 26, 1592 ; 
admitted to livery, 1601 ; elected on 
the Court of Assistants July 26, 1611 ; 
was second warden in 1616." (From 
Grocers' Records.) Also of E. I. and 
N. W. P. companies. In October, 
1641, Laurence Greene, merchant, 
petitioned the Privy Council, for a 
warrant for the transportation of 
twenty passengers and provisions to 
Virginia, where he had twenty-four 



GREENVILLE — GREVILLE 



905 



servants ; the license was granted 
October 20, 1641, and the provisions 
were transported to Virginia in the 
Mayflower. 

Greenville — Grenville — Gran- 
ville, Bernard, esquire. Eldest son of 
Sir Richard Greenville, of Stow, who 
brought the first colony to Roanoke. 
He was sheriff of Cornwall in 1596 ; 
M. P. for Bodmin, 1597-98. January 
16, 1598, Ralegh wrote to Lord Burgh- 
ley, asking to have "Mr. Barnarde 
Grenville" made one of the deputy 
levetenantes in Cornwall, saying, " the 
gentleman is very sufficient, and the 
rest shall receive great ease thereby ; 
and her Majesties service the better 
performed." M. C. for Va., March 9, 
1607 ; knighted by Lord Deputy Chi- 
chester, in Ireland, November 5, 1608; 
one of his majesty's tenants in Ireland, 
1611, etc. ; buried at Kilkhampton, 
June 26, 1636. He married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Philip Bevil, Esq., 
and had issue four sons and two 
daughters ; one of the sons, Sir Bevil 
Granville, the boldest of the Cavalier 
leaders, the Bayard of England, was 
grandfather of the celebrated George 
Granville, Lord Lansdowne. 

Greenville — Greenefield, Cap- 
tain Edward. Son of Richard Greine- 
ville, of Wotton, esquire. He was born 
July 4, 1561 ; was first captain of a 
pinanee called the Swallow, and after 
of a bark called the Thomas, under 
Sir Francis Drake. He died at Car- 
thagena. South America, unmarried. 

Greenville, Sir Richard, son of 
Sir Roger Granville, an esquire of the 
body to Henry VIII., and his wife 
Thomasine, daughter of Thomas Cole, 
Esq., of Slade in Devon, was born in 
1540 ; at an early age, by permission 
of Queen Elizabeth, he entered the 
imperial army in Hungary, and at- 
tained high reputation for his achieve- 
ments against the Turks ; M. P. for 
Cornwall in 1571, and for Launeeston, 
1672 to 1583 ; interested in new dis- 
coveries, 1674 ; knighted at " Winde- 
sore " in 1677 ; sheriff of Cornwall, 
1578 ; aided in sending out Amadas 
and Barlow, 1584 ; M. P. for Corn- 
wall, 1584^86; and served on the com- 
mittee for confirming Ralegh's patent; 
took the first colony to Virginia, April 
to October, 1585 ; made a voyage to 
supply them, April to December, 1586; 



took Spanish prizes on each voyage ; 
member of the council of war pre- 
paring to meet Spain, 1587; serving 
against the Armada, 1588. In 1591 he 
was vice-admiral of the fleet sent un- 
der Sir Thomas Howard to intercept 
the Spanish Plate fleet, and " closed 
a noble life in the stoutest sea-fight 
ever waged." He "gave up the ghost 
with great and stout courage, and no 
man could perceive any true sign of 
heaviness in him." He married Mary, 
daughter and co-heir of Sir John St. 
Leger, and their eldest son was Ber- 
nard Greenville (whom see). 

GreenTivell, William, merchant- 
tailor, 3. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £100. 
Of the E. I. and N. W. P. companies ; 
contractor to supply cordage to the 
navy, etc. He was added to the 
King's Council for the Va. Co. ; was a 
director of the N. W. P. Co., and dep- 
uty-governor of the E. I. Co. He 
died in 1B21. Was of St. Gabriel, 
Fenohurch, London ; married, in 1682, 
Ellen Kettell, spinster. 

Gresham, Sir Thomas. Born in 
London, 1619 ; king's agent at Ant- 
werp, 1652 ; knighted by Queen Eliz- 
abeth, 1559 ; Gresham' s Exchange, 
1569 ; interested in Frobisher's voy- 
ages, 1576-78 ; planned Gresham's 
College in 1575 ; died in London, 
November 21, 1579. He was one of 
the greatest merchants of his time. 
(See his life by Burgon.) 

Greville, Sir Fulke. Son of Sir 
Fulke Greville, Sr., by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Ralph Neville, Earl of 
Westmoreland, was born at Alcaster, 
in Warwickshire, in 1554. 

He was a kinsman to Sir Henry 
Sidney, the father of Sir Philip, and 
to Sir Francis Walsingham. About 
1564 or 1565 he was at school with his 
cousin Philip Sidney, at Shrewsbury. 
From thence, it seems, he went to 
Jesus College in 1568, and not to 
Trinity College, in Cambridge ; thence 
to his travels on the continent, etc. 

One of the sponsors for Penelope 
West, September 9, 1582; M. P. 
Heydon, 1584-85. Sidney's scheme 
for colonizing America; with Sidney 



906 



GKEVILLE — GULSTONE 



about to embark for America in July, 
1585. 

M. P. for County Warwick in Par- 
liaments of 1592-93, 1597-98, and 
1601. Speed says, " He was many times 
elected knight of the shire, with that 
thrice worthy and honoured knight, Sir 
Thomas Lucy. A better choyse the 
Gountie could not make ; for they were 
learned, wise, and honest." Served 
Henry IV. in 1591 ; knighted October, 
1597. "Treasurer of Marine Causes 
for life in 1599, and is said to have 
accepted about the same time a com- 
mission as rear-admiral in the fleet, 
which was then equipped to resist a 
second invasion threatened by the 
Spaniards." He was consulted by 
Queen Elizabeth before she granted 
the charter to the E. I. Co. in 1600 ; 
Knight of the Bath at the coronation 
of King James, July 25, 1603 ; M. C. 
for Va., March 9, 1607 ; chancellor 
and under-treasnrer of the exchequer, 
1614 to 1621. Admitted into the E . I. 
Co. in 1615, and into the Va. Co. of 
London, December 17, 1617. 

M. P. for County Warwick, 1620-21, 
till peer. He was created Baron 
Brooke of Beauchampe Court, Janu- 
ary 19, 1621, and soon after made 
lord of the bedchamber. 

He founded a Professorship of 
History in Cambridge in 1628. His 
will is dated February 18, 1628. He 
never married. Died at Brooke House, 
Holborn, from a wound received from 
one of his servants, September 30, 
1628, in his seventy-fifth year. " His 
body was laid in his own vault, in 
the great church at Warwick, under a 
monument, which he had erected him- 
self, with this remarkable inscrip- 
tion : — 

FULKE GeEVILLE. 

Servant to Queen Elizabeth, 

Councillor to King James, 

and Friend to Sir Philip Sidney. 

Trophseum Peccati." 

" One great argument of his merit 
was his regard to that of others, desir- 
ing to be known to posterity under no 
other character than that of Shake- 
speare's and Ben Jonson's Master, Lord 
Chancellor Egerton's and Bishop Over- 
al's Patron, and Sir Philip Sidney's 
Friend." (Lloyd.) 

His cousin and heir, Robert Greville, 
second Lord Brooke, was one of the 
founders of Saybrook in Connecticut. 



Grey. — See Gray. 

Grobham, Sir Richard. Sub. £75 ; 
pd. £50. Of Wishford, County WUts; 
the son of Nicholas Grobham, Esq., of 
Bishop's Lydiard, Somerset ; knighted 
at Royston, April 1, 1604 ; married 
Margaret, daughter of William Whit- 
more, of Buldwas, Shropshire, and 
London (who married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Alderman Sir William Bond), 
and sister of Sir George Whitmore. 
M. C. for Va. Co., 1612. He died in 
1629, without issue. His sister and 
heir, Jane Grobham, married John 
Howe, Esq., and was ancestor of the 
Viscounts Howe. 

Gryce, Nicholas, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. 

Guercheville, Antoinette de 
Pons, Madame La Marquis de. 
"Lady of Honor to the Queen of 
France " (Marie de Medici). 

Gulstone — Goulston, Dr. Theo- 
dore. A celebrated physician ; born 
in 1572; educated at Merton College, 
Oxford, where he took his doctor's 
degree April 30, 1610 ; after which 
he became fellow (December 29, 1611) 
and censor of the College of Phy- 
sicians, and practiced his profession 
with great celebrity in London. Sep- 
tember 6, 1614, he was sworn a free 
brother of the E. I. Co., gratis, at the 
request of Sir Edwin Sandys, whose 
life he had saved ; and on September 
11, 1614, Lorkin wrote to Puckering ; 
"The Archbishop [George Abbot] 
hath been lately in great danger of 
death, from a fish's bone, which stuck 
in his throat as he was one day at din- 
ner, and could not a long time be re- 
moved. The doctors gave him over as 
desperate ; yet, at length, Dr. Gulston 
found means to relieve him." 

" Ultamatamakin (commonly called 
Tomacomo), one of Pohatans councel- 
lours, that came over with Dale, was a 
frequent guest at Master Doctor Gold- 
stone's in 1616, where he sang and 
danced his diabolioall measures, and 
discoursed of his Countrey and Re- 
ligion." 

June 14, 1619, Dr. Gulstone was 
appointed on the committee of the 
Va. Co., concerning the college in Vir- 
ginia. 

December 15, 1619, he bought six 
shares of land in Virginia from John 
Cage, Esq., three shares from Peter 



GULSTONE — HAKEWELL 



907 



Bartle, and one share from John 
Payne, gent. 

In July, 1621, he recommended to 
the Va. Co. Dr. John Potts for the 
physician's place in Virginia, vacated 
by the death of Dr. Lawrence Bohun. 

He died May 4, 1632, and left by 
his will £200 to purchase a rentcharge 
for the endowment of a pathological 
lecture, to be delivered yearly in the 
College of Physicians of London ; 
which lecture now bears his name. He 
was distinguished as a Latin and Greek 
scholar ; translated several works from 
the Greek into Latin, two of which he 
published during his life, and a third 
was edited, after his death, by his 
friend the Kev. Thomas Gataker 
(1574-1654). 

He married Helen Sotherton, daugh- 
ter of George Sotherton, a merchant- 
tailor and M. P. for London, who died 
in 1599. 

Guy, John. N. Fid. Co. ; a mer- 
chant of Bristol trading to Newfound- 
land. He wrote a treatise in 1609, to 
animate the English to plant in that 
island ; was an incorporator of the 
company in 1610, and governor of, and 
living in, Newfoundland, 1610-12. He 
was an alderman and mayor of Bristol, 
and M. P. for that city in 1621-22, 
" when the monies collected in Bristol 
for the Palatinate were transmitted to 
John Whitson and himself, to be by 
them paid to the proper authorities." 
He was also one of the arbitrators 
with Whitson in November, 1626, in 
the Callowhill ease. 

G-winn. See Winne. 

Gypes. See Gipps. 

Hackshawe, Thomas. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. 

HackTwell. See Hakewell. 

Haiw^ard — Hayward — Ha-ward 
— Heyward, etc.. Sir George, 2. 

Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. Son of Sir 

Thomas Smythe's sister, Catharine, by 
her first husband, Sir Rowland Hay- 
ward ; knighted at Theobald's in 1604. 
Chamberlain wrote to Mrs. Alice 
Carleton on February 16, 1614 : " Sir 
George Haywood, the Lady Scott's 
son by old Rowland, is fallen mad." 

Haward, James, merchant, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £12 10s. 

Haiward (Hayward, etc.), John. 
(There were evidently three members 



of this name in the Va. Co., namely, 
(1) John Hayward or Master John 
Hayward, (2) Rev. John, or John, 
clerk, or John, minister, and (3) Sir 
John Haiward, knight. They paid in 
all £112 10s.) 

Hayward, Master John, the his- 
torian, was born in Suffolk in 1560 ; 
was D. C. L. of Cambridge ; pleader 
in ecclesiastical courts. The first part 
of his "Life and Raigne of King 
Henrie the IV." was published in 1599. 
Elizabeth was displeased with the 
book, and ordered Bacon to search it 
for treasons. He reported no treason, 
but many felonies ; for the author 
" had stolen many of his sentences and 
conceits out of Cornelius Tacitus." 
He was historiographer of Chelsea 
College in 1610 ; wrote the lives of 
the three Norman kings (William I. 
and II. and Henry I.) of England for 
Prince Henry, which were published 
in 1613 ; knighted November 9, 1619; 
M. P. for Bridgenorth, 1621-22, and 
for Saltash, 1626 ; married Jane, 
daughter of Andrew Paschal, Esq., of 
Springfield, Essex. He died in Lon- 
don, June 27, 1627, and was buried in 
Great St. Bartholomew's. His will is 
dated March 30, 1626, and was proved 
June 28, 1627. " His Life of Edward 
VI. " was published, after his death, in 
1630. 

Haiward (etc.), Hev. John, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. (In Stith's list of mem- 
bers in the second charter he is called 
" John HowavA, clerk ; " in the list of 
subscribers, " John HeywarA, mynis- 
ter ; " in the Somers Islands charter, 
"John Hayward or Heyward, clerk.") 
Author of " The Strong Helper, 1614," 
etc. 

Haiward, Sir John, 3. Sub. £75. 
Second son of Sir Rowland Hayward 
by his second wife, Catharine Smythe; 
knighted at Windsor, July 23, 1609; 
high sheriff of Kent in 1624. 

Haiward, Roland. See Hayward. 

Hakewell, 'William, esquire, 3. 
Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £12 10s. Born in 
Exeter, 1574 ; barrister of Lincoln's 
Inn ; M. P. Bossiney, 1601, St. Mi- 
chael's, 1604-11, 1614, Tregony, 1621- 
22, Amersham, 1624-25 and 1628-29 ; 
was master in chancery at decease ; 
died October 31, 1655, aged 81. He 
married a niece of Lord Bacon's ; was 
queen's solicitor in 1617. His brother, 



908 



HAKLUYT — HAMOK 



Dr. George Hakewill, Archdeacon of 
Surrey, and himself were committed 
to custody in August, 1621, for pre- 
senting to Prince Charles, without the 
king's knowledge, a discourse against 
the Spanish match. He was on the 
Virginia Commission of July 15, 1624. 
Author "Liberty of the Subject, 1641." 

Hakluyt, Richard, the Elder. 
Of the Middle Temple, a cousin to the 
Kev. Richard. He was much inter- 
ested in foreign lands and the advance- 
ment of English commerce. Henry 
Lane, of the Skinners' Company in 
1667, wrote to him in behalf of the 
fur trade of that company. About 
1568 he showed his cousin, Richard, 
"certeine bookes of Cosmographie, 
with an TJniversall Mappe," and 
pointed out to him the various seas, 
lands, etc., and then turning to the 
107th Psalm, directed him to the 23d 
and 24th verses, where he read " that 
they which go downe to the sea in 
ships and occupy by the great waters, 
they see the works of the Lord and his 
wonders in the deepe," etc., and his 
discourse influenced his cousin in pros- 
ecuting those studies. 

He consulted Dr. Dee, June 30, 
1578 ; gave instructions for the Pet 
and Jackman voyage in May, 1580. 
Walsingham sent a letter by him to the 
Bristol merchants, March 11, 1583. 
Lane wrote a letter to him from Vir- 
ginia, September 3, 1585. 

Hakluyt, Rev. Richard, 1. Sub. 

; pd. £21. Born about 1552 ; 

" brought up at Westminster school ; " 
became interested in cosmography ; 
entered Christ Church College, Ox- 
ford, in 1570 ; B. A., February 19, 
1573; M. A., June 27, 1577; consulted 
Ortetius; delivered public lectures on 
Cosmography, etc. ; dedicated his 
"Divers Voyages," to Sir PhUip Sid- 
ney in 1582; letters from Walsingham 
and Parmenius to him in 1583; chap- 
lain of the English legation at Paris, 
1583-88. Letters from Paris, 1584- 
86. Wrote discourse on " Western 
Planting" for Ralegh in 1584; caused 
the journals of Ribault and others to 
be published, 1586. He published 
"De Orbe Novo," etc., in Paris about 
March, 1587, and in London, May 1, 
1587, his translation of the journals of 
Laudonniere, etc. The first edition of 
his " Principal Navigations," etc., No- 



vember 17, 1589. His first wife died 
about 1597, leaving an only chQd, Ed- 
mond. The second edition in three 
volumes of his " Principal Navigar 
tions," etc. : first volume in 1598, 
second, 1599, and third in 1600. Pub- 
lished " Galvano's Discoveries of the 
World " in 1601 ; was interested in 
Pring's voyage to New England, 1603 ; 
one of the chaplains of the Savoy ; 
married, secondly, about March 30, 
1604, when about 52 years old, Fran- 
ces, widow of William Smithe of St. 
Botolph, Bishopsgate, gent., deceased ; 
had been prebendary of Bristol Ca- 
thedral since 1585 ; in 1605 was ap- 
pointed a prebendary of Westminster, 
and rector of Wetheringset in SufBolk. 
He died at Eaton in Herefordshire in 
November, 1616. His will, dated Au- 
gust 20, 1612, was proved November 
23, 1616. He was buried in West- 
minster Abbey, November 26, 1616. 
June 13, 1621, his son Edmond trans- 
ferred two shares in Virginia to John 
Moore. 

'^ijtai^ }ia£.Ci.Y^ ^1^*°^ 

Hall, Richard, grocer, 3. Sub. 

£50 ; pd. . One of the farmers 

of the impost on tobacco; in February, 
1610, he was granted £160 lis. in 
consideration of his great losses as 
abatement of his impost on tobacco. 

Hainan. See Hampton. 

Hamer — Hamor, Ralph, the 
Elder, merchant-tailor, 2. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £133 6s. 8d. He was an 
incorporator, and for a time a director 
of the E. I. Co. He died in 1615, 
leaving his widow, Susan, as execu- 
trix of his estate. Two of their sons 
went to Virginia, Raphe in 1609, and 
Thomas in 1617. Thomas was at 
Master Harrison's house near War- 
raskoyack at the time of the massa- 
cre, March 22, 1622. On the 24th of 
January, 1623, George Harrison wrote 
from Jamestown that " Thomas Hamor 
was very sick." He probably died 
before February, 1624. 

Hamor, Ralph, the Younger, 2. 
Sub. ; pd. £25. Went to Vir- 
ginia in 1609, and remained there until 
June 18, 1614. On the 8th of January, 
1617, the company gave him eight 
shares in Virginia, and on the 15th of 



HAMOR — HARCOURT 



909 



January "bills of adventure allowed 
to Capt. Raphe Hamor and the per- 
sons here under named for every man 
transported at their charge being 16, 
who were to have noe Bonds, vizth. : 
one bill of £12 10s. for Mr. Rob. 
Sturton; one Bill of £26 for Mr. 
Christo: Martin ; one Bill of £12 10s. 
for Mr. John Blaokall ; one Bill of 
£50 for Mr. Tho: Hamor ; one Bill of 
£62 10s. for Mr. Raphe Hamor ; one 
Bill of £25 for Mr. William Tucker ; 
one Bill of £12 10s. for Mr. Elias 
Roberts." He sailed from England 
about March, and arrived in Virginia 
in May, 1617. He was a member of 
the council in Virginia, 1621 to 1628, 
and probably after. 

Hamersley, Master Hugh, haber- 
dasher, 2. Sub. ; pd. £25. "A 

great and general merchant ; " mem- 
ber of the Rus., E. I., N. W. P., and 
other companies ; was a director and 
an auditor of the E. I. Co. ; sheriff of 
London, 1618-19 ; alderman of Bish- 
opsgate ward, 1619-22, and Aldgate 
ward, 1622-36 ; " Coronel of London 
and President of the Honorable Artil- 
lery Company ; " lord mayor, 1627- 
28 ; knighted June 8, 1628 ; president 
of Christ's Hospital, 1634, till decease. 
Died October 19, 1636, aged 71, and 
lies buried under " a great Monument 
in the North Wall," of the Church of 
St. Andrew's Undershaf t, London. He 
gave the Haberdashers' Company a 
silver gilt salt cellar by Cellini. 

Hampton, Captain John, of Plym- 
outh. Ralegh referred to him as " a 
sea captain of the greatest experience 
in England " in 1595. 

Hampton, Thomas, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. 

Hanbury, John, merchant-tailor. 
Pd. £1 -|- £25. 

Hancock, 'William, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £62 10s. 

Hanger, George. Pd. £25. 

Hanham, Sir John, 3. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £37 10s. Of Dean's Court, 
Winborne, Dorset ; eldest son of 
Thomas Hanham, sergeant at law, by 
his wife, Penelope, daughter of Sir 
John Popham ; M. P. East Looe, 1601; 
knighted at Charterhouse, May 11, 
1603; M. P. Weymouth, 1604^11. 
He was sheriff of Dorset, 12 James I. 
Died in 16 — , without issue, and was 
succeeded at Dean's Court by his 



brother Thomas (see Popham ped- 
igree). 

Hanham, Thomas, 1. Son of 
Thomas Hanham and brother of the 
above Sir John ; was a member of 
the New England Council, November 
3, 1620 ; succeeded his brother. Sir 
John, at Dean's Court ; left a son, 
John, whose son. Sir William Han- 
ham, was created a baronet. (It may 
have been the father, but I think it 
was this Thomas, who was named in 
the charter of April 10, 1606, and who 
went to North Virginia with Priug in 
that year. See Sir John Popham.) 

Hansford, Humfrie, grocer, 3. 
Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £50. Son of 
William Hansford, of London ; was 
baptized in St. Mary Woolohurch 
Haw, March 11, 1565 ; was an incor- 
porator of the E. I. Co., 1600 ; church- 
warden of St. Mary Woolchurch, 1606- 
08 ; a director of the E. I. Co. in 1607, 
and for many years thereafter ; incor- 
porator of the N. W. P. Co., July 26, 
1612 ; gave "an elegant cushion for 
thePulpitt and a Pulpitt Cloth" to 
St. Mary Woolchurch in 1613. Lyson 
says, "The old house at Woodford- 
row was built in 1617, by Sir Hum- 
phrey Handf orth, master of the ward- 
robe to James I., who is said frequently 
to have dined there, when hunting in 
the forest." Was a member of the 
N. Fid. Co. ; on the commission to treat 
with the Hollanders, January 8, 1619 ; 
recommended by King James for 
treasurer of the Va. Co. in May, 1622; 
sheriff of London, 1622-23 ; knighted 
at Woodford Row, July 14, 1622; 
elected alderman of Castle Baynard 
ward, August 13, 1622. On February 
5, 1623, he transferred one share of 
his lands in Virginia to Sir Timothy 
Thornehill. He was on the commis- 
sion for the Va. Co., July 15, 1624. 
Died at Woodford Row, and was bur- 
ied "in his vawte at Wool-church, 
Nov. 1, 1625." 

Hansford, John, merchant-tailor. 
2. Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. Proba- 
bly the brother of Sir Humfrey who 
was baptized February 25, 1571. 
(Colonel Hansford of Bacon's Rebel- 
lion, "had the honor of being the 
first Virginian born that ever was 
hanged.") 

Harcourt, Robert. Eldest son 
of Sir Walter Harcourt, of Stanton- 



910 



HARCOUET — HARIOT 



Harcourt, by his wife Dorothy, daugh- 
ter of William Robinson, of Drayton- 
Bassett in Staffordshire. " His brother 
Michael and himself were interested 
with Sir Walter Ralegh in Wiaffero, 
and Guyana in South America." He 
was on a voyage to Guiana, March 
to December, 1609, and his brother, 
Capt. Michael Harcourt, remained 
there at " Wiapoco," until 1612. 
James I. granted to him and others a 
patent, August 28, 1613. They sent 
out an expedition under Capt. Ed- 
ward Harvey in 1616-17, and Collins 
says that "Robert Harcourt was the 
most considerable adventurer with Sir 
Walter Raleigh in his Voyage to Guy- 
ana," 1617-18. He married, in 1598, 
Frances Vere, sister of Sir Horace 
Vere, and died in 1631, aged fifty- 
seven years. 

Hare, John, esquire, 3. Sub. £37 
10s.; pd. £37 10s. Probably the eld- 
est son of Sir Ralph Hare, of Slow 
Bardolph, Norfolk. M. P. for Ayles- 
bery, 1625, Evesham, 1626, and King's 
Lynn, 1628-29. Knighted December 
4, 1617 ; married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Lord Keeper Coventry. 

Harfleet, Sir Thomas, 3. Sub. 
£37 10s. ; pd. £12 10s. "Thomas Sep- 
tuans als Harfleete of Kent " was 
knighted at Whitehall, July 23, 1603. 

Harington. See Harrington. 

Harlot, Thomas. An eminent 
English mathematician; was born at 
Oxford in 1660, and, having been in- 
structed in Grammar-learning in that 
city, became a Batler or Commoner 
of St. Mary's Hall in that University, 
where he took the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts, February 12, 1579 [1580], 
and in the latter end of that year 
completed it by determination in 
School Street. Soon after he came to 
the knowledge of Sir Walter Ralegh 
on account of his admirable skill in 
the Mathematics, and was entertained 
by that gentleman, with the allowance 
of an annual pension, for instructing 
him in that science. He was sent by 
Sir Walter to Virginia in 1685, where 
he was employed, from June 1686, to 
June 1586, in the discovery and sur- 
veying of the country, observing the 
manners, customs, etc., of the people. 
And, upon his return he published the 
result of his labors in " A Briefe and 
True Report of the Newfound Land 



of Virginia, etc., London, 1688." In 
1694 he published a chapter on rhumbs, 
and in 1696 he framed a chart of 
Guiana, etc. About this time "Sir 
Walter got him into the acquaintance 
of that noble and generous Count 
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumber- 
land, who finding him a gentleman of 
an affable and peaceable nature, and 
well read in the obscure parts of 
learning, he did allow him a yearly 
pension of £120." He shared in the 
troubles of his patrons. At the trial 
of Ralegh in 1603, Chief Justice Pop- 
ham referred to the devilish opinions 
of Harlot, and he was not without sus- 
picion of having some knowledge of 
the Gunpowder Plot in 1605. When 
Ralegh and the earl were in the 
Tower, Harlot, Hues, and Warner 
were their constant companions, and 
were usually called the Earl of Nor- 
thumberland's Three Magi. He made 
a sun-dial for the earl which is still to 
be seen on the south face of the Martin 
Tower. In 1607 Hariot drew up ob- 
servations on the comet since known 
as " Halley's Comet," which were pub- 
lished by Professor Rigaud, Oxford, 
1832. In 1609 he was in consulta- 
tion with the Va. Co. of London. In 
1610 he is said to have observed the 
satellites of Jupiter, a few days after 
Galileo first discovered them, and to 
have been himself the first to detect 
the spots on the sun, December 8, 
1610. " He was noted for skill in 
Algebra, his treatise on which, enti- 
tled, ' Artis Analytic* Praxis ad 
sequationes Algebraicus nova,' etc , 
edited by his friend, Mr. Walter War- 
ner, was published after his death in 
1631." " Hariot ... was destined," 
says Hallam, "to make the last great 
discovery in the pure science of Alge- 
bra. . . . He arrived at a complete 
theory of the genesis of Equations, 
which Cardan and Vieta had but par- 
tially conceived." He lived for some 
time in Sion College, and died at 
London " of cancer in the lip " and 
other troubles, July 2, 1621. His 
body was interred in St. Christopher's 
Church in London (the site of this 
church is now occupied by the Bank 
of England), where a monument was 
erected for him by his noble executors. 
Sir Thomas Aylesbury and Robert 
Sidney Viscount Lisle, with a Latin 




SIR GEORGE SOMERS 



HARIOT— HARPER 



911 



inscription which may be thus trans- 
lated: — 

"Stop traveller, tread lightly /just 
here lies what was mortal/of the cele- 
brated man/Thomas Hariot./He was 
that most learned Harriot/of Syon 
near the river Thames,/By birth and 
education/an Oxonian./He was versed 
in all soiences./He excelled in all 
things./Mathematics, Philosophy, The- 
ology,/The most studious explorer of 
Truth/The most pious cultivator of 
the Triune God./A sexagenarian or 
thereabouts,/he bid farewell to mor- 
tality; not to life, In the year of our 
Lord, 1621, on the 2d July." 

The following extracts are from 
" The Aceomptes of the Church War- 
dens of the Paryshe of St. Christo- 
fer's in London." From the Introduc- 
tion by Edwin Freshiield, vice-presi- 
dent of the Society of Antiquaries of 
London, etc.: "Mr. Harriote was a 
frequent resident in the parish with 
his friend Mr. Buekner ; indeed he 
died at his house in 1622 [1621]. . . . 
He had always kept up his interest 
in Virginia, and with his friend Mr. 
Buekner was instrumental iu promot- 
ing the colonization of that country." 
From " The Accompt, etc., for Anno 
1622 " (i. e., from May, 1621, to May, 
1622). "Received for the Knell of 
Mr. Harriote, 6 shillings and 8 pence." 
"Received of Mr. Thomas Buekner, 
being the gift of Mr. Harriot, £4." 
"Paid to the poore by the Gifte of 
Mr. Harriot — four pounds." From 
" The Accompt, etc., for Anno 1626 " 
(May, 1625, to May, 1626). "Re- 
ceived of Mr. Thomas Buekner for the 
Erectinge of Mr. Herriot his monu- 
ment in the Chauncell the some of one 
pound." 

Harley (etc.). Captain Edward, 

2. Sub. ; pd. . His name is 

variously spelled : Harlow, Hawley, 
Harley, etc. Among the papers in the 
collection of Lord De L'Isle and Dud- 
ley, catalogued in the Third Report of 
the Royal Hist. Commission, is the fol- 
lowing : " Folio paper, 16th Century. 
Ars Naupegioa. Art of Shipbuilding, 
by Edmund Harlow, Gent." Captain 
Harlow made the voyage to our New 
England coast with Popham, May 31, 
1607, to December, 1608. He was 
again on our coast iu 1611, " and 
brought away the salvadges from the 



river of Canada," which were " showed 
in London for a wonder," in the spring 
of 1612. In June, 1614, Capt. Hen- 
ry (?) Harley was sent to our coast 
by Sir Ferdinando Gorges and others. 
He probably returned to England the 
same year. March 28, 1623, "Ed- 
ward Hawley, gentleman, was close 
prisoner in the Gate house at West- 
minster, by the King's own warrant; " 
but whether this was our captain or 
not, I am not able to say. Many of 
the same family name were afterwards 
interested in the English colonies in 
America. 

Harley (Hawley, etc.). Captain 
Henry. Of the 1614 voyage. Possi- 
bly the third son of Jeremy Hawley, 
Esq., of Boston, near Brentford, Mid- 
dlesex, England. He died unmarried, 
and is classed as a merchant in the 
family pedigree. His brother, John 
Hawley, married Amy, daughter of 
Thomas Studley, who may have been 
" the first cape merchant in Virginia." 
His eldest brother, James Hawley, 
Esq., of Brentford, born in 1558, and 
still living in 1619, was twice married 
and had a large family, by his first 
wife, Susan, daughter of Richard Tot- 
hill of Devonshire. He is said to have 
had seven sons, viz.: (1) Jerome, (2) 
Capt. Henry, (3) Dr. Richard, (4) 
James, (5) William, and two others. 
I think the two others were Gabriel, 
who died in Virginia, and John, who 
came to Virginia in 1619. (1) Jerome 
(born about 1580) was interested in 
Virginia and Maryland — was a coun- 
cilor in the first and commissioner of 
the other. (4) James and (5) William 
were also interested in these colonies ; 
(2) Capt. Henry Hawley (who may 
have made the voyage of 1614 when 
a young man) was long interested in 
colonization, and became famous as a 
governor of the Barbadoes (1632-39). 

The present baronet descends from 
the third son (3) Dr. Richard Hawley 
of London. 

Harley, Robert. Pd. £12 10s. 

Harper, John, fishmonger, 2. Sub. 

; pd. £62 10s. Also a member 

of the E. I. Co. June 23, 1620, he gave 
Mr. John Whitcombe, who married 
his daughter, Anne Harper, a share 
in Virginia. There is a fair monu- 
ment to himself and wife on the south 
side of the parish church of St. 



912 



HARPER — HARRIS 



Margaret Moyses, Breadstreet ward, 
London, with this inscription : " Here 
lieth the Bodies of John Harper, 
citizen and fishmonger, Treasurer of 
Christ's Hospital, and Alderman's 
Deputy of Breadstreet Ward, London. 
And Frances his wife, daughter to 
James Smyth, of Great Lunber, in 
the County of Lineolne, gentleman. 
By whom he had issue five children ; 
but at the time of their Death left 
only a son, John, and a daughter, 
Anne, married to John Whitoombe of 
London. He died the 27 of Novem- 
ber, 1632, in the 79th year of his age, 
and she departed this life the 30 day 
of October, 1630, being 72 years 
old." By his will, he gave money to 
purchase books for Sion College Li- 
brary. 

Harrington, John Lord, 3. Sub. 

; pd. . He was the oldest 

son and successor of Sir James Har- 
rington, Kut., of Exfcon, by his wife 
Lucy, daughter of Sir William Sid- 
ney of Penshurst; born about 1540; 
knighted January, 1583; M. P. for 
Warwickshire, 1686-87; and for Rut- 
landshire in 1593, 1597-98, and 1601; 
elevated to the peerage as Baron Har- 
rington of Exton, July 21, 1603. " A 
sincere Christian and a learned man," 
he was tutor to the Princess Elizabeth 
until her marriage with the Electoral- 
Palatine ; and in April, 1613, he attend- 
ed her royal highness into Germany. 
He died, on his way back to England, 
at Worms, on the 24th of August, 
1613, at the age of 73. He was first 
cousin to Sir Philip Sidney, and "a 
grand benefactor to Sidney College in 
Cambridge." He married Anne, only 
daughter and heir of Robert Kelway 
(Callaway), Esq., surveyor of the 
Court of Wards, and had, with other 
issue, John, his successor, and Lucy, 
who married Edward Russell, third 
Earl of Bedford. 

His stock in the Va. Co., at his death, 
passed to his son John, I suppose. 

Harrington, Sir John, 3. Sub. 
£150 ; pd. £187 10s. Son of John 
Lord Harrington; was baptized at Step- 
ney, May 3, 1592; was made a Knight 
of the Bath at the creation of Charles 
Duke of York, " Twelfth Day [January 
6] 1605 " (O. S.). He returned from 
his travels abroad in 1609, with learning 
and experience far beyond his years. 



and at once took an active interest 
in affairs. M. C. for Va. Co., 1612. 
July 26, 1612, he was one of the incor- 
porators of the N. W. P. Co. Suc- 
ceeded his father as Lord Harrington, 
August 24, 1613 ; died of the small- 
pox on Sunday, February 27, 1614, 
at Kew, near R.ichmond, unmarried. 
The friend and companion of Henry, 
Prince of Wales, " he was pious, tem- 
perate, and chaste without the least 
tincture of sourness or austerity." 
" A most bountiful benefactor of Sid- 
ney College in Cambridge." 

Harrington-Russell, Lucy, Count- 
ess of Bedford, 3. Sub. ; pd. . 

The elder of the two daughters of 
John, first Lord Harrington of Exton, 
and sister of Sir John Harrington 
aforesaid ; married at Stepney in Mid- 
dlesex, on December 12, 1594, to Ed- 
ward Russell, third Earl of Bedford ; 
inherited two thirds of her brother's 
vast estate in 1614. Her husband died 
on May 1, 1627, and she died thirty 
days after. She took great interest in 
rare plants, in the management of her 
gardens and orchards, and probably 
obtained many varieties from Virginia 
and the Bermudas. She was the pat- 
roness of Ben Jonson, Dr. Donne, 
Samuel Daniel, Drayton, and other 
poets. 

Harris, Sir Arthur, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £37 10s. Of Woodham Mor- 
timer, Essex. Son of Sir William 
Harris ; was born in 1584 ; licensed 
to travel for three years, May 12, 
1604 ; knighted at Otelands, July 15, 
1606 ; M. P. for Maldon, 1624-25 ; 
for Essex, 1625 ; for Maldon again, 
1628-29 ; died January 9, 1632. He 
married, first, in 1606, Anne, daugh- 
ter of Robert Cranmer, of Chepsted, 
County Kent, esquire, and, secondly, in 
1615, Dame Anne Bowyer, widow of 
Sir Henry Bowyer, and daughter and 
sole heir to Sir Nicholas Salter. 

Harris, Sir Christopher, 3. Sub. 

; pd. . Of Radford, Devon. 

One of the executors of Sir Francis 
Drake. M. P. Plymouth, 1584-85; 
knighted June 7, 1609 ; buried Janu- 
ary 27, 1625. Ralegh spent nine or 
ten days at his house in June, 1618. 

Harris, John, esquire, 3. Sub. £37 
10s.; pd. £37 10s. Son of Sir Wil- 
liam Harris. (M. P. West Looe, 
1614.) 



HARRIS — HARRISON 



913 



Harris, Roger, 3. Sub. £37 10s.; 
pd. £68 15s. 

Harris, Tliomas, gent., 2. Sub. 

; pd. £25. This may have been 

the son of Sir William Harris. I 
think it was the person of the name 
who went to Virginia with Dale in 
1611, and was living at the Neck-of- 
Land, Charles City, in February, 1625, 
aged 38, with his wife, aged 23. 

Harris, Sir William, 3. Sub. £75; 
pd. £75. Of Crixith and Woodham 
Mortimer, Essex. Knighted at White- 
hall, July 23, 1603. Died in Novem- 
ber, 1616. Himself and wife are bur- 
ied at Crixith in Essex. He married 
Alice, daughter of Thomas Smith, of 
Westonhanger in Kent (see Smythe 
pedigree), and had by her four sons and 
four daughters, namely, Sir Arthur, 
William, of Lincoln's Inn, Thomas, 
John, Alice, Mary, Frances, and Eliza- 
beth. The daughter, Alice Harris, a 
niece of Sir Thomas Smythe's, mar- 
ried Sir Henry Mildmay of Graces, 
who was own cousin to John Winthrop, 
governor of Massachusetts. 

Harrison, Edivard, ironmonger, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £112 10s. An in- 
corporator and leading member of 
the E. I. Co. November 13, 1620, he 
transferred 500 acres of land in Vir- 
ginia to Raphe Fogg. 

Harrison, George. The only broth- 
er of Sir John Harrison. Came to 
Virginia in 1618. March 6, 1620, gir 
George Yardley, governor of Vir- 
ginia, granted to " George Harrison of 
Charles City, gentleman, who hath 
abode in the colony three years, 200 
acres of land situate on the opposite 
side of the river over against the Gov- 
ernor's Mansion House, to be doubled 
by the Virginia Company, when suffi- 
ciently planted and peopled." This 
land was near " Chapokes Creeke," and 
was still standing in Harrison's name 
in 1626. He wrote to his brother John 
from James City in Virginia May 12, 
1622 ; another long and interesting 
letter January 24, 1623. These letters 
are still preserved among the colonial 
papers. In the spring of 1624 he had 
a duel (probably the first in Virginia) 
with Richard Stephens, somewhere 
near James City in Virginia, in which 
he received a small cut in the knee 
only, but died fourteen days after. 
The jury at the inquest affirmed that 



he died of natural disease. He left 
property in Virginia and "the West 
Indies " [The Bermudas ?]. 

Harrison, Harmon, gent., 2. Sub. 

; pd. £26. Came to Virginia in 

1608. I take this to be the Ensign 
Harrison who was complained of, to- 
gether with Captain Martin, before 
the First Assembly, July 30, 1619 ; 
massacred by the Indians in March, 

1622. There was probably some rela- 
tionship between Martin and the Har- 
risons — Brandon finally came into 
the possession of the latter family. 

Harrison, James, gent., 3. Sub. 

; pd. . I think this person 

was the son of William Harrison, of 
London, merchant, by his second wife, 
Mary, daughter of John West, grocer. 

Harrison, John, merchant-tailor. 
Pd. £1. The founder of the grammar 
school at Great Crosby, in the parish 
of Shelton, in the county of Lancaster, 
England, in 1620. 

Harrison, Mr. (John), the Elder, 
stationer. Pd. £5. Of St. Michael- 
ad-Bladum. Master of the Stationers' 
Company in 1683 ; married, in 1686, 
Juliana Barnes, widow of Francis 
Barnes, of St. Magnus, London, hab- 
erdasher, deceased. " June 25, 1594, 
Richard Field assigned over unto Mr. 
Harrison, Sen'., in open court holden 
this day, a book called ' Venus and 
Adonis.' " 

Harrison, John, gent. Son of Wil- 
liam Harrison, of AldclifEe, Com. 
Lane, and his wife Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Christopher Gardiner, of Urs- 
wich. Was born about 1689. He 
married, in August, 1616, Margaret, 
daughter of Robert Fanshawe, who 
was brother to Thomas Fanshawe, the 
husband of Sir Thomas Smythe's sis- 
ter Joane (see Smythe pedigree). At 
this time John Harrison was " of St. 
Olive, Hart Street, gent.," and his 
bride was a member of the family of 
Sir John Wolstenholme. On Febrvi- 
ary 13, 162|, Sir John Wolstenholme 
transferred to Mr. John Harrison three 
shares of land in Virginia. Possibly 
governor of the Bermudas early in 

1623. September 16, 1623, he sent 
goods, etc., to his Ijrother George 
Harrison in Virginia. April 28, 1624, 
George Menefie wrote to him from 
James City about his brother's death. 
August 16, 1624, he gave James Car- 



914 



HARRISON — HARWOOD 



ter, master of the Anne, a power of 
attorney to manage the estate of his 
deceased brother in Virginia. 

At the Visitation of London, 1633, 
he had five children : John, William, 
Abraham, Anne, and Margaret. The 
eldest son, John, was then married to 
Jane, daughter of Edmond Chapman, 
of Greenwich in Kent. 

He was one of his majesty's farmers 
of the custom-house. In December, 
1640, he was a member of the House, 
and advanced £50,000 on the security 
of the coming subsidies. As a reward 
for his patriotism he was knighted 
by the king at Whitehall, January 4, 
164J. 

In May, 1641, " Harrison again 
came to the aid of Parliament, and 
offered to lend £150,000 on the secur- 
ity of the customs. At once the 
question was raised whether Parlia- 
ment had it in its power to give any 
such security. The Commons were in 
instant fear of dissolution. ... It 
was at once proposed that a Bill should 
be brought in, providing that the exist- 
ing Parliament should not be dissolved 
without its own consent. The proposal 
was welcomed with singular unanim- 
ity." ("Gardiner's History of Eng- 
land.) This was the beginning of the 
Long Parliament. 

He owned AldelifEe Hall, Lancaster, 
and was M. P. for Lancaster in both 
Parliaments of 1640 ; was imprisoned 
by order of the Parliament in 1642, 
and was deprived of his property ; re- 
moved from his seat in Parliament, as 
a royalist, in September, 1643. After 
the Restoration he was M. P. for Lan- 
caster, May 8, 1661, to his death, Sep- 
tember 28, 1669. 

His daughter, Anne Harrison, mar- 
ried Sir Richard Panshawe (nephew 
of Sir Thomas Smythe), the diploma^ 
tist and author (see Sir Henry Fan- 
shawe). Lady Anne Panshawe be- 
came an authoress, and her memoirs 
are well known. 

Harrison, Ralphe, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. One of this name went to 
the East Indies prior to 1609. Prob- 
ably the same person. He went to 
Virginia, and died at Elizabeth City, 
some time thereafter, in 1623. 

Harrison, 'William. A leading 
merchant of London; of the E. I. and 
N. W. P. companies. His pedigree is 



given in the Visitation of London, 
1633-34 : Harl. Soc. Pub., vol i. p. 355. 
His second wife was Mary, daughter 
of John West, grocer. (See Sir Ed- 
ward Conway.) He was for a long 
time treasurer of the E. I. Co. ; died 
in 1620. 

Hart, Sir Eustace, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. £25. Of All Hallows-in-the-Wall, 
London ; mentioned in Chamberlain's 
letter of April 30, 1616, and in the 
" Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 
July 11, 1616 ;" transferred his bill of 
adventure in Va. of £25 to Mr. Thomas 
Gibbs, May 6, 1618. He married, 
first, Mary, relict of Lord Willoughby 
de Eresby, and, secondly, in 1628, 
Jane, daughter of John Evelyn, Esq., 
of Kingston, in Surrey (widow of Sir 
Anthony Benn, recorder of London.) 
Sir Eustace Hart died September 18, 
1634, and was buried at St. Bennett's, 
Paul's Wharf, London. 

Hart, Sir John, grocer. Elected 
alderman of Farringdon Without, 
June 18, 1575 ; chosen sheriff, August 
15, 1579 ; lord mayor, 1589 ; M. P. for 
London, 1592-97 ; president of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, 1593-1603 ; 
died about February, 1603, and was 
buried in the Church of St. Swithin, 
London Stone, the living of which was 
in his patronage. He married, in 1586, 
Anne, relict of Anthony Cage, of Lon- 
don, Salter. His eldest daughter, Joan, 
married Sir George BoUes. His sec- 
ond daughter, Anne, married Alder- 
man Humphrey Smith. His daughter 
Judith married Edward Cage (whom 
see). 

Hart, Sir Percival. Sub. ; pd. 

£37 10s. Of LuUingstone Castle, Kent, 
son of Sir George Hart ; knighted 
June 1, 1601 ; M. P. Lewes, 1601 ; one 
of the heirs of the patent of Sir Jerome 
Bowes (his uncle) for the sole im- 
porting of Venice glass, in 1616. He 
married three wives : Anne, daughter 
of Sir Roger Manwood ; Jane, dangh- 
ert of Edward Stanhope, Esq., and, 
April 28, 1623, Mary Harrison, widow. 
Harwell — Harewell — Horwell 
— Howell, Sir Thomas, 2. Sub. 
; pd. £37 10s. Of Worcester- 
shire ; knighted at Whitehall, July 23, 
1603. 

Harv700d, Captain Edward, 2 

Sub. ; pd. . Son of William 

Harwood, of Thurlby, County Lin- 



HARWOOD — HAWKINS 



915 



coin ; was knighted before December 
9, 1618, when the Earl of Bedford as- 
signed to him a bill of adventure in 
Va. of fi50. He was abont this 
time added to His Majesty's Council 
for the Va. Co., and in 1619 was one 
of the committee for compiling and re- 
ducing the standing " Rules and orders, 
for the Government of the Virginia 
Company, into one entire Body of 
Laws, Form of Government," etc., 
which have been reprinted by Force, 
vol. iii. No. 6. He was a captain and 
afterwards a colonel (as early as 1604) 
in the Low Countries. In November, 
1626, he was ordered to conduct his reg- 
iment to assist the King of Denmark. 
He was an incorporator (December 4, 
1630) of the. Pi:ovidence Islands or 
Bahamas Company ; was slain at the 
siege of Maastricht, 1632. He is 
one of Fuller's Worthies of Lin- 
colnshire. " The Advice of that 
Worthy Commander, Sir Ed : Har- 
wood, Collonell. Written by King 
Charles his Command upon occasion 
of the French Kings preparation, and 
presented (in his life time) by his 
owne hand, to his Maiestie," etc. ; 
was printed at London in 1642. His 
brother, George Harwood, of London, 
was treasurer of the Massachusetts 
Company. 

Harwood, Leonard, mercer, 2. 
Sub. ; pd. £37 10s. 

Haselden (Hazleden), William, 
3. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £1^ 10s. Of 
N. W. P. and E. I. companies. 

Hasilrige (Hazlerigg), Francis, 
gent., 2. Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. 

Hastings, Henry, Earl of Hunting- 
don, 3. Sub. ; pd. £120. Son 

of Francis Hastings, by his wife Sarah, 
daughter to Sir James Harrington ; at 
the death (in loOo) of his grandfather, 
George, fourth Earl of Huntingdon, 
he succeeded as fifth earl ; was lord 
lieutenant of the counties of Leicester 
and Rutland, steward of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, and, in May, 1616, one 
of the peers for the trial of the Earl 
and Countess of Somerset. He was a 
noted patron of the stricter class of 
divines ; was one of the first that rose 
for King ^harles in Leicestershire. 
He died November 14, 1643, and was 
buried at Ashby de la Zoueh. 

Hatton, Sir ChristopKer. Born 
at Holdenby, 1540 ; made a gentle- 



man pensioner to the queen, June 30, 
1654 ; admitted to the Inner Temple, 
May, 1560 ; introduced at court before 
June, 1564 ; one of the representatives 
of Elizabeth at the baptism of James 
VI. of Scotland, December, 1566 ; 
M. P. in 1571 and 1572 ; captain of 
the queen's guard, 1572 ; vice-cham- 
berlain and member of the Privy 
Council, November, 1577 ; knighted 
December 1, 1577 ; patron of Drake 
in his voyage round the world in the 
Golden Hind, 1577-80 (Hatton's crest 
was a golden hind) ; interested in Fen- 
ton's voyage, 1582-83 ; on the com- 
mittee for confirming Ralegh's patent 
in December, 1584. He was the 
patron of several of the writers on 
naval afPairs, discoveries, etc. ; was on 
the commission for the trial of Mary 
Queen of Scots, in October, 1586 ; 
made lord high chancellor in April, 
1587 ; created Knight of the Garter, 
St. George's Day, 1588 ; Chancellor of 
the University of Oxford, September 
20, 1588 ; died at Ely Place, November 
20, 1591, and was buried in St. Paul's. 
He died a bachelor, but had adopted 
the son of his sister Dorothy, by her 
husband, John Newport, Esq., of the 
same family, possibly, as Capt. Chris- 
topher Newport. 




Haukinson, George, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £12 10s. 

Haiwes, Humfrey, clothworker. 

Sub. ; pd. £12 10s. Of the E. I. 

Co. ; second son of Lawrence Hawes, 
of London, by his wife Ursula, daugh- 
ter of John fierrick, of Leicester, and 
sister to Sir William Herrick. 

Hawkins, Charles, 2. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £62 10s. Of the E. I. Co. ; 
son of Capt. William Hawkins the 
younger, and nephew of the famous 
Sir John Hawkins. 

Hawkins, Sir John. Grandson of 
John Hawkins, Esq., of Tavistock, 
Devon, which John married Joan, 
daughter of William Amydas, Esq., of 



916 



HAWKINS 



Launceston, Cornwall, by whom he 
was the father of "Capt. William 
Hawkins, the elder, of Plymouth, who 
for his ' skill in Sea-causes ' was much 
esteemed by Henry VIII., and was the 
first Englishman who sailed a ship into 
the Southern Seas." He made several 
voyages to the coast of Africa, and 
thence to Brazil in 1530, and after. 
He married Joan, daughter of William 
Trelawney, Esq., of Cornwall, and 
granddaughter of Sir John Trelawney, 
a descendant of Edwin, who held the 
lordship of Trelawney in the time of 
Edward the Confessor ; by her he had 
two sons, William (of whom hereafter) 
and John (of whom I write), who was 
born about 1532 ; in his youth studied 
the mathematics ; entered the naval 
service about 1551, and went divers 
voyages into Spain, Portugal, and the 
Islands ; admitted a freeman of Plym- 
outh, 1555-56 ; invented the chain- 
pump for ships, 1558-59 ; on his first 
voyage to the West Indies, from Octo- 
ber, 1662, to September, 1663 ; on his 
second voyage there, from the fall of 
1564, to September, 1565 ; moved to 
London, to the Parish of St. Dunstan's 
in the East, about 1565, where he con- 
tinued to dwell at least thirty years 
(1565-1595) ; on his third voyage to 
the West Indies, October, 1567, to Jan- 
uary, 1569. In March, 1569, La Mothe 
wrote from London : " John Hawkins 
has undertaken to revenge the injury 
which the Spaniards did him at Mex- 
ico, and intends, next July, laying in 
wait at the Azores, with a good naval 
force for the arrival of the Spanish 
fleet from the West Indies." M. P. 
for Plymouth, 1571 ; pretended to be a 
traitor ; deceived the Queen of Scots 
and Philip ; was made a grandee of 
Spain in September, 1571, receiving a 
large sum of money, etc. In the sum- 
mer of 1572 with 20 ships, equipped 
with Philip's money, he sailed for the 
Azores to lie in wait for Philip's Mex- 
ican fleet. M. P. for Plymouth, 
1572-83 ; appointed treasurer of the 
navy to succeed his father-in-law, Ben 
Gonson, deceased, in 1573 ; was inter- 
ested in Drake's voyage, 1577-80. He 
proposed to destroy the Spanish fishing 
fleet at Newfoundland in April, 1685. 
He was " the man to whom is due all 
the credit of preparing the royal fleet 
to meet the Armada." Served against 



the Armada, and was knighted on the 
high seas July 26, 1588. In 1590 he 
was sent with Frobisher to intercept 
the Plate fleet, and harass the trade of 
Spain. Founded and endowed St. 
John's Hospital at Chatham for de- 
cayed mariners and shipwrights of the 
royal navy, by letters patent, dated 
August 27, 1594. On August 27, 
1695, he sail on his last and fatal voy- 
age to the West Indies ; died at sea, 
November 12, 1595, " neere the Easter- 
most end of Saint Juan de Puerto 
Rico," and " being cofSned he was cast 
into the sea." His widow had a fair 
monument erected to his memory on 
the north side of the chancel of St. 
Dunstan's in the East, London. " He 
was the first true friend of the British 
sailor; and not only the ablest captain, 
but the best shipwright of his time." 
He was twice married; first to " Dame 
Katharine " (the Gonson pedigree says 
Avioe), and secondly to " Dame Mar- 
garet ; " one of these, probably the 
first, was a daughter of Ben Gonson, 
and she, Burke says, was the mother 
of Richard Hawkins, who was after- 
wards interested in the Virginia enter- 
prises. 

Sir John Hawkins was 63 years old 
when he died, in 1695. (See London 
" Notes and Queries," § 6, xi. p. 388.) 

Hawkins, John, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £26. Of the E. I. and N. W. P. 
companies ; son of Capt. William 
Hawkins, the younger. 

Hawkins, Sir Richard. The son 
of the celebrated Sir John Hawkins 
(whom see). I do not know the date 
of his birth ; but he was " of ten- 
der yeares " in September, 1570. " In 
a voyage, under the charge of his 
uncle, William Hawkins, of Plimouth, 
esquire, in the West Indies at Porto 
Rico in 1682 ; " again in the West 
Indies at the island of Margarita, 
in 1583. In command of the Duck 
in the celebrated Drake-Sidney expe- 
dition to our coast, September, 1585, 
to July, 1586. In 1688 he commanded 
the Swallow in the attack on the 
Spanish Armada, in which action he 
greatly distinguished himself. Hav- 
ing determined on a voyage to Japan 
and the East Indies "in the end of 
anno 1688," he ordered a ship to be 
built for that purpose ; in the mean- 
time we find him in command of the 



HAWKINS 



917 



Nonpareil, near the Azores, on the 
lookout for Spanish ships. In 1593, 
his ship for the East Indian voyage, 
being finished, was named by the 
Lady Hawkins the Repentance ; but 
Queen Elizabeth, passing by the vessel, 
commanded her bargemen to row 
round about her, and viewing her from 
post to stem, disliking nothing but 
her name, said that she would christen 
her anew, and that henceforth she 
should be called the Daintie ; in 
which vessel he sailed soon after, 
passing through the Straits of Magel- 
lan early in 1594 ; on the 22d of June, 
1694, off Cape San Trancisco, Equador, 
he was forced to surrender to an over- 
whelming fleet of Spain. In 1595-96 
a prisoner in Lima, Peru ; in 1597 
" brought out of the Indies (America) 
in a galeon, which was chased into 
the rode of Tercera," by the English 
fleet under the command of Essex. 
He was for some time a prisoner in 
" the Terceras " (the Azores Islands), 
and then in Seville and in Madrid ; 
sent back to England in the beginning 
of the reign of James I., by whom he 
was knighted July 23, 1603 ; M. P. 
for Plymouth, 1604-11, and vice-ad- 
miral of Devon in 1605, etc. ; M. C. 
for Va., March 9, 1607. In 1614 the 
E. I. Co. proposed a voyage to the 
Straits of Magellan, and Sir Richard 
was " generally held to be of Courage, 
Art, and Knowledge to attempt such 
an enterprise ; " but it seems the idea 
was abandoned. 

" In 1615 he undertook, by authority 
from the council of the second colony 
of Virginia, to try what service he 
could do them as president for that 
year. Having received his commis- 
sion and instructions, he departed in 
October, and spent the time of his be- 
ing in those parts (New England) in 
searching the country, and finding out 
the commodities thereof. From thence 
he passed along the coast to Virginia, 
and staid there some time." From Vir- 
gmia he went to Spain to make sale of 
his fish. 

In October, 1616, "seven English 
ships, which this year fished at New- 
foundland, and from thence directing 
there course for Italy, were within 
the straits, assailed and taken by 30 
Turkish men of war," and Lord Caraw, 
writing to Sir Thomas Roe on the 18th 



of January, 1617, says, "It is thought 
that Sir Richard Hawkins of Plimouth 
was in one of these English ships, for 
he is not retourned from the fishing 
upon the Northern English Colony 
(which Sir John Popham projected), 
and he intended to make sale of his 
fishe in Italye." He returned from 
Virginia before September, 1617, at 
which date he petitioned to command 
the fleet of the E. I. Co., but the 
choice finally fell on Sir Thomas Dale ; 
member African Company, November 
16, 1818 ; appointed deputy of Sir 
Robert Mansell, vice-admiral, for 
suppression of piracy in the Levant, 
October 3, 1620. " He was a Vice- 
Admiral of the fleet which sailed from 
Plimmouth the twelfth of October in 
the morning in the yeare 1620," to 
" attack and destroy the pirates in the 
Mediterranean Sea." 

In the patent of November 3, 1620, 
he was appointed a member of " the 
first moderne and present CouncUl 
established at Plymouth, in the county 
of Devon, for the planting, ruling, 
ordering, and governing of New Eng- 
land in America." 

He returned from the expedition 
against the Levant pirates in 1621-22. 

Prince says, " After many high- 
spirited actions, which had they been 
recorded (as pity it is they were not) 
would have made a large volume of 
themselves, he died suddenly in 1622, 
being seized with apoplexy while at 
the Privy Council." 

There was some trouble growing out 
of the fact that the fleet against the 
pirates had been insufficiently provided 
with provisions, and the men badly 
paid. April 27, 1622, Chamberlain 
wrote to Carleton : " Sir Robert Man- 
sell and the rest of the crew are noth- 
ing well paid neither ; insomuch that 
Sir Richard Hawkins, the vice-admiral, 
finding his reckoning come short of 
what he expected, of mere grief and 
discontent, sunk down before the lords, 
and died the next day." 

"The observations of Sir Richard 
Hawkins, knight, in his voyage into 
the South Sea, Anno Domini 1593," 
dedicated to Charles, Prince of Wales, 
were printed in London in 1622. 

His widow, the Lady Judith, sur- 
vived him seven years. They were 
ancestors of Sir John Hawkins (1719- 



918 



HAWKINS — HAYWAED 



1789), the author of "The Science 
and Practice of Music." 

Ha-wkins, Captain William, the 
younger. Eldest son of Capt. Wil- 
liam, the elder, and brother of Sir John 
Hawkins. "He was the most influ- 
ential resident of Elizabethan Plym- 
outh ; a merchant and a sailor ; the 
holder of a commission under the 
Prince of Condd ; represented Plym- 
outh in Parliament ; mayor of Plym- 
outh in the eventful Armada year, 
1588, and was active in iitting out ves- 
sels for the fight." He died October 
7, 1589, and was buried in the Church 
of St. Nicholas at Deptford. "A 
faithful believer in the true religion ; 
a great benefactor of poor mariners ; 
a most learned man in naval affairs, 
he frequently made long voyages. He 
married two wives ; by one of them 
he had 4, by the other 7, children." 
I have mentioned two of his sons 
(Charles and John). Another son, 
Capt. William Hawkins, the third, was 
the founder of the first trading-house 
at Surat for the E. I. Co. He was in 
the East Indies from 1607 to 1614, 
and died on his return in the latter 
year. 

Hawley. See Harley. 

Hay, James Lord, 3. Sub. ; 

pd. . "A gentleman of small 

means, but of great ability and many 
personal recommendations, whose 
greatest fault, so far as I have been 
able to find out, was being a Scotch- 
man." He was made a Knight of the 
Bath, June 4, 1610. Having failed to 
pay his dues to the company, it seems, 
he probably forfeited his membership 
under the 3d charter ; but he was 
again admitted into the company on 
December 2, 1618, and was some time 
after added to the King's Council for 
that company. He had been created 
Baron Hay of Sanley, County York, 
June 29, 1615, sworn of the Privy 
Council, March, 1617, and created 
Viscount Donoaster, July 5, 1618, and 
Earl of Carlisle, September 13, 1622 ; 
was of the Sandys party in the Va. 
Co. in 1623-24 ; chosen a Knight of 
the Garter in 1624 ; a councilor for 
New England ; governor of the Carib- 
bee Islands, etc. He died April 25, 
1636. His first wife was Honora, 
heiress of Edward Lord Denny ; his 
second (whom he married in 1617) 



was the Lady Lucy Percy, youngest 
daughter of Henry, Earl of Northum- 
berland, and niece of Capt. George 
Percy, some time governor of Vir- 
ginia. 




Haydon — Heydon, Jerome, 

ironmonger, 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. 
£75. Of St. Mary Coleohurch, Lon- 
don ; an alderman of London ; master 
of the Ironmongers in 1611, and a 
benefactor of that company ; mar- 
ried, in 1599, Agnes, relict of William 
Wennington, gent. ; died before 1632. 
I suppose he was the father of Sir 
John Heydon, some time governor of 
the Bermudas, as Sir John inherited 
Jerome's property in that island. Je- 
rome's widow married Francis Mor- 
rice, clerk of his majesty's ordinance. 

Henry Hexham, who translated the 
Atlas of Gerard Mereator and Judocus 
Hondius into English in 1636, was a 
nephew of this Jerome Heydon. 

Hayes, Captain Edward. He 
had written of his travels prior to 
1583 ; was on Gilbert's voyage to our 
northern coast in 1583, and wrote an 
account of the voyage. "A Treatise 
of M. Edward Hayes conteining im- 
portant inducements for the planting 
of those parts and finding a passage 
that way to the South Sea and China " 
is annexed to the second edition of 
Brereton, 1602. " September 16, 1603, 
grant to Captain Edw. Hayes of pen- 
sion of £100 per annum for life." 

Hayward (see Haiward), Sir 
Rowland, clothworker. Elected al- 
derman of Farringdon Without, Sep- 
tember 19, 1560 ; chosen sheriff, Au- 
gust 1, 1563. He was president of 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital from 1572 
to his death ; lord mayor, 1570-71, 
and again in 1591. Died December 5, 
1593, and was buried in St. Alphage's 
Church, London Wall, where the mon- 
ument to his memory, with the effigies 
of his two wives and sixteen children, 
is still preserved. By his first wife, 



HAYWARD —HERBERT 



919 



Joan, daughter of William Tilles- 
wortli, he was father of Joan Hay- 
ward, who married Sir John Thynne, 
of Longleat (ancestor of the Marquis 
of Bath). Sir Rowland married, sec- 
ondly, in December, 1580, Catherine, 
daughter of Thomas Smythe (see 
Smythe pedigree), by whom : 1. Sir 
George Haiward ; 2. Sir John Hai- 
ward ; 3. Alice Haiward ; 4. Cath- 
erine, who married, first, Richard Seott 
(see pedigree), secondly. Sir Richard 
Sondes, of Throwley, Kent, son of Sir 
Michael Sondes ; 5. Mary Hayward, 
married Sir Warham St. Leger ; 6. 
Anne Hayward, married Edward, eld- 
est son of Sir William Craford. Mrs. 
Catherine Smythe-Hayward married, 
secondly, in 1599, Sir John Scott. 

Heale (Hele), Sir "Warwick, 2. 
Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £62 10s. Eldest 
son of Sir John Hele, the celebrated 
Serjeant at law. M. P. for Plymouth, 
1697-98 ; knighted at Greenwich, May 
22, 1603 ; M. P. for Plympton, 1614 ; 
member of the African Company of 
1618 ; high sheriff of Devon, 1619 ; 
member of the New England Council 
in 1620 ; M. P. for Plymouth, 1621- 
22 and in 1625. He married, first, 
Mary, eldest daughter of John Halse, 
Esq., of Kenidon, in Devon, and relict 
of William Hawkins, Esq., of Plym- 
outh (a descendant and heir of the 
great admiral) ; and, secondly, Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir William Court- 
enay, knight, of Powderham Castle, but 
died without issue in January, 1626. 

Heath, Robert. Born in 1575 ; 
called to the bar, 1603 ; recorder of 
London, November 10, 1618, to Janu- 
ary 22, 1621 ; member of His Maj- 
esty's Council for the Va. Co. of 
London ; patented lands in Virginia, 
1619-20 ; member of His Majesty's 
Council for N. E., November 3, 1620 ; 
solicitor-general, January 22, 1621, to 
October 31, 1625; knighted at White- 
hall, January 28, 1621; M. P. for Lon- 
don, 1621-22; as solicitor-general took 
part in colonial affairs ; on Va. Com- 
mission, July 15, 1624 ; M. P. for East 
Grimstead in 1624-25 and 1625; attor- 
ney-general, October 31, 1625, to Octo- 
tober, 1631 ; received a grant of land 
between 31 and 36 degrees of north 
latitude in America, called Carolana, 
in October, 1629 ; proposed to send 
Huguenots and others there ; created 



Serjeant, October 24, 1631 ; chief jus- 
tice of the Common Pleas, October 26, 
1631, to September 14, 1634 ; on spe- 
cial commission for better plantation of 
Virginia, June 27, 1631 ; king's Ser- 
jeant, October 12, 1636; justice of the 
King's Bench, January 23, 1641, to 
October 31, 1643 ; master of the Court 
of Wards and Liveries, May 13, 1641 ; 
chief justice, October 31, 1643, till 
impeached by Parliament, July 24, 
1644 ; fled to France, 1646 ; died at 
Calais, August 30, 1649. 

Heiborne (Hepburne, etc.), Per- 
dinando, esquire, 3. Sub. £37 10s. ; 
pd. £37 10s. Gentleman of the privy 
chamber to Queen Elizabeth and King 
James. He married, first, Anne Can- 
dler, great-granddaughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Lock who died iu 1550 ; was 
knighted December 20, 1611. Anne 
(Candler) Heyborne was buried at 
Tottenham, July 11, 1615. Sir Fer- 
dinando married, secondly, on April 4, 
1616, Elizabeth, daughter of Francis 
More, Esq., of Sussex. Sir Ferdi- 
nando was buried at Tottenham, July 
2, 1618. 

Heightley, Peter. Pd. £25. 

Henry, Prince of Wales. — Henry 
Stuart. 

Henshaw, Thomas, merchant - 
tailor, 2. Sub. £37 10s. ; pd. £75. 
" Silkman and servant to King James 
I. ;" an incorporator of the E. I. Co. 
He died January 11, 1612, aged 76 
years, and " his body lyeth under a fair 
stone at the entrance into the Quire of 
St. Mary Magdalen Church, Cripple- 
gate ward, London." " He had to wife 
Flower Gouldesborough, and had issue 
by her : 9 sons and 4 daughters." 

Herbert, Edward, esquire. Sub. 
; pd. . Son of Charles Her- 
bert by his wife Jane, daughter of 
Hugh ap Owen. He was a lawyer of 
the Inner Temple ; an active member 
of the Va. Co. during 1619-24 ; a first 
cousin to George Herbert the poet. 
Lord Bacon, in his will, desired Sir 
John Constable to consult Mr. Selden 
and Mr. Herbert, of the Inner Tem- 
ple, about the publication of his liter- 
ary remains. Appointed queen's attor- 
ney-general, 1635 ; solicitor-general, 
1640 ; knighted January 28, 164} ; 
attorney-general, January 29, 164} ; 
entered an accusation against the' five 
members, January 3 ; impeached by 



920 



HERBERT 



the Commons, February 14 or March 8, 
164| ; sentenced to imprisonment, 
April 23, 1623; Charles II. 's lord 
keeper of the Great Seal, 1653 ; died 
in Paris, 1657. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Smith, clerk 
of the Privy Council (widow of the 
Hon. Thomas Carey), and their son, 
Arthur Herbert, was created Earl of 
Torrington. 

Herbert, Philip, Earl of Mont- 
gomery, 2. Sub. ; pd. £160. 

Second sou of Henry Herbert, second 
Earl of Pembroke, by his third wife, 
Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Sydney; 
was born about 1582 ; " being a young 
man scarce of age at the entrance of 
King James, had the good fortune, by 
comeliness of his person, his skill and 
indefatigable industry in hunting, to 
be the first who drew the king's eyes 
towards him with affection, which was 
quickly so far improved, that he had 
the reputation of a favorite," He was 
made a Knight of the Bath at the cor- 
onation of King James, July 25, 1603. 
On the 4th of January, 1605, he mar- 
ried Lady Susan Vere, daughter of 
the Earl of Oxford, and the letter 
writers of the time gave the most 
glowing accounts of the ceremonies, 
etc. " The bride and groom were 
lodged that night in the council cham- 
ber, where the king, the next morning, 
in his shirt and night-gown, gave them 
a reveiUe matin before they were up." 
He was created Baron Herbert of 
Shurland, isle of Sheppey, County 
Kent, and Earl of Montgomery, May 
4, 1605 ; Knight of the most noble 
order of the Garter, May 18, 1608 ; 
M. C. for Va. Co., 1612 ; an incorpo- 
rator of the K. W. P. Co., July 26, 
1612 ; a member of the E. I. Co. in 
1614. The Folio Shakespeare of 1623 
was dedicated to him and his brother, 
the Earl of Pembroke. An incorpo- 
rator of the Guiana (South America) 
Company, May 19, 1627. In 1628 the 
king granted him certain islands in 
the West Indies lying between 8° and 
13° of north latitude, called « Trini- 
dado, Tabago, Barbudos [Barbuda], 
Fonseca," etc., and in 1629 he had a 
hot dispute with the Earl of Carlisle, 
claiming the Barbadoes, which had 
been previously granted to Carlisle, as 
being the Barbuda which was granted 
to him. 



His brother William, Earl of Pem- 
broke, dying April 10, 1630, without 
issue, he succeeded him as heir and 
earl. " To his second wife," he mar- 
ried, June 3, 1630, the celebrated 
Anne Clifford, sole daughter and heir 
to George Clifford, Earl of Cumber- 
land, and widow of Richard Sackville, 
Earl of Dorset. " His conduct to her 
became intolerable some time after 
their marriage. She separated herself 
from him, and survived him for many 
years." She was born January 30, 
15|§, and died March 22, 167|, in her 
87th year. 

He was interested in Newfoundland 
in 1639. He took sides with the Par- 
liament against the crown ; was sent 
by Parliament to remonstrate with 
Charles I. at New Market, March 9, 
1642 ; one of the Parliament commis- 
sioners for plantations, November 2, 
1643 ; joint commissioner to present 
propositions of Parliament to Charles 
I. at New Castle in July, 1646 ; as 
joint commissioner of Parliament re- 
ceived the king from the Scots at New 
Castle, January 30, 1647 ; from his 
apartment, saw King Charles walk 
from St. James to the scaffold. 

In the service of the Commons he 
had divested himself of every dignity 
of a nobleman, and in April, 1649, sat 
in the House of Commons as the rep- 
resentative of Berks. He was one of 
a committee to examine the business 
of the Bermudas Islands, December 
18, 1649. He died January 23, 1650. 
The cavaliers hated him, and among 
their many lampoons was the follow- 
ing : " The last Will and Testament 
of Philip Herbert, Burgesse for Bark- 
shire, vulgarly called Earl of Pem- 
broke and Montgomery, who dyed of 
Foole-age, Jan. 28, 1650. With his 
Life and Death, and severall Legacies 
to the Parliament and Councill of 
State. Also his Elegy, taken ver- 
batim, in Time of his Sicknesse, and 
published to prevent false copies by 
Michael Oldisworth. Nodnol, 1660." 
It is said to have been written by 
Samuel Butler. The will begins : 
"I, Philip, late Earle of Pembroke 
and Montgomery, now Knight for the 
County of Berks, being, as I am told, 
very weak in body, but of perfect 
memory (for I remember this time 
five years I gave the casting voyce to 




ROBERT SPENCER 
First Baroil Spencer 



HEEBEET 



921 



dispatch old Canterbury ; and this 
time two yeares I voted no addresse 
to my master ; and this time twelve- 
month saw him brought to the block) 
yet, because death doth threaten and 
stare upon me, who have BtUl obeyed 
all those that threatened me, I now 
make my last Will and Testament. 

"Imprimis, for my soule : I oon- 
f esse I have heard very much of souls, 
but what they are, or whom they are 
for, God knowes I know not. They 
tell me now of another world, where 
I never was, nor doe I know one foot 
of the way thither. While the King 
stood I was of his religion, made my 
Sonne weare a cassock and thought to 
make him a Bishop : then came the 
Scots, and made me a presbiterian; and 
since Cromwell enter'd I have been 
an independent. These I believe are 
the kingdoms' three Estates, and if 
any of these can save a soule, I may 
claime one. Therefore if my Execu- 
tors doe find I have a soule I give it 
him that gave it me," etc. 

Herbert, 'William, 2. Sub. ; 

pd. £400. Third Earl of Pembroke; 
eldest son of Henry, second Earl of 
Pembroke, by his wife, Mary Sidney, 
" Sidney's sister, Pembroke's mother." 
Was born at Wilton, Wiltshire, Febru- 
ary 8, 1680; educated at New College, 
Oxford, 1593-95. (Was he not the 
" Lord Herbert " who was knighted by 
Essex at Cadiz in September, 1696 ?) 
He was at home in 1597-98 ; in Lon- 
don about the court, 1599-1600 ; suc- 
ceeded to his father's honors and es- 
tate, January 19, 1601. In 1603 he 
was much interested in securing the 
pardon of Sir Walter Ealegh. His 
mother wrote to him, " conjuring him, 
as he valued her blessing, to employ his 
own credit, and that of his friends, to 
insure Sir Walter's pardon." January 
18, 1604, he was made steward of the 
Duchy of Cornwall, and warden of the 
Stanneries in Devon and Cornwall, and 
the same day an incorporator of " the 
Society of London for Mineral and 
Battery Works." May 8, 1604, made 
a Knight of the Garter, and May 14, 
1604, lieutenant of Cornwall. M. C. 
for Va. Co., May 23, 1609. October 
16, 1609, made keeper and captaiu of 
the tower and isle of Portsmouth, 
constable of Porchester Castle, and 
lieutenant of Southbear Forest for life. 



An incorporator of the N. W. P. Co., 
July 26, 1612. The Rappahannock 
River in Virginia was at one time 
called Pembroke River, being so named 
for him. He was interested in the E. 
I. Co. prior to 1614. An incorporator 
of the B. I. Co., June 29, 1615, and 
one of the divisions of the island was 
afterwards named Pembroke Tribe, 
for him. Lord chamberlain, Decem- 
ber 23, 1615, to 1625. He was con- 
stantly interested in advancing the 
interest of the Va. Co., and was a 
member of the Council for New Eng- 
land, November 3, 1620. In 1620 he 
patented thirty thousand acres of laud 
in Virginia, and undertook to send 
over emigrants and cattle. In July, 
1621, Mr. Leech went over to view 
the country and to locate these lands; 
and the Council in England instructed 
Governor Wyatt " To see that the Earl 
of Pembroke's thirty thousand acres he 
very good." To which the Council in 
Virginia replied in January, 1622 : " It 
shall comand from us our best endeav- 
ors in chusinge out for his Lordship 
and his Assooyatts the most comodious 
Seate that maye be." In 1622-24 he 
was still a member of the New Eng- 
land and Virginia councils, and was 
taking an active interest in both col- 
onies. 

The great Folio Shakespeare of 
1623 was dedicated to him and to his 
brother Philip, Earl of Montgomery. 
About 1626 he was made Chancellor of 
the University of Oxford, and steward 
of the royal household. Broadgate 
Hall, Oxford, was remodeled, and 
named for him Pembroke College. 
Was an incorporator of the Guiana 
Company, May 19, 1627. Obtained a 
grant of the Island of Barbadoes, Feb- 
ruary 25, 1629, which was revoked 
April 7, 1629 (previously granted to 
the Earl of Carlisle). He died sud- 
denly at his house, called Baynard's 
Castle, in the City of London, April 
10, 1630, and was buried in the Cathe- 
dral of Salisbury. He was succeeded 
in his titles, etc., by his brother Philip, 
Earl of Montgomery. 

" He was as generally and deservedly 
esteemed as any nobleman of his time. 
He was well-bred ; but his breeding 
and his manners were entirely English. 
He was generous, open, and sincere ; 
loyal, and yet a friend to liberty. Few 



922 



HERBEET— HICKS 



men possessed a greater quickness of 
apprehension, or a more penetrating 
judgment ; and none could express 
themselves with more readiness or 
propriety. He was a man of letters 
himself, and an eminent patron of 
learned men ; a distinguished favorer 
of Shakespeare and his works. But 
he had, with all his excellencies, a 
strong propensity to pleasure, and fre- 
quently abandoned himself to women." 

" He married Mary, eldest daughter 
and co-heir of Gilbert, seventh Earl 
of Shrewsbury, of the Talbots, and 
had by her two sons, neither of whom 
survived infancy." His poems, " ed- 
ited by John Donne, son of the Dean 
of St. Paul's," were " printed by 
Matthew Inman," London, 1630 (the 
first edition). 

Herbert, William, Earl of Pem- 
broke. Knight of the Garter, 1548 ; 
Earl of Pembroke, October 11, 1551 ; 
was interested in the Bus. Co., 1655; 
in Hawkins's voyages 1564-69; died 
in 1570. By his first wife, Anne Parr, 
sister to Henry VIII.'s last wife, he 
was the father of Henry, second earl, 
who was, by his third wife, Mary Sid- 
ney, the father of William and Philip 
Herbert, the earls of Pembroke and 
Montgomery of the Va. Co. 

Heron, Sir Edward, 3. Sub. £37 
10s. ; pd. £25. Of Langtof t and Stam- 
ford, County Lincoln. Reader at 
Gray's Lm, 1587 ; recorder of Stam- 
ford, 1688 ; Serjeant at law, 1600 ; 
knighted in 1603 ; one of the barons 
the Exchequer, 1607. 

Heron (or Heme), Master Rich- 
ard, merchant, 3. Sub. ; pd. £37 

10s. OftheE.LCo. Was sherife of 
London, 1618 ; esquire and alderman; 
died February 24, 1625. He was the 
son of Nicholas Heme, of Tibenham in 
Com. Norfolk. " Lived at the Blew 
Anchor in Cheapside, at Foster Lane 
end." Married Alice, daughter of 
John Pasok, of Cambridge, D. D., and 
left issue. 

Herrick, Sir William, goldsmith, 
3. Sub. £37 10s.; pd. £37 10s. A 
younger son of John Herrick of Leices- 
ter. Was born in 1567 ; apprenticed 
in London, about 1574, to his elder 
brother Nicholas, a goldsmith ; suc- 
ceeded his brother in his business in 
Cheapside ; principal jeweler to King 
James, or teller to the crown. May 2, 



1603 ; knighted for making a hole in 
the great diamond for the king, April 

2, 1605 ; M. P. for Leicester in 1601, 
1606-11, and 1621-22. He was really 
one of the king's bankers. A retired 
merchant of great wealth, about the 
year 1624, he settled down on his fine 
estate of Beaumanor Park, Leicester, 
where he continued to live in right 
royal style until his death, March 2, 
1653, at the age of 96 ; buried at St. 
Martin's Church, Leicester. He mar- 
ried Joan, daughter of Richard May, 
Esq., and sister of Sir Humphrey May. 
She bore him seven sons and five 
daughters. 

Robert Herrick,